Thursday, 22 October 2015

Excerpts from Sharh Bulugh al-Maram taught by Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas [Volume 1]

Table of contents 

The book of tahaarah (purification):

1. Defecating (or urinating) on pathways or places which people make use of:

2. Relationship between the spouses:

The book of Salah (prayers):

3. Flexibility in the timing of Salat ad Dhuhr:

4: Exceptions to performing Salah at prohibited times:

5. The obligation of controlling the hands and eye in the Salah:

6. Addressing the inferiority complex issue among few Muslims: 

7. Permissibility of reciting Islamic poetry in the Masjid and using it to defend Islam and ridicule the disbelievers:

8. Clarification of a doubt concerning "radd al basr" (lowering the gaze):

9. Prohibition of over -beautification of the Masajid:-

10. Seek refuge in Allah from five things:

11. Supplication between the two prostrations and permissibility to change the order (arrangement of the words) :

12. Obligation of separation of lines between men and women in congregational prayers:

13. Elongating the congregational Salah in accordance to the Sunnah and situation of the people:

14. Qunoot Naazilah in Fajr Salah:

15. Not kneeling like a camel while going for Sajdah:

16: Hadith contradiction not possible:

17. Eclipse, a sign of Allah:

18. Seeking the right time to advise:

19. The mercy of the Shariah and the uniqueness of the companions:

20. Performing Janazah (funeral) Salah on the one who committed suicide:

21. No specified time limit for offering Salat-ul Janazah:

22. Performing Salat-ul Janazah for someone in another land, or in the absence of the body:

23. Not offering Salat-ul Janazah (funeral) for the one who abandons Salah:

24. Wisdom of the prophet: Not publicizing or announcing the plans:

25. Supplicating sincerely for the deceased Muslim, be a relative or a stranger:

26. Motivating each other for offering the Janazah (funeral procession):

27. Why do we greet Salaam while entering the graveyard, though the dead do not hear?

28. Raising the hands, and making dua in a congregation at the graveyard:

The book of Zakat (obligatory charity):

29. Obligation of zakat, and a proof of the prophet's honesty and prophet-hood:

30. Fulfilling the obligations as soon as possible:

31. Trading using the property of an orphan

32. Bribery in difficulty and hardship:

33. Zakat-ul Fitr: How much is a Sa`a?

34. Zakat-ul Fitr in Cash:

35. Under the shade of Allah:

36. Spending moderately:

37. Most Rewardable charity

38. Spending complete wealth in charity:

39. The woman who spends for Allah's sake:

40. Five situations when a wealthy individual may accept zakat money:

41. Proper behavior towards the beggars:

42. Three situations when begging becomes permissible:

43. Accepting or rejecting money from the rulers:

The book of Siyaam (fasting):

44. Prohibition of fasting a day or two prior to Ramadan:

45. Prohibition of fasting on the day of doubt:

46. Why don't you sight the moon?

47. Number of witnesses required may differ for different cases:

48. Global moon sighting or local sighting:

49. Intention (niyyah) for fasting:

50. No kaffârah (atonement) for breaking voluntary fasts:

51. Benefits and blessings of Sahoor:

52. Breaking the fast with dates has health benefits:

53. The prophet's love for worship of Allah:

54. Allah is not in need of our fasts:

55 Old man should fast if he has the strength:

56. It is better not to fast while traveling:

57. Kaffârah (atonement) for breaking the obligatory fast:

58. The time for fasting begins at fajr, not before it:

59. Fasting of 'Arafah (and other good deeds) may expiate major sins as well:

60. Issues related to fasts of Shawwâl:

61. Fast a day for the sake of Allah:

62. Voluntary acts are performed according to one's ability:

63. The woman who loves to fast:

64. Celebrating the days of Eid, and prohibition of fasting:

65. Disturbing the society with loudspeakers is not correct:

66. I'tikaaf (seclusion for worship) in Islam and other religions:

67. Performing qiyam at-least in Ramadan, if not in other days:

68. Waking up the family for qiyam in the nights of Ramadan:

69. When he (ﷺ) began his I'tikaaf

70. Minimum length of time for I’tikaaf

71. What if a man becomes ill, and now he wants to leave the i'tikaaf?

72. I'tikaaf (seclusion) is not acceptable but in a masjid, but leaving it for necessities is permissible

73. Conditions of i'tikaaf, and things that are forbidden on the mu'takif

74. Status of I'tikaaf in other than the three sacred Masâjid

75. Lailat ul Qadr (Night of decree) and its date

76. The sahâba would search for Lailat ul Qadr through the signs

77. Explanation of dua on Lailat ul Qadr

78. Numbers of rak’ahs (units) in Taraaweeh prayer

The book of al-Hajj:

79. Is my Hajj accepted (mabroor)?

80. Hajj is the Jihad of women:

81. A prostitute's mind - Is the the face veil (niqab) obligatory?

82. The Meeqat are fixed:

83. The prophet's guidance on Traffic rules and over-speed:

84. Is sleeping in Muzdalifah better, or voluntary prayers?

85. A tremendous lesson from Tawaf:

86. Drinking Zamzam after tawaf is a proof that customary acts of the prophet are as well from his sunnah:

87. Walking in Hajj better or riding: 

88. Ship of the dessert: Don't you look at how the Camels are created?

89. Multiple umrah from Tan'eem is not legislated and opposes the Sunnah:

90. Understanding Sunnah: Difference between what prophet chose to do and what he happened to do:

91. Is the reward for Salah multiplied all over Makkah and Madinah, or only in the sacred mosques?

Bismillahir Rahmaan ar-Raheem
The following `ilm bits are translated into English from the sharh of shaykh Waseeullah `Abbas on Bulugh al-Maram by brother Arshan Umer Ansari al-Hindi and he will continue to keep translating fawaid bits from the series and we will continue to keep updating this document now and then as long as Allah wishes. Please note that I (admin) have added footnotes as and when needed to provide the readers with more materials on the same topic. [22/10/2015]

The Book of Purification       كتاب الطهارة

1. Defecating (or urinating) on pathways or places which people make use of:

Allah’s Messenger () said: “Safeguard yourselves from the two matters which cause accursing that befalls the one who relieves himself on people’s path-ways and under the shades.” [Reported by Muslim].

"The scholars have mentioned that any deed that causes Allah or his messenger's curse [1] or anger will be considered as a major sin." - 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 014)

A deed being included as a major sin means that the punishment for it will be extremely severe, and begging Allah for it's forgiveness specifically is a must. For this reason we must be aware of such major sins and avoid them to our best.

2. Relationship between the spouses:

"There are certain men who think that they cannot be men except by showing their masculinity (harshness/rude/superiority) to their wives! This is very wrong! The beloved messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to show great love to hisn wives; infact very often he would consult them in his matters. He would help them in household works as well. According to a narration of Musnad Ahmed, Aisha (radiyallahu anha) would hold the bones/meat pieces and he would cut it. He would help them whenever they needed, and when the azan would be called, he would leave all work and go for Salah."

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 019)

The Book of Salah       كتاب الصلاة

3. Flexibility in the timing of Salat ad Dhuhr:

"Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam  said, "When it is hot, delay the Dhuhr salah till it cools down, for the intensity of heat is from the exhalation of Hell." (Agreed upon)

From this hadith we learn about the mercy of Allah and his messenger on us.

Furthermore, it is our belief that Jannah and Jahannam is already in existence. But people of desires (like Mu'tazilah) have existed from long. Some of them said that Jannah and Jahannam could not exist because they are currently useless as no one will enter Jannah before the day of Judgement. And Allah does not does anything without any use (or purpose).

We say that our Aql understood it, but you failed to understand. You prepare for guests before they arrive, and the same goes for Jannah and Jahannam. Allah has prepared it for us beforehand."

- Sheikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 026)

4: Exceptions to performing Salah at prohibited times:

The issue of performing salah at prohibited times,  and making-up (qadha) of sunan as well in prohibited times can be solved using this hadith:

Umm Salamah (may Allaah be pleased with her), that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) prayed two rak’ahs after ‘Asr, and she asked him about that. He said: “Some people from ‘Abd al-Qays came to me and distracted me from praying two rak’ahs after Zuhr, so I did them now.”  (Sahih Bukhari and Muslim)

Performing Salah between Asr and Maghrib is prohibited [1]. But the messenger even made up his sunnan rawatib. Therefore, we can perform salah for a specific reason even in prohibited times. But however, we must have a valid reason for not being able to perform them on time.

Other sunan which are permitted in prohibited times are the two rakah sunan when you enter a masjid, performing two rakah sunnan after fajr (if you couldn't perform it before it), salatul Janazah,  etc.

- Sheikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 026)

[1] The view of some ahl al-hadeeth scholars are contrary to this and due to good evidence. See this article :

5. The obligation of controlling the hands and eye in the Salah:

"Masjid An Nabawi didn't used to have carpets at the time of the messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam. The ground used to to be of clean pebbles, on which they would pray.

Abu Dhar (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, 

"When one of you is praying he must not remove pebbles (from his face) for the mercy is facing him." In another narration of Musnad Ahmed, he said, "(remove the pebbles) once or leave."

The pebbles would stick at times on the forehead or leave some dust during the Sajdah (prostration). But the messenger asked them to concentrate on Salah and  prohibited them to wipe the forehead unless the stones are big and troublesome and hamper concentration, then there is no harm in removing of them.

Therefore, it is also prohibited to simply scratch, or wipe or arrange the shirts again and 
again during salah as this results in loosing khushoo' (concentration)." [1] 

- Sheikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 031, with extra explanation of Imam San'ani)

[1] The prohibition here is not tahreemi as per the majority of scholars. 

Some additional hadeeth for benefit on this ;

Umar bin Al-Khattab (radiyAllahu'anhu) said, while standing on the podium, 

"A man might have white hair in Islam (i.e. reaches in old age while Muslim), yet has not completed even one prayer for Allah, the Exalted!" He was asked, "Why is that?" He said, "He does not perfect the prayer's required Khushu`, solemness and attending to Allah with his heart." 

[Ref: Al-Ihya 10/202]

`Ammaar bin Yaasir رضي الله عنهما said: I heard the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم say:

إن الرجل لينصرف ، وما كتب له إلا ، تسعها ، ثمنها ، سبعها ، سدسها ، خمسها ، ربعها ، ثلثها ، نصفها

“A man returns after offering his prayer while a tenth part of his prayer, or a ninth part, or an eight part, or a seventh part, or a sixth part, or a fifth part, or a third part, or half of it, is recorded for him (due to not praying properly and without khushoo`).”

[Ref: Sunan Abu Dawood (796) and graded as “Saheeh” by Shaikh al-Albaanee in Sifatu as-Salaah (36)]

Jaabir (r.a) said: I asked the Messenger of Allaah (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam

[Ref: Reported by Ibn Khuzaimah in his [Saheeh] it is also in Saheeh ut-Targheeb wat-Tarheeb, no. 558.]

6. Addressing the inferiority complex issue among few Muslims: [1]

Few Muslims are so afraid that they change their looks (try to act secular, or like a non - Muslim) when they go to airports or other such places fearing the people and the police.
Dear brother, you are a Muslim and good Muslims are few. So, show Islam wherever you go, whoever you meet. 

- Sheikh Wasiullah Abbass (Sharh Bulugh Al Baram 031)

[1] Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah:

“The reason why the religion of Allah and its rituals is vanishing, and kufr and sin are prevailing, is because of imitation of the kaafireen, just as the means of preserving all good is by following the ways and laws of the Prophets."

[Ref  : al-Iqtidaa’, 1/413]

The obligation of Muslims not copying the Non Muslims in their culture and religious etiquette is equally important as the importance of ensuring the Non Muslims don't imitate the Muslims thereby wiping out the Muslim's identity 

 (خبر أن عمر: " أمر بجز نواصى أهل الذمة وأن يشدوا المناطق وأن يركبوا الأكف بالعرض "

`Umar (radhiallahu `anhu) ordered the disbelievers (living in a Muslim country) to keep the forelocks shaved, to wear the belts, and they should ride animals keeping both legs to one side and back to the other side.

 (خبر إسماعيل بن عياش عن غير واحد من أهل العلم قالوا: " كتب أهل الجزيرة إلى عبد الرحمن بن غنم إنا شرطنا على أنفسها أن لا نتشبه بالمسلمين فى لبس قلنسوة ولا عمامة ... الخ

Narration of Ismaa`el bin Ayaash reported from many knowledgeable people, they said,

„The people of Al-Jazeerah (who were ahl adh-dhimma) wrote to `Abdur-Rahmaan: We are bound with the condition that we will not copy the Muslims in wearing hats and turbans………..‟

Imagine the danger of  turning a liberal or westernized version of a  Muslim in the way you eat, you greet , you THINK, etc.  !!! 

One of the reason why Muslims are forbidden to imitate the Non Muslims in their religious and specific cultural practices is because Islam is superior and has imparted superior rather the best of teachings, wisdom, solutions, etc. We don't need to adopt something inferior . For example see the pearls of wisdom of our prophet, if only the Muslims knew the wisdom filled quotes of their prophet, they would have no need of any Shakespeare or his ilk for wise sayings , See:

7. Permissibility of reciting Islamic poetry in the Masjid and using it to defend Islam and ridicule the disbelievers:

Hassan ibn Thabit Al Ansari Al Khazraji (radiyallahu anh) was the poet companion of the messenger  who died at the age of 120 years, of which he lived approx half of his life in jahiliyyah and rest half in Islam, and died during the caliphate of Ali (radiyallahu anh). He used to praise Islam, and the messenger and ridicule the kuffar through poetry.

Narrated Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh): Umar came over Hassan while reciting poetry inside the masjid and looked at him sternly, then he (Hassan) said, "I used to recite poetry inside it (the masjid) in the presence of the one who is more pious than you (ie., the messenger  )." (Agreed upon)

The sahaba used to be very careful and strict about those issues which they were not sure. Umar radiyallahu anh did not know about the permissibly of reciting inside the masjid, so he got angry. But Hassan (radiyallahu anh) clearified that he used to do the same in front of the messenger and he wouldn't stop him. From this, we also learn that any act that the sahaba did during the life time of the messenger, and the messenger did not stop them, then it becomes permissible by default.

And in narration of Bara (radiyallahu anh), the Prophet  said to Hassan, "Respond back to them (i.e. the pagans) and Jibreel is with you."

اهْجُهُمْ ـ أَوْ هَاجِهِمْ ـ وَجِبْرِيلُ مَعَكَ ‏"‏

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 034)

8. Clarificiation of a doubt concerning "radd al basr" (lowering the gaze):

It has been authentically narrated that Aisha (radiyallahu anha) used to watch Abyssinians playing games in the Masjid. So is it permissible for us (women) to look at non Mahram men playing games ?

First of all, "playing games" (يلعبون) here refers to the war - games helpful in Jihad. It is permissible to play, as it helps prepare for Jihad.

Secondly, looking at non mahram has been clearly prohibited in Islam. Only Allah has the right to be obeyed and it is he who decides haram and halal, and he said, "Tell the believing men to lower their gaze." And he said, "Tell the believing women to lower their gaze"

So, why was our mother Aisha (radiyallahu anha) then looking at them ? [1]

The best answer to this is that the ruling for Niqab was revealed in 5 AH. And this incident happened before the prohibition.

The messenger sallallahu alayhi wa sallam said, "O 'Ali! Do not follow a look with a look, the first is for you, but the next is not for you." (At Tirmidhi and Abu Dawood)

يَا عَلِيُّ لاَ تُتْبِعِ النَّظْرَةَ النَّظْرَةَ فَإِنَّ لَكَ الأُولَى وَلَيْسَتْ لَكَ الآخِرَةُ 

We must always look at the context of the ayah or hadith before speaking. Therefore, fatawas by those so-called "intellectuals" permitting watching games and looking at non Mahrams using this narration is wrong.

- Sheikh Wasiullah Abbas (Bulugh Al Maram 035)

[1] There is another answer to this given and explained by scholars. That is, in *some* cases looking without desire i.e. for need or otherwise is fine as long as it is without desire . for example looking at the face of a woman again and again if she is your customer and you are in the shop. Likewise a teacher, likewise for other reasons 

Tafsir of the Ayah :

قل للمؤمنين يغضوا من أبصارهم 

Tell the believing men to lower their gaze

(Surah Noor 30)

1.Imam Fakhar ud Din Ar Razi  al-`Ashari rahimahullah says :

قال الأكثرون ( من ) هاهنا للتبعيض والمراد غض البصر عما يحرم والاقتصار به على ما يحل

Majority of the (Mufassiren and Scholars) have said that "من" here is for Tabe'ez (i.e for some of the gazes are harram not every gaze falls in this category) and the meaning of "to lower the gaze" is from what is Harram and Restrict your Gaze to Only what is permissible.

[Ref: Tafsir al Kabir, Under Surah An Nur V:30)]

2. Imam Ibn al Arabi al-Maliki from among the Ahl al-hadeeth rahimahullah in his Tafsir held the same opinion :

قوله : { يغضوا من أبصارهم } فأدخل حرف { من } المقتضية للتبعيض

[Ref: Ahkaam al Quran]

3. Imam Qurtubi after quoting the Proofs says :

وهذا يقوي قول من يقول : إن من للتبعيض

And this strengthens the saying who says من is for Tabe'ez.

The Same opinion is held by many Mufasireen such as Al Zamkhishri al-Mu`tazili, Abu Bakr Al Jassas al-Mu`tazili, Abu Hayan Andalusi, Ibn Atiya, Ibn Ashur etc.

Though Majority of the Mufasireen agrees that every gaze is not harram unless it is meant to look her with Desire.

And it is only permissible to look at her face and hands as said by Ibn e Abdul Bar :

وجائز أن ينظر إلى ذلك منها كل من نظر إليها بغير ريبة ولا مكروه، وأما النظر للشهوة, فحرام تأملها من فوق ثيابها لشهوة فكيف بالنظر إلى وجهها مسفرة؟!

And it is permissible to look at her whatever (means face and hands) is shown from her without any desire and it is not disliked and as for the looking her with desire So it is Harram to vision her above the clothes with desire, So how about to see her face which is visible ? (It is also harram).

التمهيد" (6/364 )

9. Prohibitition of over -beautification of the Masajid:-

Imam Abu Dawood (rahimahullah) narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas (radiyallahu anh) said: The Messenger of Allaah  said: “I have not been commanded to build lofty mosques.” Ibn ‘Abbaas said: You are going to adorn (the masjids) as the Jews and Christians adorn (their places of worship).

Here, adorning doesn't refers to strengthening the masjid but over decoration. 

Beautification that breaks the khushoo of worshipers is what is meant here. And I have mentioned earlier as well that the horns of the sheep that Ibraheem (alayhissalam) sacrificed remained on the ka'bah until the time of the messenger . After performing the salah, the messenger asked Uthman ibn Talha (radiyallahu anh), the owner of the key of kabah to cover it saying, "I forgot to order you to cover the two horns (of the lamb), for it is not advisable that there should be anything in the House (the Ka'bah) which diverts the attention of the man at prayer."

"..فإنه لا ينبغي أن يكون في البيت شيءٌ يَشغلُ المصلي"

Now in the light of this narration,  look at these ayat here on the walls (in haram Makkah), or in Masjid An Nabawi, we do not want  ayat or anything else distractive in the masajid, as it didn't used to be there in the time of the messenger.

Masjid An Nabawi made by the messenger was very simple, the structure was supported by palm tree trunks, and it was built out of mud bricks and the roof was of palm branches.

After his death, Abu Bakr radiyallahu anh became the caliph but he left the masjid as it was. There was no need for any repair.

The Masjid became very weak by the time of Umar, so he ordered that it be rebuilt but warned them saying, "Protect the people from rain, but beware of using red or yellow (ie., attractive colors for adornment) that would distract the people."

"أكنَّ الناس من المطر وإياك أن تحمِّر أو تصفِّر فتفتن الناس"

The caliphate expanded much during his reign, and the wealth and booty also increased but he did not spend on decorating the masjid but for Jihad and other beneficial uses.

And then, Uthman (radiyallahu anh) rebuild it again very well and strong. He removed out all the wood replaced them with bricks. The sahaba criticized that the pillars had something slightly distractive but none of them spoke against strengthening the masjid.

The situation changed and Allah increased them in wealth, they began building good houses, so building masajid also became necessary, otherwise Masajid would be looked down.

The point is that the messenger and the sahaba had no problem with strengthening the masajid with the best cement and stones , but they disliked anything in the masjid that would distract the worshipers from their Salah, the first and the most important purpose of building Masajid.

Therefore, care should be taken while building a masjid, specially the wall towards the Qiblah as people face it during the salah. It should be plain without anything distractive, not even clocks, as everyone will agree that people keep looking at the clocks again and again! But clocks may be hanged on the back side.

Scholars till today have been speaking against this act until today and Allah will judge us according to our intentions, but this is anyhow wrong.

- Sheikh Wasiullah Abbas (Bulugh Al Maram 036)

10. Seek refuge in Allah from five things:

The messenger () used to always do adhkar after every Salah. One of the adhkar proven from authentic narrations is that he would seek refuge in Allah from these five things:

اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْجُبْنِ، وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنَ الْبُخْلِ، وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ أَنْ أُرَدَّ إِلَى أَرْذَلِ الْعُمُرِ، وَأَعُوذُ بِكَ مِنْ فِتْنَةِ الدُّنْيَا، وَعَذَابِ الْقَبْرِ ‏"‏‏.

Narrated Sa`d ibn Abi Waqqas radiyallahu anh:

Seek refuge with Allah by saying the words which the Prophet () used to say while seeking refuge with Allah, "0 Allah! I seek refuge with You from cowardice, and seek refuge with You from miserliness, and seek refuge with You from reaching a degraded geriatric old age, and seek refuge with You from the afflictions of the world and from the punishment in the grave." (Saheeh Al Bukhari)

  • 1. Bukhl (stinginess) -

- You see a man doing something wrong and keep quite about it inspite of having the strength to stop the evil.

-The one who hears the name of the messenger () but does not sends blessings upon him. 

The Messenger of Allah () said, "The miser is the one in whose presence I am mentioned but he does not supplicate for me." [At- Tirmidhi].

- And the well know type of bukhl is that Allah has given wealth to a person, but he doesn't uses it to fulfill his obligations like zakat etc. There are people who die without spending anything, whether on themselves or their kids or the poor and the needy. And it is only after their death that their kids make use of the wealth.

But if a man is forced to behave in such a way due certain situations, then such a person shall not be a bakheel. For instance, if a man doesn't has power or strength to stop something wrong. It will be acceptable in the shariah even if he shows hatred for that in his heart and says "O Allah this is evil!" He must recognize the sin as evil at-least in his heart. Let him keep reviving this hatred for that sin in his heart every-time he witnesses the sin. Otherwise, very soon he will begin to see the sin as something acceptable and adaptable.

  • 2. Jubn (cowardice) :

In a situation when a man is supposed to go for Jihad, but sits at home. Or when you are supposed to speak the truth, and you don't say inspite of your strength, and make-up some silly reasons "Oh this and that..". No, speaking the truth when required is a very rewardous deed.

The Prophet () said, "The best type of Jihad (striving in the way of Allah) is speaking a true word in the presence of a tyrant ruler."

If no one tells the truth to an oppressive ruler, then he would simply keepon increasing in his oppression. But it happens that one person comes and explains the truth straight forward, and the ruler accepts his advise, and refrains from the evil.

Similarly, if the enemy surrounds you and Jihad has become fard, then if a man doesn't fights out of fear of death then this means that he is inviting the enemy to attack. But if that person stands bold and firm, then Allah certainly helps his awliya. Allah says,
"Indeed, We will support Our messengers and those who believe during the life of this world.."

But if we make silly excuses, then this is jubn!"

And the same for goes even protecting and defending your own wealth. Let not a person think that just because wealth is "dunya" so let them (enemy/thief) take it. No! When you fight for your wealth, its not mere defense of your wealth, but you are also helping to establish an important aspect of the sharia (ie., justice).

This is why the Messenger of Allah () said: "He who dies while defending his property is a martyr." 

من قتل دون ماله فهو شهيد

You are stopping a zalim, and thus you will be rewarded. But if you don't, then this is jubn!

  • 3. Ardhalil Umr (Old geriatric age) :

Allah has predestined everything. But Allah has presidtined even the asbaab. Don't think that you'll die at 90 because this is what Allah has prestined. But rather Allah has made dua a sabab (way/reason) to change the qadr.

The messenger said: "Nothing turns back the Decree except supplication (dua).."

لا يرد القضاء الا الدعاء

And Allah ta'aala said, "were he to seek refuge with Me, I would surely grant him refuge.’" (Saheeh Al Bukhari)

ولئن استعاذني لأعيذنه

  • 4. Fitnatid dunya (Trials of this temporary life) :

This is also to be sought refuge from. Being proud of yourself is a fitnah, your children are also fitnah, and other fitan (trials) like accidents etc.
For this reason, we must try to remember Allah as much as possible. Aisha radiyallahu anha said, "The Messenger of Allah used to remember Allah in all circumstances"

كان يذكر الله على كل احيانه

You're feeling woried ? Then remember Allah, and he will fill your heart with peace and tranquility.

Allah ta'aala praises those in the Qur'an "who remember Allah while standing or sitting or [lying] on their sides..." (3:191)

الذين يذكرون الله قياما وقوعود

So we should remember Allah from the time we wake until we sleep. And the interesting thing is that sometime when you dont feel sleepy due to whatsoever reason, then begin to do dhikr and shaitan would himself try his best to stop you from dhikr and make you sleep!

  • 5. Azaabil Qabr (Punishment in the grave) :

There are few who reject belief in the punishment in the grave. And people have made a wrong usool that Aqeedah will be taken only from Quran or a mutawatir hadith. But this is wrong and baseless. If the hadith is saheeh ie., without any issues or weakness, then it must be accepted whether for Aqeedah (creed), or ahkaam (rulings), or akhlaq (manners)!

Why would the messenger seek refuge from the punishment of the grave if there won't be any punishment ?

They also say that Qur'an has made no mention of the punishment in the grave. But Allah says in the Qur'an,

"The Fire, they are exposed to it morning and evening. And the Day the Hour appears [it will be said], "Make the people of Pharaoh enter the severest punishment."(40:46)

Allah will keep punishing them with fire in the grave, and on the day of judgement they will be thrown for severest punishment in hell-fire.

And it is not necessary that a man must buried in a grave to receive the punishment. But rather, if Allah wills, he can punish them with the punishment of grave even if the body was burned, or thrown in the sea. 
Imams would write books specially on the topic of azab al qabr. For example, Imam Bayhaqi wrote كتاب اثبات عذاب القبر just to prove the punishment in the grave.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Bulugh Al Maram 38)

11. Supplication between the two prostrations and permissibility to change the order (arrangement of the words) :

Narrated Abdullah ibn Abbas:

The Prophet () used to say between the two prostrations: "O Allah, forgive me, have mercy on me, guide me, heal me, and provide for me." (Reported by Al Arba'a except An-Nasa'i, this is the version of Abu Dawood, and Al-Hakim graded it Saheeh)

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَارْحَمْنِي وَعَافِنِي وَاهْدِنِي وَارْزُقْنِي

And in the narration of Imam At Tirmidhi, "wajburni" is reported:

اللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَارْحَمْنِي وَاجْبُرْنِي وَاهْدِنِي وَارْزُقْنِي 

''O Allah! Pardon me, have mercy on me, help me, guide me, and grant me sustenance."

Is it permissible to change the order of the words ?

Samura ibn Jundub reported:

The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) said "The dearest phrases to Allah are four: Subhan Allah (Hallowed be Allah), Al-Hamdulillah (Praise be to Allah), La ilaha illa-Allah (There is no deity but Allah), Allahu Akbar (Allah is Greater). There is no harm for you in which of them begin with (while remembering Allah)..." (Sahih Muslim)

لاَ يَضُرُّكَ بَأَيِّهِنَّ بَدَأْتَ

Using Qiyas, we understand that it is fine to change the order. Because he said, "there is no harm for you in which of them begin with." But it is always better to the recite in the way the messenger () himself recited.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 040)

12. Obligation of separation of lines between men and women in congregational prayers:

Narrated Anas (radiyallahu anh): Allah's messenger () prayed and an orphan and I prayed behind him and Umm Sulaim (radiyallahu anha) was behind us. (Agreed upon, and the version is of Bukhari)

Anas (radiyallahu anh) was a kid. This is because Anas radiyallahu anh narrated,

قدم رسول الله (ﷺ) المدينة وأنا ابن عشر ، ومات وأنا ابن عشرين .

 "The messenger () came to Madina and I was just ten years old boy, and he passed away and I was twenty years old." (Siyar A'laam An Nubala)

So, it is the right of children to stand in the line behind the Imam. And that women's line be behind the children. Women do not have the right to stand with men, even if men are young. And furthermore, Umm Sulaim (radiyallahu anha) was the mother of Anas, but she still stood behind their line.

So the point is that, Imam is supposed to stand front most, in the first row, and then the men (or children) and then the women.

We know that in the days of Hajj, this place (Masjidul Haram) is very crowded. People ask if the Salah is baatil (invalid) in that case. So the answer is that it is fine if one performs salah with them when there is no other option. But no doubt that if someone performs salah purposefully with them, then Salah will be invalid, even if it is performed with a mahram.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 052)

13. Elongating the congregational Salah in accordance to the Sunnah and situation of the people: 

Abu Sa'id al-Khudri reported:

"We used to estimate how long Allah's Messenger () stood in the noon and afternoon prayers, and we estimated hat he stood in the first two rak'ahs of the noon prayer as long as it takes to recite Alif Lam Mim, Tanzil, i. e. as-Sajda. We estimated that he stood half that time in the last two rak'ahs; that he stood in the first two of the afternoon as long as he did in the last two at noon; and in the last two of the afternoon prayer about half that time." Abu Bakr in his narration has made no mention of Alif Lam Mim, Tanzil, but said: As long as it takes to recite thirty verses." (Saheeh Muslim)

Surah Sajdah consists of 30 ayaat. So this long used to be his first two rakahs of Zuhr. And third and fourth would approximately half the length (ie.,15 ayaat). It means that it is possible the he used to recite Surah Al - Fatiha (seven ayaat) and would recite other surahs as well, as it has come in other narrations. And it is also possible that he would lengthen the recitation of Surah Al - Fatiha itself. 

As for Asr, the first two would be equivalent to the last two of Zuhr (ie., 15 ayaat). So, he must be reciting other surahs with Suratul Fatiha. And the last two used to be half of the first two (ie., 7 ayaat). 

This should also be remembered that Shariah has not come with difficulty. Once, the messenger () delayed for Salatul Isha till great part of the night passed, and Umar (radiyallahu anh) told him that some women and children had already gone asleep. The messenger () said that the afdal (best/proper) time for Isha is that, but he would perform Isha in it's first hour in order to not impose a burden on the people. (Saheeh Muslim)

انها لوقتها لولا اشق عليكم 

People come for Salatul Fajr after having a good sleep. They are not tired at that time, so it was his usual habit (ie., Sunnah) of lengthening his recitation in Fajr.

As for Salatud Dhuhr, he used lengthen it as well. This was because people used to eat, and then take a nap (Qayloola), and then go Dhuhr (as it has been reported in Saheeh narrations). So, it didn't used to be heavy on the people.

Asr used to be a busy time. So he wouldn't lengthen much, it used to be very moderate. Lengthening the salah at a busy time may lead to fitnah. This is what we learn from the narration in Bukhari where the messenger () scolded Muadh (radiyallahu anh) for lengthening the recitation too much, he repeated thrice, "Do you want to cause hardship to the people ?"

افتان انت يا معاذ ؟!

So, the Imam should make the Salah moderate at busy times. But this does not means that it should be very fast and quick. Aisha (radiyallahu anha) said that she did not see any performing Salah with more ease and perfection than the beloved messenger ().

As for Salatul Maghrib, he used to recite "Qisar Mufassal" usually. Qisar Mufassal are surahs from Al Bayyinah till the end (ie., Suratun Nas). But Jubair ibn Mut'im (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the messenger () recited Suratut -Tûr in Maghrib (Agreed upon). So, maghrib may also be made long at times. Few people say that the time for Maghrib is very short. But the reality is that there is usually atleast one hour between Maghrib and Isha.  

And for Salatul Isha, he would recite "Ausât al Mufassal". These are Surahs from Al Burooj to Al Bayyinah. The length of Surahs may vary from time to time, but rest of the Salah like the length of Rukoo' (bowing) and Sajdah (prostration) would remain from moderate to long. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 054 and benefits from Subul as Salam)

14. Qunoot Naazilah in Fajr Salah:

Anas radiyallahu anh was the servant of the messenger, "He narrated, "The messenger () came to Madina and I was just ten years old boy.." (Siyar A'laam An Nubala)

And he said, "I served the Prophet () for ten years and he never said to me “Uff!” (a word of contempt) or “Why did you do such and such?” or “Why did you not do such and such?” (Al Bukhari) And according to a version narrated by Muslim: He never criticized me for anything.

So, his narration has a special status as he was very close to the beloved messenger (). 

Narrated Anas bin Malik (radiyallahu anh): The prophet () recited Qunût for one month after (rising up from the) bowing (position), invoking curse on some Arab tribes then gave it up. (Agreed upon)

I am emphasising alot on this because this narration is perfectly authentic and narrated by Anas, who was very close to the messenger (). But yet, in some madhahib like the Shafi'eeyah consider Qunût to be performed always in Salatul Fajr. But collecting all the narrations gives us the conclusion that this is Qunût Naazilah. If some problem or calamity comes up, then make dua related to that matter, whether before or after rukoo'. 

The messenger () made dua for one complete month against some of the Arab tribes (who killed seventy companions). Then he stopped. From this, we learn that if some calamity comes up on Muslims like  war, or rain flood etc., then we must make dua to Allah, mentioning the problem specifically, seeking his help. But we should stop Qunût Naazilah once the problem is solved. 

Qunût supplicated in Salatul Witr is what he () taught the companions, and he did not leave it, nor did he ask the companions to leave. He taught the specific words of Qunoot in Witr to the Sahaba.

So, there are two types of Qunût:

1. Qunût Naazilah

2. Qunût Witr

Qunût Naazilah is done only at times of calamities like what is going on now in Palestine. And Qunût Witr is to be done for life time.

Qunût Witr has it's specific dua, but Qunût Naazilah can be of our own words. The messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) used to specifically mention by names and say, "O Allah save so and so". If not possible in Arabic, the make dua in Urdu (ie., in your own language).

And in version of Ahmad and Ad - Daraqutni, he added that he () recited Qunût always in Fajr prayer till he passed away from dunya.

Scholars have mentioned that this addition is weak. And it even contradicts other saheeh ahadith. 

Allamah ibn Qayyim said that he did qunoot in the end of life (due to some calamity). So, this narration could be taken in that meaning as well.  

Narrated Anas (radiyallahu anh): The prophet () never used to supplicate after (rising up from the) bowing position unless he invoked a blessing on some people, or a curse on some other people. (Ibn Khuzaima graded it Saheeh)

So, it means that he would perform Qunût Naazilah only at times of calamity or to curse other tribes. 

Narrated Sa'd bin tariq Al Ashja'i (radiyallahu anh): I said to my father, "You have prayed behind Allah's messenger (), Abu Bakr, 'Umar, Uthman, and behind Ali. Did they supplicate while standing in Fajr prayer ? He replied, "O my son, it is an innovation." 

(Reported by Al Khamsa, except Abu Dawood)

What it proves is that doing it regularly, without any reason or calamity is an innovation. But if few people do it due to ijtihad, then they won't be considered to be ahlul bid'ah or sinners. Their ijtihaad is from narrations like, "he recited Qunût always in Fajr prayer till he passed away." So, they have an excuse. Scholars have differed on it's authenticity and it's interpretation. But if an issue becomes clear, then it is wrong to leave a hadith for the sake of anyone else's opinion. 

Finally, Qunût Naazilah is to be performed in obligatory prayers with the congregation. 
But if someone misses the congregation, then one may supplicate individually as well.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 056)

15. Not kneeling like a camel while going for Sajdah:

This is an issue where scholars have differed. But if someone tries to understand it in the light of Usool Al Hadith and Usool Al fiqh, then one can easily understand the matter and accept it full - heartedly.

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiyallahu anh): Allah's messenger () said, "When one of you prostrates, he should not kneel in the manner of a camel, but should put down his hands before his knees." (Reported by Ath Thalâtha)

عن ابي هريرة رضي الله تعالى عنه قال: قال رسول الله (ﷺ): "إذا سجد احدكم فلا يبرك كما يبرك البعير، وليضع يديه قبل ركبتيه." اخرجه الثلاثة.

You can ask anyone who lives in desserts or someone familiar with Camels, about the style in which a Camel sits. Then compare it with this hadith. A Camel has four legs. The two in the front (forelegs) are called hands, without any doubt. So on the basis of this, many people said that one should not place his hands on the ground like a Camel. So how should one sit ? 

The hadith reads, "but should put down his hands before his knees." But they say that this hadith has an error in it's wording (that the first part contradicts the second part). They say that it should have been, "put down knees before hands" instead of "hands before knees."

But the reality is that this claim is unacceptable in the light of Usool Al Hadith, Usool Al Fiqh and even Usool Al Lugah (language). 

If a hadith is authentic, then to say that one of the narrators may have made a mistake is to open a door for complete hadith rejection (like the hadith rejectors)! Who would have made this mistake ? Abu Huraira (radiyallahu anh), the narrator or the one who narrated from Abu Huraira, or someone else in the chain ? This can only be a opinion, but cannot be accepted as a daleel (proof). 

The Camel puts down it's "knees" before it's hands. So do not put your knees before your hands. So how should one sit ? 

The hadith is very clear, put your hands before your knees. 

Many great scholars have also made mistake in this issue, and said that there is an error in the wording. But a wrong statement doesn't becomes correct, irrespective of whether whosoever said. Imam Abu Hanifa (rahimahullah), Imam Malik, Imam Shafie, Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal, Imam Awzaa'ie, Imam Abu Dawood, etc have all been accepted in certain issues and rejected in others. And the same is to be done more so with the Imams who came after them. And to say that whatsoever so and so Imam said is correct would mean that there is no criteria to judge right or wrong. Rather, we have criteria for judgement. 

From the criteria of Usool Al Hadith, the narration is absolutely authentic. Therefore, no one has the right to say that there is an error in it's wording. 

And from the criteria of Usool Al Lugah, hands of a Camel are the ones in the front. But where are it's knees ? Knees are in the two legs in the front (ie., he kneels on the forelegs).

So, when the messenger () prohibited to place the "knees" first, then don't place them first. He () said, "When one of you prostrates, he should not kneel in the manner of a Camel."

"إذا سجد احدكم فلا يبرك كما يبرك البعير"

Legs or hands have not been even mentioned here (but kneeling like a camel has been prohibited).

He () said, "put down hands before the knees." 

"وليضع يديه قبل ركبتيه."

Therefore, the messenger () meant that a Camel puts it's knees first, so don't place your knees first. The matter is crystal clear! 

The first part of the hadith is in complete reconciliation with it's second part. Reconciliation is possible only when one accepts that he asked us to not kneel like a Camel.

When the beloved messenger () was on the way migrating to Madinah, the kuffar of Quraish declared that whoever would sieze Muhammad () would recieve (a hundred camels as a) reward. People went out searching and Suraqah ibn Malik ibn Ju'sham (radiyallahu anh) who had not yet accepted Isam, also tried alot and when he finally saw the messenger (), he witnessed one of the miracles of the messenger (). He would fall down everytime he tried going closer to him (). He describes the event:

"ساخت يدا فرسي في الارض، حتى بلغتا ركبتين"

"Suddenly the forelegs of my horse sank into the ground upto it's knees, and I fell down from it." (Saheeh Al Bukhari)

So he then begged for forgiveness, and the prophet () forgave him. 

From this narration, we learn that the knees of Camel (or a horse) are in it's front legs (or 
the hands). And it kneels on it's forelegs. 

Therefore, we should not place our knees first like Camels, rather place the hands before the knees. 

Those who understand from this hadith that the hands should be placed before the knees take the first part of the hadith only. They think that since the forelegs are the hands, and a camel puts it's hands down first, then placing the hands down first is what is prohibited. This is only a possibility. But reading the second part of the hadith makes it clear that hands should be placed first. 

So the conclusion is that once a person stands properly after the rukoo', he prostrates placing his hands on ground first, and then the knees. While standing up back, he raises his knees first and then the hand. 

They use the hadith of Wâ'il ibn Hujr which is weak. The name of this book is Bulugh Al Maram min adillahtil ahkaam, so what we search is evidences. The author (Ibn Hajr Al Asqalani) has mentioned different ahadith which were used by scholars to derive rulings. 
He mentioned weak ahadith only to be just, that he considers everyone's opinion before coming to the conclusion.

Only an authentic Hadith is to be taken for rulings. Weak ahadith are not acceptable. 

Ibn Hajr (rahimahullah) says, "This Hadith is more sound than the Hadith narrated by Wâ'il ibn Hajr (radiyallahu anh): I saw the Prophet () placing his knees (on the ground) before his hands when he prostrated." [Reported by Al-Arba'a]."

But this hadith is Weak. Weak means that one of the narrators in the chain had weak memory, or that there is some other weakness in reporting the narration. It is not correct to say that the messenger () said such and such thing, or he () did this and that, though it is not authentically reported. 

Even the scholars of other madhâhib have considered this hadith to be weak. Diraaya, Hidaya or other books of takhreej have the same ruling. There is a narrator named Shareek ibn Abdullah An Nakha'i Al Qadhi. He was a judge, and due to heavy burden of responsibility, his memory kept deteriorating. Scholars have said that he was "Daeeful Hafidha" (weak in memory). Since he was weak in memory, it is possible that he would have said the other way round (made an error). It may be that due to his weakness, he by mistakenly said "knees before the hands" instead of "hands before the knees."

Imam Tirmidhi said, "this Hadith is Hasan Ghareeb. We could not find if anyone other than Shareek reported such a narration." 

So, the conclusion is that this Hadith of Wâ'il is weak. And on the contrast, the narration of Abu Hurairah is authentic where he () commanded to place the hands first. 

Furthermore, the students of Hadith must be acknowledging that if a Daeef Hadith contradicts (or opposes) a Saheeh Hadith, then the hadith is called "Munkar". So the weak Hadith becomes even more weaker (and unacceptable). 

[Student (interrupts): But Bin Baz rahimahullah favored the view that knees are to be placed before hands...]

You're correct. 'Allamah Abdul 'Azeez Ibn Baz (rahimahullah) and other scholars have also said that knees be places first. And he backed his stance from 'Allamah Ibn Qayyim (rahimahullah) who was first to claim that hadith has error in the wording, that the words have been interchanged. But it is not proven that the words have been interchanged.

And those who consider this  hadith (of Wâ'il) narrated by Shareek ibn Abdullah to be acceptable, have actually themselves rejected his other narrations.

We Muslims have been praised by Allah in the Qur'an. Allah says, 

الَّذِينَ يَسْتَمِعُونَ الْقَوْلَ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ أَحْسَنَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ هَدَاهُمُ اللَّهُ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمْ أُولُو الْأَلْبَابِ

Who listen to speech and follow the best of it. Those are the ones Allah has guided, and those are people of understanding. (39:18)

Follow the best of it. And the best (the most authentic) of it is that hands should be placed first. 

We have decided to do Taqleed of the beloved messenger (). We have full respect of the Imams, but where ever any of their opinions contradicts the hadith of the messenger (), then we'll prefer the hadith of the messenger. 

Don't stick with just one of the  Imams. Sticking to only one of them is also something not prescribed in this deen. Rejecting anything that contradicts the madhab is also not prescribed in the Shariah. You believe that haqq is with the four Imams, but then why do you speak ill of followers of the other madhâhib ? Open the books and see how much they differ and quarrel.  

Unity is only possible through following the sunnah. But few people dislike Ahlul - Hadith alot. They say that there are only four madhabs, so from where has this fifth madhab come ? They even call us khawarij, etc. 

Look into works of Imam Tirmidhi. He says, "Such and such has this opinion, Ishaq ibn Rahwayh has this opinion, Malik has this opinion, and Ahlul - Hadith have this opinion." He mentioned Ahlul - Hadith by word!

I read a book recently in which the author claimed that Ahlul - Hadith are a creation of Britishers, and that they did not exist before this.

What an ignorant statement. Allah will question each and everything,

مَا يَلْفِظُ مِنْ قَوْلٍ إِلَّا لَدَيْهِ رَقِيبٌ عَتِيدٌ"

"Man does not utter any word except that with him is an observer prepared [to record]" (50:18)

So, is the Salah of those who placed the knees before the hands bâtil (invalid) ? No, we don't consider their Salah do be bâtil. They have an excuse of ijtihad, and mistake in understanding.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 057)

16: Hadith contradiction not possible:

Narrated Ibn 'Abbas radiyallahu anh: The prophet () (made a journey during which) he had a stop of nineteen days, in which he shortened his prayers. In another version of Al Bukhari: "(he stayed) Nineteen days in Makkah." In the version of Abu Dawood is: "seventeen days." And in another version is "fifteen days." And another version has, "eighteen days."

The hadith rejectors use such ahadith and try to fool the laymen. The reality is that if we try to understand the way the sahaba and the salaf tried to understand, then there wouldn't be any issues. 

The first two ahadith are saheeh (nineteen days and seventeen days), and the last two are weak (fifteen days and eighteen days). 

But there is no contradiction whatsoever. If you'll look in the way Arabs used to count, 
they would very often leave the starting or the ending when it had to do with days or months. 

It has been reported that the beloved messenger () passed away when he was 60 years old. And another narration has that he () died at the age of 63 and yet another that he died while 65 years old. All are saheeh. They would at times omit the extra few years sometimes, so if it would be 65, but they would approximate it to 60 (just like we approximate the decimals to proper numbers: 60.02  = 60). 

The same goes for days, and this is why the difference is found. How did it become seventeen days ? He didn't leave early in the morning. Rather, he left after Zuhr Salah. And then he performed Asr Salah in Dhul Hulaifah, this means that it was not a complete day, so he didn't include this day in his count. The day he left from Madinah was not a complete day, so he didn't include it. And the day he left Makkah was also not a complete day, so he didn't include this as well. The one (narrator) who didn't include them concluded it to be seventeen days, and the other narrator who included those two days, concluded it to be nineteen days. Both the narrations are saheeh, and there is no contradiction between the two. 

These hadith rejectors have become a cause of concern specially for new Muslims living the West and Europe. People must return to scholars to solve their problems. Ibn Khuzaimah rahimahullah, the author of Saheeh Ibn Khuzaimah, would challenge others saying that two saheeh ahadith cannot ever contradict, and would ask others to bring forth those ahadith and he would reconcile between them.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 066)

17. Eclipse, a sign of Allah:

Narrated Mughira bin Shu'ba radiyallahu anh: That there wa s a solar eclipse in the time of Allah's messenger () on the day his son Ibrahim died, and the people said, "The eclipse of the Sun has happened due to the death of Ibraheem." Allah's messenger () said, "The sun and the moon are two of Allah's signs; they are not eclipsed due to niether the life nor the death of anyone. So when you see them (the eclipse of the moon or sun) glorify and supplicate to Allah and offer prayers untill the eclipse is over." (Agreed upon)

The Lord who is able to obstruct the light of the Sun, will also obstruct the sun on the day of Day of Judgement. This is what Allah said in Suratut Takweer :

إِذَا الشَّمْسُ كُوِّرَتْ

"When the sun is wrapped up [in darkness]" (81:1)

The proofs show that the solar eclipse occured only once in the lifetime of the messenger. Though few scholars had varying opinions as well. 

The messenger () asked a companion to call adhan by saying, "الصلاة جامعة"
"Come to a congregational prayer." And similarly, if there was a need for something else as well, he would do the same. This is what happened at Hunain as well when few people began saying that the prophet () has given more booty unjustly to the people of his tribe. So, he () asked Bilal radiyallahu anh to proclaim "As - Salatu Jami'ah."
This salah is Fard ie., obligatory like what Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal rahimahullah said. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 072)

18. Seeking the right time to Advise:

Once, there was a solar eclipse (probably the day when the messenger () 's son Ibraheem radiyallahu anh had passed away). The messenger () lead Salatul Kusoof (the eclipse prayer) and he elongated the Salah. Then he gave khutbah:

It was narrated that ‘Abd-Allah ibn ‘Abbas (may Allah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allah () said: “I was shown Hell and I have never seen anything more terrifying than it. And I saw that the majority of its people are women.” They said, “Why, O Messenger of Allah?” He said, “Because of their ingratitude (kufr).” It was said, “Are they ungrateful to Allah?” He said, “They are ungrateful to their companions (husbands) and ungrateful for good treatment. If you are kind to one of them for a lifetime then she sees one (undesirable) thing in you, she will say, ‘I have never had anything good from you.’” (Saheeh al-Bukhari)

There are such types of women and such men as well. But the reality is that many women are found to be ungrateful. And those with experience will affirm this.

An authentic narration in Tirmidhi states that Abu Hurairah radiyallahu anh narrated that the beloved messenger () said,

"من لا يشكر الناس لا يشكر الله"

"He who does not thank people, does not thank Allah."

Meaning that he would become accustomed of being ungrateful! But the one who will thank the people will find it easy to thank Allah as well.

This is one of the many emphasized teachings of Islam. This is why the beloved messenger () asked us give gifts in return to the one who gifts us, and return the greetings of "Salaam" to the one who greets us.

Hence, this is how the beloved messenger () would advice people. And he would also seek the right time to advice them.

Narrated Ibn Mas`ud:

عَنِ ابْنِ مَسْعُودٍ، قَالَ كَانَ النَّبِيُّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَتَخَوَّلُنَا بِالْمَوْعِظَةِ فِي الأَيَّامِ، كَرَاهَةَ السَّآمَةِ عَلَيْنَا‏.‏

The Prophet () used to take care of us in preaching by selecting a suitable time, so that we might not get bored. (He abstained from pestering us with sermons and knowledge all the time). (Saheeh Al Bukhari)

And his words used to be very heart - warming and remedying.

The daughter of the Prophet () sent for him as her child was dying, but the Prophet () returned the messenger and sent her good wishes saying, 

"‏إن لله ما أخذ، وله ما أعطى، وكل شيء عنده بأجل مسمى، فلتصبر ولتحتسب‏"

"Whatever Allah takes away or gives, belongs to Him, and everything with Him has a limited fixed term (in this world), and so she should be patient and anticipate Allah's reward." (Agreed upon)

Similarly, when people would be worried and request for Salatul Istisqa (the prayer for 
rain), he would gather the people and perform the Salahand then give them a speech.
At such times, the hearts are melted and so it is easier for others to accept advises.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 073)

19. The mercy of the Shariah and the uniqueness of the companions:

عَنْ بُرَيْدَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- ‏-فِي قِصَّةِ الْغَامِدِيَّةِ اَلَّتِي أَمَرَ اَلنَّبِيُّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-بِرَجْمِهَا فِي اَلزِّنَا‏- قَالَ: { ثُمَّ أَمَرَ بِهَا فَصُلِّيَ عَلَيْهَا وَدُفِنَتْ } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ 

Buraidah (radiyallahu anha) reported concerning the story of the Ghamidi woman, who was to be stoned by the order of the Prophet () (due to committing adultery), ‘Then the Messenger of Allah () gave his command concerning her (after her death), so he offered the funeral prayer for her, and she was then buried.’ 

[Ref: Related by Muslim.]

She went to the beloved messenger () and said, “O messenger of Allah, I have committed Zina, and I have become impregnated due to it. So implement the legal punishment set by Allah on me.”

Notice that they firmly believed in whatever they knew. We are going to be recompensed for everything. And this is what the beloved messenger () has said:

اِجْتَنِبُوا هَذِهِ اَلْقَاذُورَاتِ

The word “Qadhooraat” is used for filthy practices. He used this word to describe the greater sins, asking us to avoid them. (Al Hakim and Muwatta Malik)

And he () also said:

ومن أصاب من ذلك شيئاً فعوقب به في الدنيا فهو له كفارة، 

“..And whoever commits any of those sins and receives the legal punishment in this world for that sin, then that punishment will be expiation for that sin.” (Saheeh Al Bukhari)

They believed sincerely in this. 

And he () warned in a particular situation when a couple came, and the husband complained against the wife of immorality but he did not have any proof for that: 
This is a general rule that if the husband complains against the wife of immorality, and the wife rejects it, then they should practice “Liaan” (curse each other). This is what Allah has stated in Surat-ul Noor (chapter 24) that both must swear five times and put that curse of Allah on each other. If the wife as well swears and curses, then the husband must say, “If I am a liar, then let Allah’s curse be upon me!” And the wife (if she is truthful) should defend herself to prevent this worldly punishment by saying, “I have not done this, and he is a liar.” And then they will separate from each other.  

So, when a couple came together ready to curse each other, the messenger of Allah () warned them that one of the two ought to be a liar; as the husband is firm with his accusation, and the wife is firm in her defense. He warned admonished the husband, and exhorted him and informed him that the torment of the world is “Ahwan” (very less painful) than the torment of the Hereafter. (Saheeh Muslim)

The understanding of the companions was that the punishment of this world is much easier for us (in comparison of the horrific punishments of qiyamah and grave). Thus, a lay woman comes and informs him about her sin of adultery, readily accepting the hadd (legal punishment). 

The beloved messenger  () responded that the punishment cannot be implemented upon her as she was pregnant. A married man or woman who commits adultery deserves to be killed by rajm (stoning). 

[Note: this point has been explained here: to show how this constitutes among the women rights in Islam ]

But why would the baby in the womb be punished for sin of the mother? From this we derive a ruling that if a woman is pregnant and commits any crime, then she is not to be punished until the child is born (this is one of the many barriers to punishment that the shariah gives). So, the beloved messenger told her, "Well, if you insist upon it, then go away until you give birth to (the child)."

When she was delivered, she went to him again. The fact is that she would never be punished if she denied her sin, as she did not have any proof or witness against against her. but she acknowledged: 

إن عذاب الدنيا أهون من عذاب الآخرة

"The torment of the world is very less painful than the torment of the Hereafter." (Saheeh Muslim) So better suffer here itself! 

Now, she had enough time (approx 9 months) to deny her claim but she did not. When she was delivered she came with the child (wrapped) in a rag and wanted the punishment to be implemented on her. But the messenger () replied that the child deserves to suckled (milked) first. Allah says:

وَالْوَالِدَاتُ يُرْضِعْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ حَوْلَيْنِ كَامِلَيْنِ ۖ لِمَنْ أَرَادَ أَن يُتِمَّ الرَّضَاعَةَ ۚ 

"Mothers shall breastfeed their children two complete years for whoever wishes to complete the nursing [period]." (2:233)

Thus, the woman cannot be punished in this period. 

When she had weaned him, she went to him with the child, who was holding a piece of bread in his hand. She showed her that the child is now completely able to eat and drink, attempting to proof against herself that now there is no barrier from the punishment. Now the prophet () had nothing, so he ordered her to be stoned. 

But execution by stoning is not something simple. It is comparatively easier to behead directly. It may be that an individual is stoned for an hour! You may have witnessed this here (in Makkah), it hits the head, or chest, or eye. However, this is not a matter of pity or mercy: 

وَلَا تَأْخُذْكُم بِهِمَا رَأْفَةٌ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ 

Let not pity (for the criminal) withhold you in their case, in a punishment prescribed by Allah..(if you believe in Allah and the Last Day..) (24:2)

When it has been prescribed, then implement it! Then, the doctor comes and checks the criminal (sinner) if the is still alive. If he (or she) is alive, the doctor will command to continue the stoning. 

She acknowledged all this very well. But her Iman (faith) was such that it did not let her stay in peace. Thus, she was clothed well so that the cloth does not comes out, and she was then stoned. In general, there are chances of the offender becoming naked, so they should be put in a ditch to avoid the risk, and then be stoned to death. 

I am trying to emphasis that that those try to mock the companions, or use some historical narrations and make claims against them deserve to be held severely by Allah. Allah has himself defended the companions of the messenger, and has praised them:

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ  

"Muhammad  () is the Messenger of Allah, and those who are with him are severe against disbelievers, and merciful among themselves. You see them bowing and falling down prostrate (in prayer), seeking Bounty from Allah and (His) Good Pleasure. The mark of them (i.e. of their Faith) is on their faces (foreheads) from the traces of (their) prostration (during prayers). This is their description in the Taurat (Torah).." (48:29)

This was just an ordinary woman from among the companions. Similarly, a man named Maiz bin Malik Aslami's, whose incident you must have heard earlier. 

He was married, but he committed Zina. He went to the messenger (), who was sitting with his companions, and said: "I have committed Zina, so purify me (implement the hadd ie., legal punishment one me)." The messenger ()  turned his face from him. Then he went in-front of the messenger again. Look at him, he was just an ordinary companion. 
But when he repeated and requested again and again (four times), he asked him: "Are you mad?" 

A mad man would never accept that he is mad. But it is as if that the messenger () wanted to confirm it in-front of the companions. He confirmed that he is fine. 
Then, he asked them to smell his mouth. It is always possible that one may be drunk. And perhaps, he was intoxicated. A person stood up and smelt his breath but noticed no smell of wine. Then, the he ordered to rajm (stone) the offender. While in the process of being stoned, he ran out of pain. They report that they ran after him and kept stoning him until he died. It was the command of the beloved messenger () to stone him to death, so they ran after him all the way. But when the messenger () was informed that he was trying to run, he () said that they should have left him alone. And he () said: "He (Ma'iz) has made such a repentance that if that were to be divided among a people, it would have been enough for all of them." 

So, such was the faith of the companions of our noble prophet (). And this companion does not even has any narration. 

There are few idiots in India and other places, who say that Hadith is not a hujjah (proof) and only Qur'an is a hujjah. They call themselves Ahlal Qur'an. And they claim that there were adulterers and thieves among the companions. But no one can bring any proof for their claim that any of the companion committed adultery or theft, and then hid themselves safe from the punishment.

Those who did, they willingly appealed for the punishment (or they repented). This was an unknown companion who is be not mentioned except in this narration. Now, if such were these ordinary - unknown companions, then what about the level of the faith of the well - known senior companions? There is no comparison of these with Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman, and Ali (radiyallahu anhum)?

Those who reject hadith necessarily reject Qur'an as well. Because Allah praised them in the Qur'an, only so that it be known of their trustworthiness and this religion be preserved them. They are the ones understood the Qur'an and the Sunnah, and transmitted each and every single issue to us. 

When one of them would doubt about any Hadith (narration), they would abandon sharing it with others. Others would travel long distances to confirm the exact wordings of a single narration. For instance, Abu Ayyub al Ansari travelled from Madina all the way to Egypt to confirm a narration which Uqabah ibn Aamir heard. He said: 

لم يبقى احد سمعه من رسول الله (ﷺ) غيري وغيرك

"No one apart from you and me are left from those who heard this from the messenger of Allah ()." (Kitab-ul Adab, Ibn Abi Shaybah)

So, the conclusion is this that there are such people in this Ummah who try to judge the companions by comparing them with the men of today! Rather, the messenger () was superior to all men, and his companions were the among the best of all men. But there are such men who consider the companions to be disbelievers. Our advise to them is to not to do this. Because it entails rejection of not only Qur'an, but it will also disconnect this religion from its very root. If we begin to accuse them, then not only Hadith, but Qur'an's preservation will also become questionable. They are the ones who have memorized the Qur'an. Abu Bakr collected them. Then, Uthman combined them as a book and distributed it all over so that it be copied and memorized. But if we accuse them by calling them disbelievers or that they apostated from this deen, as few people say, then these people want the deen to be separated from its roots. 

Allah has praised the companions, so it is upon us that we mention their name with respect, and add "radiyallahu anh" to their names.

So, getting back to the narration: The Ghamidi woman was ordered to be stoned to death. After she passed away, Salat-ul Janazah was prayed upon her, and she was buried in the graveyard of Muslims. 

From this we learn that until one commits kufr or shirk, remaining in the boundaries of Islam be it even by committing the major or minor sins, remains a Muslim until one commits the biggest sin ie., Shirk. Until a man is not involved in shirk or kufr, he cannot be removed out of Islam. Every Muslim has right that he/she be washed and buried in the graveyard of Muslims. 

But if a man leaves Islam after accepting it, then this is a Murtad (apostate) who will be judged to be executed. And this man as well will be buried, but only so that the smell of the decayed body does not spread (causing diseases). If this was not the case, he would be left alone (without being buried)! 

Therefore, it is the right of a Muslim to be prayed upon and be buried in a graveyard of Muslims. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 078)

20. Performing Janazah (funeral) Salah on the one who committed suicide:

The one who commits suicide will be washed and prayed upon. Although, scholars have also mentioned that the senior well-known noble personalities should not perform Salah on him, so that the people realize that if they were to commit such sins, then such noble people would step aside to even perform Salat-ul Janazah on them. So, those known for being noble and religious should not perform Janazah on them.

Few scholars use the below narration and claim that Salah should not be performed on the one who commits suicide:

Narrated Jabir bin Samura (radiyallahu anh): The dead body of a man who had killed himself with a broad headed arrow was brought before the prophet (), but he did not offer prayer on him.

The messenger () did not pray, but there is no denial of the companions performing Salah on him. Because this is fard kifaayah (a type of obligation that is sufficient if a group of people perform it), it is fine for the well known noble people to not attend the Janazah. And this is why the noble prophet () did not offer prayer on him.

When a dead body would be brought to the messenger (), he would ask, "Is there any debt on him?" People would say, "Yes there is something.." So he would asked them if he has any wealth or property that he has left behind using which the debt would be repaid. If there would be something, he would agree to offer prayer. But if he did not left any wealth which could be used to pay back the loan, he would not perform Salah on him and say:

صلوا على صاحبكم

"Pray on your companion."

He would himself not perform Salah so that others learn from this and abandon that sin. Dying while taking the right (or wealth) of someone else is something big.
But there is another narration of Abu Qatadah, he () asked him, "Is there any debt on him?" The response was, "Yes there is two Dinar to be paid by him." The messenger () decided to not perform Salah on him but permitted the companions. Abu Qatadah felt pity for the deceased one, so he said that he would pay off the debt. Then, the messenger () performed Salah on him.

Next day, the messenger () asked Abu Qatadah whether he paid off the debt or not. He replied that he had not yet paid it. Then the coming day, he paid it off and informed the messenger (), to which he replied:

الان بردت جلدته

"His body has now cooled down." ie., he was being punished until then.

So, the point is that when the messenger () did not perform Salah, his companions surely performed it. He wouldn't say, "No one should pray!"

Thus every Muslim deserves to be prayed upon, even if he was in kabaair (major sins) like drinking alcoholic drinks, adultery, theft etc.  Until he does not does some act due to which he is expelled from Islam, he will have his right to be prayed upon and buried in a graveyard of Muslims.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 078)

21. No specified time limit for offering Salat-ul Janazah:

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiyallahu anh): Regarding the story of a woman who used to sweep the mosque. The prophet () asked about her and they (the companions) told him she had died. He () then asked, "Why did you not inform me?" and it appeared as if they had treated her as of little importance. He () said, "Show me her grave", and when they did so, he prayed on her." (Agreed upon)
Other narrations mention:

امراة سوداء

"She was a black woman."

This shows the manners of our beloved prophet (), that he did not belittle the matter of this woman. He held her in high regard, due the importance of cleaning the masjid.
And it proves that Salat-ul Janazah for an individual may be performed later. The Sahaba must have obviously performed Salah upon her. But he () went to her grave, and prayed for her. He made dua as well for her as Allah says:

وَصَلِّ عَلَيْهِمْ ۖ إِنَّ صَلَاتَكَ سَكَنٌ لَّهُمْ

"... and invoke Allah for them. Verily! Your invocations are a source of security for them.." (9:103)

This also proves the sunnah of offering Salat-ul Janazah at someone's grave.
Many opinions of the scholars have been narrated in this issue. Some said that they are supposed to be prayed upon only until their bodies remain fine in the grave (ie., until a few days after burial). Others say that there is no limit of time if one had not performed Salat-ul Janazah for the deceased. And this seems to be the correct opinion.
Though there are other opinions as well, but rejection of authentic narrations merely because you do not belong to that madhab may lead one to even fall out of the fold of Islam! Rejecting the speech of beloved messenger () merely for the sake of speech of a group of scholars is very wrong.

The correct opinion is that for instance, if someone lives here in Makkah, and then goes back to his home country and finds that someone passed away while he was in Makkah, then he may offer Salat-ul Janazah for him/her.

The proof is that the beloved prophet () offered Salat-ul Janazah for the martyrs of Uhud after eight years.

Thus, if someone's mother, father or anyone else passes away, but is unable to travel back to home country may offer Salah at their grave be it after two, or three or four months.. or even after years!

This applies only when you have not performed the Salah earlier. But if you offered it, then there is no need to repeat.

Salat-ul Janzah will be as it is performed usually. The takbeers may be from four to six. (Recite Surat-ul fatiha after the first takbeer, then durood after the second one), then keep praying for the deceased after the additional takbeers. The beloved messenger () would usually complete it in four takbeers, be it in absence or presence of the body.
Similarly, if the people are many, then let them offer in congregation, as the beloved messenger () and his companions offered for the martyrs at Uhud.

Getting back to the hadith: He () then made dua for that woman and said: "These graves are full of darkness for their occupants, but Allah will illuminate them for them because of my prayer for them." (Muslim)

Aisha (radiyallahu anha) reported that once it was the Prophet () 's turn to stay with her he prepared himself to sleep but in fact he did not sleep, but he () stayed for a while thinking that Aisha, may Allah be pleased with her, slept, then he went out in hiding (secretly). However, Aisha knew that and put on her clothes and she followed him thinking that he had gone out to one of his other wives. But, indeed he () went to the graveyard and made supplication for the people of the grave. Then he came back home and she came back home too. He hastened his steps and she also hastened her steps and entered home before him. So when the Prophet entered, he found her very tired and inquired about the reason. She tried to conceal the matter but he insisted and informed her that if she did not inform him, Allah would inform him about what had happened...
Such was their relationship with each other.

So, the point is that the beloved messenger () went and prayed for them. And the reality is this is why we are supposed to visit the graves, as they are in need of prayers, not because we need their help! Perhaps, they may have committed some minor (or major) sins due to which they are being punished. So, it is upon us to visit the graveyards often, and say:

السَّلامُ عَلَيكُمْ أَهْل الدِّيارِ مِنَ المُؤْمِنِينَ والمُسْلِمِينَ وَإِنَّا إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ بِكُمْ لاَحِقُونَ ، أَسْأَلُ اللَّه لَنَا وَلَكُمُ العافِيَةَ 

"Peace be upon you all, O inhabitants of the dwellings (i.e. the graves), amongst the believers and the Muslims. Indeed we are, Allah willing, soon to follow (to die also), we ask Allah for well-being for us and for you." 

Such duas should be made for them again and again.

But nowadays, the case of many Muslims is such that righteous people are treated as gods after their death. They complain to them about their problems and seek help from them; but this is not why Islam asks us to visit the graveyards.

To add, we are to not to sit on graves, nor treat them as other lands and use them as toilets. This is from the etiquette.
Furthermore, the benefit that we get by visiting the graveyards is that it remind us of the Hereafter.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 078)


22. Performing Salat-ul Janazah for someone in another land, or in the absence of the body:

Narrated Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh): The prophet () announced the death of An-Najashi (Negus) on the day he died, took them (the companions) out to Musalla (the place of prayer) and drew them up in rows and utterred takbir four times. (Agreed upon)

After mentioning the story of first group's migration to Abyssinia (Ethopia), shaikh said:

Scholars have differed a little on this issue: Is funeral Salah to be offered for the one who for instance, died here in Makkah and the news reaches to Pakista or India, so do those who are in Pakistan have the right to perform the Salat-ul Janazah? 

As there is no mention of the reason to perform Salah for Najaashi, whether was it because there was no Muslim in Abyssinia to offer the Janazah for him, or was it merely for his forgiveness, some scholars have mentioned that Salat-ul Janazah can be performed without any condition, be it for a virtuous man or any lay man. 

Others said that it is permissible only when a Muslim dies in a land of kuffar (disbelievers), and no one offers Salat-ul Janazah on him. Or for instance, if  Muslims are travelling in an Airplane, and the plane collides in an accident and everyone dies, then Salah can be performed on them without any doubt.

So, this is the difference of opinion among them. But my opinion is that it is permissible to perform Salah without any condition, as was there is no mention of reason for Salah on Najaashi. Thus, whoever performs this Salah in any land, it will be fine and correct. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 079)

[Link: ] 

23. Not offering Salat-ul Janazah (funeral) for the one who abandons Salah:

This is a major issue, scholars have agreed from long back that the one who abandons Salah completely is a Kafir (disbeliever). There are few people who do not perform Salah, but do other good deeds very eagerly, up-to an extent they are even ready to give up their lives. Subhanallah!

But Allah and his messenger () said that the one who leaves Salah becomes a Mushriq (ie., polythiest, as he obeys his desire instead of obeying Allah).

Allah says: 

فَإِن تَابُوا وَأَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ فَإِخْوَانُكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ ۗ 

"But if they repent, establish prayer, and give zakah, then they are your brothers in religion.." (9:11)

Thus, performing the Salah is a condition for faith, and for peace and security as well. But if one does not performs Salah, he will be caught and dealt with. The messenger said:

من ترك الصلاة متعمدا فقد كفر 

"The one who abandons Salah purposefully has committed Kufr." (Al Bazzar)

Every Muslim understands the meaning of Kufr. Thus, scholars have said that such a person is a kafir. And he will not be buried in the graveyard of Muslims. And when he will be buried, his grave will not be like the grave of Muslims, rather he'll just be thrown into some hole, and some sand will be thrown over him. That's it. Just like how a dead bull or a lamb is buried. This is the ruling.

And it is for this reason that Muslims should not be lazy, and should perform Salah and  emphasize this issue to others as well. As for other sins other than Salah, there is some expectation for forgiveness.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 079)

[Link: ] 

24. Wisdom of the prophet: Working secretly

It was the general sunnah of the beloved messenger () that when he intended to wage war, he would implement 'tawriyah' (double entender).

Tawriyah refers to his strategy: that though he may have already decided (secretly with his senior companions) to go from the Western route, but he would discuss in the presence of the public whether to attack from the South; whether which place will be better to take rest there; where will water be in abundance, etc.
He () would behave in a way that the spies would inform the enemy that he choose the 
Southern route. 

And thus, he would not publicize all over, and shock the enemies by attacking from the West. He did this in almost every battle, even when he conquered Makkah. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 079)

[Link: ]

25. Supplicating sincerely for the deceased Muslim, be a relative or a stranger:

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: { كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-إِذَا صَلَّى عَلَى جَنَازَةٍ يَقُولُ: "اَللَّهُمَّ اغْفِرْ لِحَيِّنَا, وَمَيِّتِنَا, وَشَاهِدِنَا, وَغَائِبِنَا, وَصَغِيرِنَا, وَكَبِيرِنَا, وَذَكَرِنَا, وَأُنْثَانَا, اَللَّهُمَّ مَنْ أَحْيَيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَأَحْيِهِ عَلَى اَلْإِسْلَامِ, وَمَنْ تَوَفَّيْتَهُ مِنَّا فَتَوَفَّهُ عَلَى اَلْإِيمَانِ, اَللَّهُمَّ لَا تَحْرِمْنَا أَجْرَهُ, وَلَا تُضِلَّنَا بَعْدَهُ } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ, وَالْأَرْبَعَةُ .‏

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ‘When the Messenger of Allah () would pray a funeral prayer, he used to say, "O Allah! Forgive those of us who are alive, and those who are dead, those present and those absent, those who are younger than us and those who are older than us, and the males and the females. O Allah! Let those of us to whom You have given life, live in Islam, and let those of us You take back die in a state of faith. O Allah! Do not deprive us of our reward for (supplicating for) him, and cause us not to go astray after him." (Related by Muslim and the four Imams ie., Nisa'i, Tirmidhi, Ibn Majah and Abu Dawood)

This is a very comprehensive dua as it includes everyone of us. This dua includes those of friends and relatives who have passed away, and those who are still alive. And the messenger () would make this supplication for both men and women. 

The Messenger of Allah () went to see Abu Salamah when his sight had become fixed. So the Prophet () closed his eyes and said: "When the soul is seized and it leaves the body, the eyes follow it." (Muslim and Bayhaqi)

When he closed the eyelids, his wife, Umm Salamah realised that he has passed away, and she began to cry.

Then the Prophet () said, 'there is no Muslim that is afflicted with a calamity, and he says what Allah has commanded him to say: 

إنا لله وإنا إليه راجعون ، اللهم أجرني في مصيبتي وأعقبني خيرا منها 

'to Allah we belong and to Him we will return! O Allah! Give me rewards (of being patient over) this calamity, and grant me something better than it to replace it,' except that Allah will give him something better to replace it.' (Muslim, Abu Dawood and Tirmidhi)

This is what is meant by: 

اَللَّهُمَّ لَا تَحْرِمْنَا أَجْرَهُ

"O Allah! Do not deprive us of our reward for (supplicating for) him." 
That O Allah, we are bearing patience on his/her death, so do not deprive us from the reward. Allah says:

إِنَّمَا يُوَفَّى الصَّابِرُونَ أَجْرَهُم بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ

"Only those who are patient shall receive their rewards in full, without reckoning." (39:10)

Shaikh explained the dua beautifully, and then narrated the next hadith:

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiyallahu anh): The prophet () said, "When you pray on the dead, make a sincere supplication for him." (Abu Dâwood narrated it, and Ibn Hibbân graded it Sahîh)

Sincerity is a condition, be it what ever dua, as in the hadith: 
Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said:

“.. know that Allah does not respond to a supplication from the heart of one heedless and occupied by play (ie., not focusing on the dua).” (Tirmidhi, authenticated by Ahmed Shakir)

And the beloved messenger () asked to show sincere want and desire for it to Allah by saying, "Ya Dhal Jalâli wal - Ikrâm" (O Lord of Majesty and Generosity).

But sincerity only comes when a person actually wants to get it. Be sincere while praying for the dead, and one should not think that sincerity is not required just because he is supplicating for someone who is already dead. 
If we supplicate sincerely for a Muslim, then Allah will prepare people who would similarly supplicate for us after our death. For indeed, Allah returns the favor for good with good. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 080)

[Link: ]

26. Motivating each other for offering the Janazah (funeral procession):

Narrated Abu Huraira (radiyallahu anh): The messenger () said, "He who attends a funeral till the prayer is offered for (the dead), for him is the reward of one Qîrât, and he who attends (and stays) till it is buried, for him it is the reward of two Qîrât." It was asked, "What are the Qîràât?" He () said, "Like two huge mountains." (Agreed upon)

 A version by Muslim has: "till it (the dead) is placed in the niche inside the grave."
Allah, out of his mercy, has given ways for our forgiveness through such simple deeds. These are in reality very easy to implement, but because it affects an individual's life, character and behavior, the messenger () encouraged it and he said: "I had forbidden you to visit the graves, but you may now visit them. For it reminds one about the Hereafter." (At-Tirmidhi)

One would remember akhirah when he offers the Salat-ul Janazah. He would think of it when he'd carry the deceased on his shoulder, be he how much ever stone-hearted, it would force him to reflect that there would come a time when he would be in the same position, being carried by others. It greatly affects the heart, and it is for this reason that Allah rewards abundantly for this. 
Allah says:

وَتَحْسَبُونَهُ هَيِّنًا وَهُوَ عِندَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمٌ

"..and you thought it was insignificant while it was, in the sight of Allah, tremendous." (24:15)

We find many people here (in Masjid al Haram) who remain sitting and do not perform the Salah, though the Salah is short and consists of just four takbeers. Subhanallah! This is indeed a proof of weakness of our Iman (faith), that we do not even believe in it as it deserves. We should be ascertain that this is the promise of Allah, and it will come true. 
It has been mentioned that there were many of the salaf who would go and wash the body of the dead, without being called for it nor being paid, but they would search to get a chance to wash the body, to remind themselves of the hereafter. 
We must not forget that if we pray for them, then Allah would replace someone else to pray for us after our death.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 080)

[Link: ]

27. Why do we greet Salaam while entering the graveyard, though the dead do not hear? 

After explaining the weakness of a narration from the tabi'ee Damra bin Habib where he says that the sahâba (companions) would prefer to say after the grave is levelled, and people had left: "O so-and-so say: Lâ ilâha illa-Allah...", sheikh said:

We should make dua for the deceased like how the beloved messenger () would make dua with such sincerity that one of the companions narrates that he wished that he was in the place of the deceased one! 

This should be done, and not that we ask the deceased to say Lâ ilâha illa-Allah. This not only contradicts the shar'iah but also logic, which makes it clearer. Because Allah told the beloved messenger () : 

وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَّن فِي الْقُبُورِ

"but you cannot make hear those in the graves." (33:22)

This proves that there is not point speaking to the deceased. What's the benefit of saying, "O so-and-so say 'My religion is Islam..'" when they are unable to hear? 

It is a da'eef (weak) narration, and if a weak narration contradicts the saheeh (authentic) narrations then it is classified as a Munkar (rejected, extremely weak) narration. It is not permissible to mention such narrations without clarifying its weakness. And because it's weak, it cannot be used as a proof. 

And when asked about the reason for greeting Salaam while entering the graveyard shaikh said:

The meaning of greeting Salaam is actually dua (supplication). When you pass by a house (or a building), you say, "May Allah preserve it." But this does not mean that the building is  listening to you! Its just a prayer. 

When you greet someone alive, then he must respond to the greeting. This is the general ruling. When some gifts you, you gift him back. This is for those alive.
But as for the dead, we're just making a prayer for them. It's not necessary that the one for who you pray must listen to you. 

When Allah has clearly told the beloved messenger:

وَمَا أَنتَ بِمُسْمِعٍ مَّن فِي الْقُبُورِ

If the beloved messenger () cannot make a dead hear his speech, then how can ordinary people like us do that? 

These people leave the clear ayaat for unclear ones. Allah says, 

فأَمَّا الَّذِينَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ زَيْغٌ فَيَتَّبِعُونَ مَا تَشَابَهَ مِنْهُ ابْتِغَاءَ الْفِتْنَةِ وَابْتِغَاءَ تَأْوِيلِهِ ۗ 

"As for those in whose hearts is deviation [from truth], they will follow that of it which is unspecific, seeking discord and seeking an interpretation [suitable to them]." (3:7)

Such claims may be acceptable if they did not contradict authentic clear proofs such as this. But it becomes an obligation to reject them when it contradicts the authentic proofs.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 083)

[Link: ]

28. Raising the hands, and making dua in a congregation at the graveyard:

It is permissible, insha'allah, to make dua individually and in congregation. If a man makes dua, and others say "Ameen", then it is permissible. 

This form of congregational dua at the graveyard is not proven from the beloved messenger (). But because the ahadith encourage dua for steadfastness and forgiveness of the deceased in a general sense, then the same can be used for this form of congregational dua. And such duas are proven from the companions. 

But making it a habit of doing it always is not correct.   

Similarly, raising the hands for dua is fine as well. But direct yourself towards the Qiblah, instead of the grave. Scholars have used general proofs for this, and so it is incorrect to direct oneself towards the grave in dua.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 083)

[Link: ]

The Book of Zakat       كتاب الزكاة

29. Obligation of zakat, and a proof of the prophet's honesty and prophethood:

وَعَنْ بَهْزِ بْنِ حَكِيمٍ, عَنْ أَبِيهِ, عَنْ جَدِّهِ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ فِي كُلِّ سَائِمَةِ إِبِلٍ: فِي أَرْبَعِينَ بِنْتُ لَبُونٍ, لَا تُفَرَّقُ إِبِلٌ عَنْ حِسَابِهَا, مَنْ أَعْطَاهَا مُؤْتَجِرًا بِهَا فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ, وَمَنْ مَنَعَهَا فَإِنَّا آخِذُوهَا وَشَطْرَ مَالِهِ, عَزْمَةً مِنْ عَزَمَاتِ رَبِّنَا, لَا يَحِلُّ لِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ مِنْهَا شَيْءٌ } رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَالنَّسَائِيُّ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اَلْحَاكِمُ, وَعَلَّقَ اَلشَّافِعِيُّ اَلْقَوْلَ بِهِ عَلَى ثُبُوتِه ِ

Bahz bin Hakam narrated on the authority of his father, who reported on the authority of his grandfather (radiyallahu anh) that the Messenger of Allah () said:

“For every forty camels, one ‘bint labun’ (a young female camel which is two years old and already starting the third year), is due as Zakah. No camel is to be separated from the rest of the camels (i.e. the jointly owned live stock). Whoever gives it willingly, seeking his reward from Allah, will be rewarded. (However) if someone refrains from paying it, it will be taken from him (by force) along with part of his property (as punishment), for it is a right of Allah. None of it is lawful for the family of Muhammad ().” (Related by Ahmad, An-Nasa’i, Abu Dawud and Al-Hakim rendered it Sahih)

This is specially the case with pasturing camels, and other camels do not come into this category. The same is with forty cows and goats. 

لَا تُفَرَّقُ إِبِلٌ عَنْ حِسَابِهَا

"No camel is to be separated from the rest of the camels (i.e. the jointly owned live stock)."

If two individuals are into a partnership, and both have a certain number of goats, for instance 30 goats for both, and have agreed that they would pasture their goats together or share the finances; then it won't be permissible for them to seperate their goats at the time of zakat.

There is no zakat on 30 goats, but there is zakat if the number reaches 40. It equals 60 when we combine 30 goats of both the partners, so these 60 will treated as under one ownership.

The beloved messenger () said:

مَنْ أَعْطَاهَا مُؤْتَجِرًا بِهَا فَلَهُ أَجْرُهُ

"Whoever gives it willingly, seeking his reward from Allah, will be rewarded." On the other hand, if someone gives it unwantedly, or only out of fear of the governmental penalty, then this individual will not be rewarded. 

Allah says:

وَفِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ لِّلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ

"And in their properties there was the right of the beggar, and the Mahrum (the poor who does not ask the others)." (51:19)

If someone gives Zakat acknowledging that Allah has given right for the poor from his wealth, then this individual will be rewarded. But there is no benefit if one gives just out of force or pressure. 

And he () said:

وَمَنْ مَنَعَهَا فَإِنَّا آخِذُوهَا وَشَطْرَ مَالِه

"(However) if someone refrains from paying it, it will be taken from him (by force) along with part of his property (as punishment).." 

Meaning some penalty will be charged on him. For instance, if his zakat is hundred riyals, an extra amount of fifty may be charged. So that he does not repeats this again.This is because if the matters of deen (religion) are taken very lightly, people would gradually keep abandoning the obligations and would end up as apostates. 

This is the responsibility of the government. Just like how the guardian of the house is responsible to look after his house mates, that he sees to it that they perform salah etc., as it be would questioned on the Day of Judgement whether you fulfilled your role teaching them the deen. Similarly, it is the responsibility of the local appointed governors to fulfill their responsibilities, and report the same to the Ameer ul Mu'mineen (the ruler of Muslims). He () said:

كُلُّكُمْ رَاعٍ، وَكُلُّكُمْ مَسْؤولٌ عَنْ رَعِيَّتِهِ،

"All of you are shepherds and each of you is responsible for his flock.." (Adab al Mufrad of Al Bukhari)

The people of falsehood are forcing their ways and teachings on their people, so is not the truth more deserving to be implemented? This is from our Lord, and thus, it must be implemented by the government.

Few madhaahib (schools of thought) are of the opinion that there shouldn't be any penalty on wealth or property, but they say that they can be imprisoned or punished. However, the ruler has an option to deal how he finds better. There are few people who readily give up their wealth to save themselves from any physical punishment. But there are others who would give their lives in protection of their wealth, so such people deserve financial penalty. There is a poetry:

يابنى ان من الرجال بهيمة فى صورة الرجل السميع المبصر

"O my son, there are few men who are like animals, though they look like humans able to hear and see."

فطن بكل مصيبة فى ماله واذا أصيب بدينه لم يشعر 

"They're very attentive for preserving their wealth, but give no attention for their deen."

So for this reason, the beloved messenger () permitted not only to force to get the obligatory charity, but with that to even charge extra penalty. And when one would be punished, others would as well learn from this.

Why is 'hudood ash shar'iah' (punishments under Islamic law) called "hadd"?  Hadd means to stop. If a man even thinks of killing someone in a land where the punishment for killing is execution, he would be terrified how much ever courageous he be. But lands in which the law of "life for life" (qisas) is not implemented, people care less as they acknowledge well that the maximum their government would do is life time imprisonment. The same goes in so called "Islamic democracies", they are freed after short term of imprisonment. But the law of Islam is:

النَّفْسَ بِالنَّفْسِ وَالْعَيْنَ بِالْعَيْنِ وَالْأَنفَ بِالْأَنفِ وَالْأُذُنَ بِالْأُذُنِ وَالسِّنَّ بِالسِّنِّ وَالْجُرُوحَ قِصَاصٌ ۚ 

"..Life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and for wounds is legal retribution." (5:45)

Since you took a life, your life shall also be taken. 

Once the prophet () send Umar (radiyallahu anh) as a Qadhi (judge). A man was killed by five (or seven) men. Umar (radiyallahu anh) decided that all  should be executed. Someone said, "taking five lives for the sake of one life?" So he replied:

لو تمالأ عليه أهل صنعاء لقتلتهم جميعا

"Had all the people of Sana'a (city in Yemen) joined forces  against him, I would have killed them all." (Muwatta Malik)

This is the law of Islam. Allah says:

الَّذِينَ إِن مَّكَّنَّاهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ أَقَامُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتَوُا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَمَرُوا بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَنَهَوْا عَنِ الْمُنكَرِ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ 

"[And they are] those who, if We give them authority in the land, establish prayer and give zakah and enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong. And to Allah belongs the outcome of [all] matters." (22:41)

It is part of enjoining good and forbidding evil that the govt. not only takes the zakat, but also charges some extra amount of fine for the one who does not pays the zakat voluntarily (max fine will be half of his wealth). 

One may begin to think that he () would take charity forcefully for his ownself or for his family. But no! With all that he () also said:

لَا يَحِلُّ لِآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ مِنْهَا شَيْءٌ

"There is no share in it (zakat) for the family of Muhammad." 

And in another narration he () said:

وَإِنَّهَا لاَ تَحِلُّ لِمُحَمَّدٍ وَلاَ لآلِ مُحَمَّدٍ

"Indeed it (zakat) is not permissible tor Muhammad or the family of Muhammad."
(Saheeh Muslim)
The beloved messenger () has prohibited for anyone who claims (or attributes himself) to be from the family of prophet Muhammad () to eat anything from zakat. This will stand true until the day of Judgement. 

However, few exceptions have been mentioned for those who are forced to eat from charity out of necessity. The beloved messenger () and his family gets 1/5th from the war booty, they may take the charity if they are still not able to earn. But it is not permitted for them if they are able to work and earn, or the ruler gives them enough funds as gift, not from bayt al maal (or charity). 

But on the other hand, it is seen that many of those who claim to be 'Syed' ie., from the family of the prophet () through Hassan and Hussain from Fatima (radiyallahu anhum), they claim zakat to be their right! This is though they can work and earn. They should keep the honour of the family of our beloved messenger (), and should not beg whatever the case be because charity is the dirt of people as the beloved messenger () said:

"‏ إِنَّ هَذِهِ الصَّدَقَاتِ إِنَّمَا هِيَ أَوْسَاخُ النَّاسِ.."

"Verily these sadaqat are the impurities of people.." (Saheeh Muslim)

Thus, they should not accept the charity of people atleast keeping the honor of his family.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 085)

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30. Fulfilling the obligations as soon as possible:

Once it is time, pay the Zakat as soon as possible. Because (you postponed it but) if a problem (like theft, sudden loss in the business etc) or a disaster comes up making it almost impossible for you to pay, then it will be counted as a dhulm (oppression) on the rights of Allah. 

This is why it is said that one should hurry to perform and complete their part. If it is time for Salah, and he postpones praying inspite of free time, but later on becomes busy and misses the time, then he would be held responsible for it. So the same goes for zakat, once it is time, fulfill all of it. There is no guaranty of life, anything could happen at anytime.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 085)

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31. Trading using the property of an orphan

وَعَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ شُعَيْبٍ, عَنْ أَبِيهِ, عَنْ جَدِّهِ; عَبْدِ اَللَّهِ بْنِ عَمْرِوٍ; أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { مِنْ وَلِيَ يَتِيمًا لَهُ مَالٌ, فَلْيَتَّجِرْ لَهُ, وَلَا يَتْرُكْهُ حَتَّى تَأْكُلَهُ اَلصَّدَقَةُ } رَوَاهُ اَلتِّرْمِذِيُّ, وَاَلدَّارَقُطْنِيُّ, وَإِسْنَادُهُ ضَعِيف ٌ

'Amr bin Shu’aib narrated on the authority of his father who reported on the authority of his grandfather, on the authority of Abdullah bin 'Amr (radiyallahu anh) that the Messenger of Allah () said: “One who becomes the guardian of an orphan, who owns property, must trade on his behalf and not leave it (saved and unused) until it is all eaten up by zakah (which is paid yearly).” (Related by At-Tirmidhi and Ad-Daraqutni with a weak chain of narrators. And it has a supporting Mursal version reported by Ash- Shafi'i)

This is a very important issue, but with that its an issue of ikhtilaaf (difference of opinion). But opting the correct stance only will save us from every problem. 
Many leave this hadith (other proofs) aside, and tell that since an orphan is himself a minor, so zakat is not to be given. Orphan refers to a young kid. So according to them, since salah has not been obligated on him/her, then the same goes for zakat. They have applied Qiyas here, and there is no doubt that if we reach the truth through Qiyas, then we must accept it. 

But the right of zakat concerns with the wealth itself, and not the owner of wealth.
Allah says:

وَفِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ لِّلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ

"And in their properties there was the right of the beggar, and the Mahrum (the poor who does not ask the others)." (51:19)

So it does not matter whether the owner of the wealth is young or old, a man or a woman. If there is  wealth, then zakat must be paid on it. 

It is from the guidance of the beloved messenger (), that an orphan should have a guardian. The guardian will be responsible for the schooling of the kid, and other necessities. And thus, it is the guardian who is responsible for wealth of that orphan. Allah also said, 

وَلَا تُؤْتُوا السُّفَهَاءَ أَمْوَالَكُمُ 

"And do not give the weak-minded your property.." (4:5)

But when you notice that he has become mature mentally and is able to deal with his wealth him/herself, then hand it over to them.
This is why he () said, "If anyone is a guardian of an orphan who owns property, he must trade with it."

So, one may add the wealth of the orphan to his own wealth and business, or he may trade with it separately. This is so that the charity does not finishes it up. For example, an orphan owns 30,000 Riyals, this money won't increase unless it is put to business. And the yearly zakat of approx 500 (or 700 Riyals) will be given. And thus charity will be paid year after year, which would eventually finish the wealth.

One should not eat from the orphan's wealth, but if the guardian puts his wealth and time trading on orphan's wealth, then Allah says:

فَلْيَأْكُلْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ

"..Let him have for himself what is just and reasonable (according to his work).." (4:6)
If he spends two hours, then he only takes his share of benefit for working that long.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 085)

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32. Bribery in difficulty and hardship:

Giving or accepting bribe is prohibited undoubtedly. And if one already has a certain amount of bribe, then he may spend it in construction of toilets, drainage, and other such stuff. And this is one of the ways to free oneself and get rid from such money, may Allah forgive us.

But it should not be used for food. Only halal money should be used for food, and the same for zakat. Many people use it for marriages, and this is wrong as well. 

As for using it in times of necessity, then the shariah has not burdened us anyway. If one is forced to reject laa illaaha illa allah (that there is no one worthy of worship other than Allah) at the point of gun, then it is acceptable if one rejects it. Allah says, 

مَن كَفَرَ بِاللَّهِ مِن بَعْدِ إِيمَانِهِ إِلَّا مَنْ أُكْرِهَ وَقَلْبُهُ مُطْمَئِنٌّ بِالْإِيمَانِ 

Whoever disbelieves in Allah after his belief... except for one who is forced [to renounce his religion] while his heart is secure in faith. (16:106)

If it is permissible to reject the center of faith at times of necessity, then what about bribery? Giving the bribe for unnecessary things is wrong, but it can be used if it has to do with saving a life (or getting a right back).

If you begin to bribe others for unnecessary things, then you are supporting others in this evil. For instance, a man working in governmental services would work for you as required. But people have made it a habit of bribing them, so they don't work unless you pay them extra. You are wealthy, so you bribe them and get your work done. But the poor who does not has enough, you have made it difficult for him. 
Allah says, 

وَتَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْبِرِّ وَالتَّقْوَىٰ ۖ وَلَا تَعَاوَنُوا عَلَى الْإِثْمِ وَالْعُدْوَانِ ۚ 

"And cooperate in righteousness and piety, but do not cooperate in sin and transgression." (5:2)

So, you have actually helped in evil. 

It can be permitted at times of need in a non Muslim land, but if this becomes a need in a Muslim land then the fact is that they are waging a war against Allah.

You acknowledge that bribery is considered a crime worldwide. Be it whoever, it will be considered a crime. But as for Islam, it considers it to be one of the major crimes! For this reason, it is not permissible at all.

If people unite that they will not accept it whatsoever happens, then it will work out. But they want to become millionaires through the easy way, so they agree for anything, be it halal or haram. This is certainly not a necessity, that you posses so much wealth. If you have enough to eat for a day, then it is sufficient. But if you don't get enough to suffice for even a day, then it will be considered a necessity. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 085)

[Link: ]

33. Zakat-ul Fitr: How much is a Sa`a?

Few people say that a Sâ' equals to 2.40 kgs. But the correct opinion is that it weighs 2.450 kgs (for wheat).

The scholars have preserved the exact measurement of Sâ', and it has been passed from one generation to another. I have noticed that the scholars who graduate from many of Islamic schools in India were given the exact measurement of Sâ'.

As for Mudd, it equals to two full fists. And similarly, four fists equal to one Sâ'. So, a Sâ' equals to about 2.450 kgs, as a safer opinion. 

And this Sâ' has been passed Mutawaatir (through multiple chains of transmission) from earlier generations to India to Saudi. Today, the measurement that scholars have come all the way from India. They measure it, and make a tool equal to its size and certify it in written form that they received the measurement from so and so who received from so and so until it goes back to companions and then to the Sâ' of the beloved messenger. This is how it has been transmitted with multiple authentic chains, and thus there is no doubt it.

And the messenger taught them to measure in utensils, not by weight though they as well had weighing measurements of their time. If a certain amount of wheat equals to one Sâ' then it may weigh 2 kg or may be more; dates may weigh comparatively less; and barley may be even less. Therefore, since the beloved messenger taught how to measure, then we must measure accordingly, how much ever be the weight. So, a Sâ' of wheat will be 2.450 kgs, but it may differ for others.

And similarly, the difference in price will not matter. Dates, barley and raisins has also been mentioned in the narrations. (cross check: Saheeh al Bukhari) Raisins has been traditionally expensive compared to others, yet it is as well to be given as a Sâ'.
The owner of the slave will pay on behalf of the slave. The freeman will pay himself, and the parents or the guardians will pay on behalf of  the young ones. And Uthman (radiyallahu anh) would give even on behalf of the baby in the womb. Though it is not obligatory, he would give it to be on the safe side. 

And he (sallahu alayhi wa sallam) gave the command that this should be given before people complete their Eid Salah. Similarly, it has been mentioned in another narration that the one who gives it before the completion of Salah, it will be accepted as Zakat-ul Fitr. But if he pays it after the Salah, then it will be counted as an ordinary charity, and will be deprived of the benefit of Sadaqat-ul fitr. (the narration is in Abu Dawood and Ibn Majah, and Al Hakim graded it Sahih)

The benefit of Sadaqat-ul fitr as it has been mentioned in some of the narrations, is that Allah would purify whatever imperfection that a person had committed while fasting. So, this is the benefit which one gains only by paying before the Eid Salah, but it would be considered as any ordinary charity if he fails to pay on time. 

Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 086)

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34. Zakat-ul Fitr in Cash: 

After explaining the meaning of a Sâ' (refer to point 33), and how the prophet () would teach them the measurement of food for distribution for Zakat-ul fitr, and that this is different from other charities, and that Eid-ul fitr (linguistically: fitr - futoor) is about food and its distribution, shaikh may Allah preserve him, mentioned the very purpose of Zakat-ul Fitr:

وَلِابْنِ عَدِيٍّ  مِنْ وَجْهٍ آخَرَ [, وَاَلدَّارَقُطْنِيِّ بِإِسْنَادٍ ضَعِيفٍ: { اغْنُوهُمْ عَنِ اَلطَّوَافِ فِي هَذَا اَلْيَوْمِ

"(Give out Zakat-ul Fitr to the poor) so that they are satisfied from going round (begging) during this day (of 'Eid-ul Fitr)." (Ibn 'Adi and Ad-Daraqutni)

This has not been authentically reported from the beloved messenger (), but the scholars have mentioned that the purpose of Zakat-ul Fitr is that the poor also get enough food that it becomes an occasion of happiness for them as well. And the same for those poor who work hard labor even on the day of Eid, so let them have a leave from work and eat happily.

Then, sheikh discussed the issue of paying Zakat-ul Fitr in cash:

If you say that 2.450 kgs wheat costs 6 to 7 riyal, then lets give it in cash directly. But no.
Scholars have mentioned that the reason for this is that the sahâba would not do it though they had very rich ones among them like Uthmah, Abdur-Rahman ibn Awf and others, and all praise be to Allah. But in-spite of this, it has not been proven from any narration that they paid in money. This is why paying in cash is a very doubtful matter. As this is what the messenger () did as reported in several narrations, and thus giving in cash is not correct.

But people say, 'You bought this wheat, then gave it to a poor. But then, that poor takes it and sells it to some retailer for some money. So there is no point."

However, this is something through which Allah wants us to make it apparent that everyone is spending his part from the blessings of Allah. This is not the type of charity given in secret, but it is one of the symbols that Allah wants us to implement in public. The poor and rich get together, and give and take hand to hand. This is its purpose. 
But if you give in cash, then would cash be enough? Scholars have said that it won't be enough as it has not been mentioned in any narration that they gave it in money (currency). 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 086)

[Link: ]

Note from admin: There is another view by some scholars and i have briefly mentioned it on this blog of mine:

35. Under the shade of Allah

حَدَّثَنَا مُسَدَّدٌ، حَدَّثَنَا يَحْيَى، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ اللَّهِ، قَالَ حَدَّثَنِي خُبَيْبُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الرَّحْمَنِ، عَنْ حَفْصِ بْنِ عَاصِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم قَالَ ‏ "‏ سَبْعَةٌ يُظِلُّهُمُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى فِي ظِلِّهِ يَوْمَ لاَ ظِلَّ إِلاَّ ظِلُّهُ إِمَامٌ عَدْلٌ، وَشَابٌّ نَشَأَ فِي عِبَادَةِ اللَّهِ، وَرَجُلٌ قَلْبُهُ مُعَلَّقٌ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ، وَرَجُلاَنِ تَحَابَّا فِي اللَّهِ اجْتَمَعَا عَلَيْهِ وَتَفَرَّقَا عَلَيْهِ، وَرَجُلٌ دَعَتْهُ امْرَأَةٌ ذَاتُ مَنْصِبٍ وَجَمَالٍ فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ، وَرَجُلٌ تَصَدَّقَ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَأَخْفَاهَا حَتَّى لاَ تَعْلَمَ شِمَالُهُ مَا تُنْفِقُ يَمِينُهُ، وَرَجُلٌ ذَكَرَ اللَّهَ خَالِيًا فَفَاضَتْ عَيْنَاهُ ‏"‏‏.‏

Narrated Abu Huraira:

The Prophet () said, "Seven people will be shaded by Allah under His shade on the day when there will be no shade except His. They are: (1) a just ruler; (2) a young man who has been brought up in the worship of Allah, (i.e. worship Allah (Alone) sincerely from his childhood), (3) a man whose heart is attached to the mosque (who offers the five compulsory congregational prayers in the mosque); (4) two persons who love each other only for Allah's sake and they meet and part in Allah's cause only; (5) a man who refuses the call of a charming woman of noble birth for an illegal sexual intercourse with her and says: I am afraid of Allah; (6) a person who practices charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given (i.e. nobody knows how much he has given in charity). (7) a person who remembers Allah in seclusion and his eyes get flooded with tears." (Agreed upon: Bukhari and Muslim)

When the sun will come close to peoples heads and they will  sweat profusely; they'll begin to go to the prophets asking them to intercede to Allah to free them of this trial. They'll go to Adam, then Nooh, Ibraheem, Moosa, Isa (alayhimus salaam), etc., and all of them will give some excuse of their own mistakes, until finally Isa (alayhis salaam) would ask them to go to the beloved messenger (). So such will be the situation on that day.
It has been mentioned that the day of Judgement will go through many phases: a time would come when it would be burning hot, and another time it would get severely cold. But when they'll enter Jannah, as Allah said:

لَا يَرَوْنَ فِيهَا شَمْسًا وَلَا زَمْهَرِيرًا

"They will not see therein any [burning] sun or [freezing] cold." (76:13) It would have a balanced temperature. 

And it is in this extreme heat that Allah would bless them with his shade. It refers to either Allah's own shade or that Allah would create a shade for them. But apparently we should say that Allah would bless them with his shade. It is not difficult for Allah to have his own shade to cover others, or as others have said that Allah would create a shade which would cover these seven types of people. 

Meaning that though all people will be gathered in the same land, but some will be under the shade and not others. This is the might of Allah, and indeed it is not something difficult to comprehend. And as scholars have explained, the situation will be like how we see people in a gathering, few look happy, and others completely broken and upset. This will be the situation on the day of Resurrection. And the same in the grave as mentioned in the narrations, seventy people may be buried  and will be resurrected from the same grave, but few were being punished and others were blessed with the blessings of Allah. The might of Allah is amazing. 

Just because there will be few people around you in the shade, you shouldn't think that you'll be able to somehow get in the shade with them. That day is such that Allah would give everyone according to their deeds. 

Few people say that it is wrong to say that Allah has a shadow. [1]  But there is no issue with it linguistically, and similarly it is not something difficult for Allah. Allah has the best of examples. But you think of your shadow, and how easily a young kid can easily fit in your shade. So similarly, Allah as well can without doubt cover us under his shade. And that Allah will bless with the shade of his 'Arsh, as mentioned in few narrations. Or he may even specially create shade for them. So, who are those people? 

  • One of those are:

وَرَجُلٌ تَصَدَّقَ بِصَدَقَةٍ فَأَخْفَاهَا حَتَّى لاَ تَعْلَمَ شِمَالُهُ مَا تُنْفِقُ يَمِينُهُ، 

"A person who practices charity so secretly that his left hand does not know what his right hand has given."

Meaning that he gives so secretly that even the one just besides him does not gets to know about it. And this is something very pleasing to Allah. 

It has many reasons. Firstly, because people try to show off to others how much they give in charity. So the one gives up on this will be rewarded specially. Secondly, the beggar who is taking the charity feels shy if you give him in the public. And so at times, he may even reject it. But if you give it to him secretly in his home or else where in secret, or in the name of gift, or hand it to his children, he would feel honored. This is what Allah wants, that we respect another fellow Muslim as much as we can. So, this is what is meant by it. 

  • Similarly, he () mentioned:

إِمَامٌ عَدْلٌ

"A just ruler."

Intoxicated by power and authority, people transgress their limits and oppress others. But if such an individual fears Allah and deals justly, then he will be from the pleased ones to Allah. And so Allah will treat him distinctively on the day of Resurrection. 

  • And among them will be:

وَشَابٌّ نَشَأَ فِي عِبَادَةِ اللَّهِ

"Young man who has been brought up in the worship of Allah."

World looks very attractive to the youth. And the desires and wants of the world surround the youth and he/she gets trapped in it. Old-age makes one weak physically, so he begins to think of the day of Resurrection realizing that death is close. But when one has enough ability and strength to commit sins, yet he chooses to act according to Allah's commands, then no doubt that this is very pleasing to Allah.
On the contrary, look at the other narrations. What about the one does not has the ability and has grown old, yet does not stops committing sins? The noble prophet () said, 

:‏ قال رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم‏:‏ “ثلاثة لا يكلمهم الله يوم القيامة، ولايزكيهم، ولا ينظر إليهم ، ولهم عذاب أليم‏:‏ شيخ زان وملك كذاب، وعائل مستكبر” ‏(‏‏(‏رواه مسلم‏)‏‏)

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) reported: Messenger of Allah () said, "There are three (types of) people to whom Allah will not speak on the Day of Resurrection, nor will He purify them, nor look at them, and they will have a painful punishment. These are: An aged man who commits Zina (illicit sexual act), a ruler who lies, and a poor person who is proud." (Muslim)

Poor and weak, yet he shows pride. What makes you proud when you don't have anything to  eat, nor to drink?! If this man is so pride inspite of poverty, then what if he was blessed with wealth? This is why it is said that Allah does not gives nails to a baby. If he had nails, he would harm himself with his own nails.

Thus, Allah has disliked that a man is physically weak, yet he commits zina!
So the point is that a young lad gets access to a lot of things that makes him forget worship of Allah. But if he reaches the masjid at the call of Azan, recites Qur'an, behaves well with people, etc., then this is what is meant by growing up worshipping Allah. Not that he performs one or two salah a day, but that his parents take care of him from childhood and taught him/her well, and then lives his life accordingly, then this lad will be specially under the shade. 

  • And similarly he () mentioned,

وَرَجُلٌ قَلْبُهُ مُعَلَّقٌ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ،

"A man whose heart is attached to the mosque."

Allah says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا نُودِيَ لِلصَّلَاةِ مِن يَوْمِ الْجُمُعَةِ فَاسْعَوْا إِلَىٰ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ 

"O you who have believed, when [the adhan] is called for the prayer on the day of Jumu'ah [Friday], then proceed to the remembrance of Allah." (62:9)

He abandons everything at hearing the Azan, and after salah:

فَإِذَا قُضِيَتِ الصَّلَاةُ فَانتَشِرُوا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَابْتَغُوا مِن فَضْلِ اللَّهِ 

"And when the prayer has been concluded, disperse within the land and seek from the bounty of Allah." (62:10)

He is busy working, yet his heart is concerned: "Has the azan been called?" , "What time will be the azan?"

So, the one whose heart is connected in such a way to the Masjid, then Allah will have mercy on him uniquely and will cover him under the shade.

  • And he said:

وَرَجُلاَنِ تَحَابَّا فِي اللَّهِ اجْتَمَعَا عَلَيْهِ وَتَفَرَّقَا عَلَيْهِ، 

"Two persons who love each other only for Allah's sake and they meet and part in Allah's cause only." 

These two are those who are connected to each other only for the sake of Allah. Not because he is wealthy, or a man of status, etc., all which have to do with dunya (worldly), and their relation is sole benefit from each other. But a poor man with nothing, yet one loves him exclusively because of his righteousness, salah and fasts, then Allah will cover these two under his shade.

  • Similarly, 

وَرَجُلٌ دَعَتْهُ امْرَأَةٌ ذَاتُ مَنْصِبٍ وَجَمَالٍ فَقَالَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ، 

"A man who refuses the call of a charming woman of noble birth for an illegal sexual intercourse with her and says: I am afraid of Allah."

At times, one faces such trials which are a test for ones religion and faith. If a woman herself invites him, then it is very easy to slip and give in for such things. Look into the incident of Yusuf (alayhis salaam), but he said: 

قَالَ مَعَاذَ اللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّهُ رَبِّي أَحْسَنَ مَثْوَايَ ۖ إِنَّهُ لَا يُفْلِحُ الظَّالِمُونَ

He said: "I seek refuge in Allah (or Allah forbid)! Truly, he (your husband) is my master! He made my stay agreeable! (So I will never betray him). Verily, the Zalimun (wrong and evil-doers) will never be successful."(12:23)
Then this is as well very praiseworthy in the sight of Allah. 

  • And seventh one is :

وَرَجُلٌ ذَكَرَ اللَّهَ خَالِيًا فَفَاضَتْ عَيْنَاهُ

"A person who remembers Allah in seclusion and his eyes get flooded with tears."

This is why dhikr (rememberance of Allah) is considered so virtuous. Allah says:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ ذِكْرًا كَثِيرًا

"O you who have believed, remember Allah with much remembrance." (33:41)
and he says:

وَلَذِكْرُ اللَّهِ أَكْبَرُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تَصْنَعُونَ

"And remembrance of Allah is the greatest (thing in life)." (29:45)

Dhikr does not means just "sub-haanallah.. wal-hamdulillah.." but remembering Allah's favors, his punishment, his rewards, etc., is all dhikr. So, a man/woman who remembers, and tears begin to flow and begins to cry, will refresh his own Imaan (faith). And so, Allah would allow him/her to be under his shade on Yawm al Qiyaamah (day of ressurrection). 

Thus, a man should remember Allah and cry in secret, not in the public or in the masjid. His tears in secret will be sincere, but as for in the public then you may have several other reasons to cry. Many people begin to cry very quickly in the public, unlike in secret. 

This is why worship in the darkness of night is encouraged. Allah's messenger () said:

وعن أبي يوسف عبد الله بن سلام رضي الله عنه قال‏:‏ سمعت رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم يقول‏:‏ ‏ "‏يا أيها الناس أفشوا السلام، وأطعموا الطعام، وصلوا الأرحام وصلوا والناس نيام، تدخلوا الجنة بسلام‏"‏ ‏(‏‏(‏رواه الترمذي وقال حديث حسن صحيح‏)‏‏)‏‏.‏

"O people, exchange greetings of peace (i.e., say: As-Salamu 'Alaikum to one another), feed people, strengthen the ties of kinship, and be in prayer when others are asleep, you will enter Jannah in peace." (At- Tirmidhi)

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 086)

[Link: ]

[1] Note from admin: The issue regarding the shadow being discussed in this hadeeth is clarified and explained by shaykh Rabee` al-Madkhali in one of his works I found online. He concluded his lengthy research by saying: 

فإن المتأمل المنصف في النصوص النبوية والقواعد الشرعية لا يخالجه شك في أن المراد من الظل الوارد في النصوص النبوية – التي مر ذكرها في هذا البحث- إنما هو ظل عرش الله عز وجل
هذا ما يسره الله لي ووفقني له من هذا البحث الذي أرجو الله الرؤوف الرحيم أن ينفعني به وأن يجعلني ممن يظلهم بظل عرشه يوم لا ظل إلا ظله{يَوْمَ لَا يَنفَعُ مَالٌ وَلَا بَنُونَ * إِلَّا مَنْ أَتَى اللَّهَ بِقَلْبٍ سَلِيم

After studying the sayings of the Prophet [Peace and Blessings of Allah be upon him] that have reached and looking at the principles of shariah that have been set by the scholars, its becomes certain that the meaning of the ‘Shade/Shadow of Allah’ mentioned in the text, can only be referred and meant to mean the shade/shadow of the Throne of Allaah, the Exalted and Glorified.

This is what Allah has made easy for me to present from the research into to this topic, I hope that Allah, the Pardoner, the Merciful, make it beneficial for me and make me of those whom He shades, under the shade of His Throne, on a day there will be no shade except His shade.

36. Spending moderately:

وَعَنْ حَكِيمِ بْنِ حِزَامٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- عَنِ اَلنَّبِيِّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { اَلْيَدُ اَلْعُلْيَا خَيْرٌ مِنَ اَلْيَدِ اَلسُّفْلَى, وَابْدَأْ بِمَنْ تَعُولُ, وَخَيْرُ اَلصَّدَقَةِ عَنْ ظَهْرِ غِنًى, وَمَنْ يَسْتَعْفِفْ يُعِفَّهُ اَللَّهُ, وَمَنْ يَسْتَغْنِ يُغْنِهِ اَللَّهُ.‏} مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ, وَاللَّفْظُ لِلْبُخَارِي.

Hakim bin Hizam (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said:
"The upper hand is better than the lower hand. One should begin by giving to his dependents. And the best Sadaqah (charity) is that, which is given by a wealthy person (from the money which is left over after his expenses). And whoever abstains from asking others for some financial help, Allah will provide for him and save him from asking others; Allah will make him self-sufficient.” (Agreed upon and this version is of al-Bukhari)

What is meant by upper hand is better than the lower hand?

Ibn Al Jawzi (rahimahullah) said that few people wrongly interpret it to mean that the hand of the one who takes is better than the one that gives, as the who takes raises his hands while receiving the charity. But the correct meaning is that the one who gives has his hands above. This is what he mentioned in "Talbees Iblees" that few Sufis sit for begging in the name of 'tawakkul', and wait to receive food from others. They use this hadith in their favor, and have changed the meaning. Although the beloved messenger () explained this in another narration, that the one who gives is better than the who takes.

The beloved messenger () is boosting them to give as much as possible. And one should begin with those under his guardianship. Not that you leave your own family starving, and you give it to others. And if someone is stingy in spending on the children but gives charity to others, then he will be rewarded for his charity and simultaneously a sin will be upon him for stinginess.

Zainab, the wife of Ibn Mas'ood had some money for Zakat, but Ibn Mas'ood said that he and his family are more deserving of that charity. She questioned whether how is it possible to give it to one's own children? She went and informed the beloved messenger (), to which he replied:

صدق ابن مسعود.

Ibn Mas'ood has spoken the truth. (al Bukhari)

This is why the messenger () said: "And the best Sadaqah (charity) is that, which is given by a wealthy person from the money which is left over after his expenses."

It is true that man is forced to beg in certain situations. And haram wealth and food is permissible in extreme conditions. But there are people who spend more than what they earn, and end-up taking loans. But if he spends moderately, then he can live without any such difficulties.

I recall a man who used to spend a lot, and he would say, "the more one spends, the more Allah gives." But he ended up taking loan in thousands. So, its good to put tawakkul (trust) on Allah, but one must spend only according to one's earnings. And if a man's basic expenses are more than his earning, then it is permissible for him to ask others.

This is why the messenger () said:

وَمَنْ يَسْتَعْفِفْ يُعِفَّهُ اَللَّهُ, وَمَنْ يَسْتَغْنِ يُغْنِهِ اَللَّهُ.‏

"And whoever abstains from asking others for some financial help, Allah will provide for him and save him from asking others; Allah will make him self-sufficient."

And this is why the beloved messenger () would supplicate:

"اللَّهُمَّ اكْفِنِي بِحَلاَلِكَ عَنْ حَرَامِكَ وَأَغْنِنِي بِفَضْلِكَ عَمَّنْ سِوَاكَ ‏"‏ ‏

"O Allah, suffice me with Your lawful against Your prohibited, and make me independent of all those besides You.

(Allāhummakfinī biḥalālika `an ḥarāmika, wa aghninī bi faḍlika `amman siwāka).

But certain situations come in life that the shariah permits asking others. Infact, it encourages us to give such people. Allah says,

وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَّعْلُومٌ
لِّلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ

And those in whose wealth there is a recognized right. For the one who asks, and for the deprived. (such as the unlucky who has lost his property and wealth and his means of living has been straitened)." (Qur'an 70:24-25)

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 086)

37. Most rewardable charity:

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: { قِيلَ يَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ: أَيُّ اَلصَّدَقَةِ أَفْضَلُ? قَالَ: "جُهْدُ اَلْمُقِلِّ, وَابْدَأْ بِمَنْ تَعُولُ" } أَخْرَجَهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ, وَابْنُ حِبَّانَ, وَالْحَاكِمُ

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () was asked, ‘Which kind of Sadaqah is better? He replied, “That which is given by one who does not have much property. And begin by giving to your dependents.” (Related by Ahmad, and Abu Dawud. Ibn Khuzaimah, Ibn Hibban and AI-Hakim graded it as Sahih)

A millionaire may have given charity in a few hundred thousands, but this charity may not be pleasing to Allah as much as the charity of a poor man who has very little yet spends from it.

[Note from Admin: It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said:"A Dirham surpassed a hundred thousand Dirhams." They said: "How?" He said: "A man had two Dirhams and gave one in charity, and another man went to a part of his wealth and took out a hundred thousand Dirhams and gave them in charity." (Ref: Sunan an-Nasa'i) End. ]

You know about the Battle of Tabuk. It was held in a very difficult situation. Furthermore, it was a year of agricultural prosperity, when dates were multiplying and the fruit production was at its peak. So, there was a test in it whether to take care of the agriculture, or to leave it all for the sake of Allah. The beloved messenger () announced, and his companions moved along him. He asked for charity contribution. The sahaba gave a lot, but a man gave in very few dates. So the prophet () asked whether where he got it from. He replied that he was working somewhere and got only this much as his wage. So the beloved messenger () spread those dates on all the charity given by others, signifying that quality matters more than quantity. This is what Allah says about the cattle sacrifice:

لَن يَنَالَ اللَّهَ لُحُومُهَا وَلَا دِمَاؤُهَا وَلَٰكِن يَنَالُهُ التَّقْوَىٰ مِنكُمْ ۚ

"Their meat will not reach Allah , nor will their blood, but what reaches Him is piety from you.." (22:37)

And finally, begin with your own family. Many show others how much they spend, but are stingy on spending on their children.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 086)

38. Spending complete wealth in charity:

وَعَنْ ابِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ " تَصَدَّقُوا " فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ: يَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ, عِنْدِي دِينَارٌ? قَالَ: " تَصَدَّقْ بِهِ عَلَى نَفْسِكَ " قَالَ: عِنْدِي آخَرُ, قَالَ: " تَصَدَّقْ بِهِ عَلَى وَلَدِكَ " 1‏ قَالَ: عِنْدِي آخَرُ, قَالَ: " تَصَدَّقْ بِهِ عَلَى خَادِمِكَ " قَالَ: عِنْدِي آخَرُ, قَالَ: " أَنْتَ أَبْصَرُ ".‏ } رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ وَالنَّسَائِيُّ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ حِبَّانَ وَالْحَاكِمُ

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said:
“Give Sadaqah.” A man then said, ‘Allah’s Messenger (), I have a Dinar.’ He then said to him, “Give it to yourself as Sadaqah.” The man again said, ‘I have another one.’ The Messenger of Allah () said: “Give it to your children as Sadaqah.” He said, ‘I have another one.’ He said, “Give it to your wife as Sadaqah.” The man again said, ‘I have another one.’ The Messenger of Allah () said: “Give it to your servant as Sadaqah.” He said, ‘I have another one.’ The Messenger of Allah () said: “You know better to whom you should give it.” (Related by Abu Dawud and An-Nasa’i. Ibn Hibban and Al-Hakim regarded it as Sahih)

This is the general shari' (legal) ruling. But a man who himself remains hungry but feeds others, then this is as well valuable in the sight of Allah. As Allah said about the Ansâr:

وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِن قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِّمَّا أُوتُوا وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَىٰ أَنفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ الاية

"And those who, before them, had homes (in Al-Madinah) and had adopted the Faith, love those who emigrate to them, and have no jealousy in their breasts for that which they have been given, and give them (emigrants) preference over themselves, even though they were in need of that." (59:9)

But if a man's heart is not so strong, then he must fill his own stomach before giving others. Unless he ends up doing something wrong like theft, due to hunger.
And man should fulfill his obligations before voluntary acts. Ordinary charity is voluntary, so obligation (of feeding the family) should take precedence. Thus, one should not be stingy in spending with the children.

But if one does so, then it is permissible only when the children are as well patient. This can be seen in some incidents. Once, it happened that Umar (radiyallahu anh) had a lot of wealth and spent half his wealth. And he thought that he would surpass Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anh) this time. Abu Bakr brought his charity. The Messenger of Allah () asked him: ‘What have you left for your family?’ He replied, ‘I have left Allah and His Messenger for them.’ Thereupon Umar said, ‘I shall never surpass him in anything.’ May Allah be pleased with them both!

Thus, as scholars say, if a man spends complete wealth in charity, acknowledging their patience and sincerity, and the family and children are willing to be patient for the sake of Allah, then it will be permissible if he gets their permission before spending in charity. But if they (family) don't agree, then give them their rights and spend the rest on charity.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 086)

39. The woman who spends for Allah's sake:

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: قَالَ اَلنَّبِيُّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ إِذَا أَنْفَقَتِ اَلْمَرْأَةُ مِنْ طَعَامِ بَيْتِهَا, غَيْرَ مُفْسِدَةٍ, كَانَ لَهَا أَجْرُهَا بِمَا أَنْفَقَتْ وَلِزَوْجِهَا أَجْرُهُ بِمَا اِكْتَسَبَ وَلِلْخَازِنِ مِثْلُ ذَلِكَ, وَلَا يَنْقُصُ بَعْضُهُمْ أَجْرَ بَعْضٍ شَيْئًا } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ.

A’ishah (radiyallahu anha) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said:

“When a woman gives some of the foodstuff (which she has in her house) in charity without being extravagant (without being wasteful), she will receive the reward for what she has spent, and her husband will receive the reward because of his earning, and the keeper (if any) will be similarly rewarded. The reward of one will not decrease the reward of the others.” (Agreed upon)

"She should spend without being wasteful" ie., if food is cooked for eight people, it would be fine if one person's part is given to a poor (the family could adjust and compromise). But if she gives all of it to the poor, leaving food sufficient for just one person, then what will the family eat? This is being wasteful. And it could also mean that she should not have intention of harming the husband's house and wealth. Thus, it should not be extravagant.

A female companion went to the beloved messenger () and asked, "What may I spend of my husband's wealth?" So he () replied that she may dole out charity as is usually given in ('urf) prevalent customs. For instance, if a poor came and the woman gives a riyal or two, then this is something ordinary, and she is not in need of permission from the husband. But if the husband himself asks her not to give anything, then she cannot give.

كَانَ لَهَا أَجْرُهَا

"She will receive the reward for what she has spent.."

If she spends as such, then she will be rewarded for it. And her husband will have reward as he was the one who earned it, and his shopkeeper will get the same. The shopkeeper is someone who works in your shop under you, and you have permitted for him to spend in charity. If he spends it willingly, then he will be rewarded for it. Yet, nobody's reward will be deducted for another one. There are few people, that the owner of the wealth asks (wife/shopkeeper/etc) to give in charity, but they feel upset giving it as if they're asked to give their hearts to someone else. But if they give happily, they all will be rewarded. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 086)

40. Five situations when a wealthy individual may accept zakat money:

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ اَلْخُدْرِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ لَا تَحِلُّ اَلصَّدَقَةُ لِغَنِيٍّ إِلَّا لِخَمْسَةٍ: لِعَامِلٍ عَلَيْهَا, أَوْ رَجُلٍ اِشْتَرَاهَا بِمَالِهِ, أَوْ غَارِمٍ, أَوْ غَازٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اَللَّهِ, أَوْ مِسْكِينٍ تُصُدِّقَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْهَا, فَأَهْدَى مِنْهَا لِغَنِيٍّ } رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اَلْحَاكِمُ, وَأُعِلَّ بِالْإِرْسَالِ .

Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (radiyallahu anhu) narrated that The Messenger of Allah () said:
“Zakah is not allowed for the well-off person except for one of the following five: an administrator of Zakah, a man who buys Zakah holdings with his money, a person who is in debt,  one who fights in the cause of Allah, or a rich person who is given a present by a needy (miskeen) person which the latter had been given as Zakah.” (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud, Ibn Majah, and Al-Hakim regarded it as Sahih)

These are the situations in which a wealthy individual may accept zakat:

  • 1. The zakat administrator:

لِعَامِلٍ عَلَيْهَا

The one who collects and distributes it. If the government has appointed him as a zakat collector/distributor, then it will be permissible for him to take his salary from that zakat money. There is not doubt about it. The messenger () gave it to Umar, but he rejected it as it was zakat money. But the beloved messenger () said: "Take it, and keep it with your property.." Thus, it is permissible, as he is not receiving the money as a poor, rather it is because he is working for it. But if he doesn't takes it, then it will certainly be a source of reward.

  • 2. The one who buys it with his money:

أَوْ رَجُلٍ اِشْتَرَاهَا بِمَالِهِ

If a wealthy man buys zakat goods, then it will be regarded as similar to other general buying and selling.

  • 3. The debtor:

أَوْ غَارِمٍ,

If a wealthy man takes zakat money as a debt, then it will be permissible. And it won't be said that it is haram (impermissible) for him just due to his personal wealth.

  • 4. The one who fights in Allah's cause:

أَوْ غَازٍ فِي سَبِيلِ اَللَّهِ

A man who fights for the sake of Allah may accept zakat money to buy weapons, horses etc., in-spite of having sufficient wealth with himself.

  • 5. A poor man who after getting a sadaqa gifts part of it to a wealthy man:

أَوْ مِسْكِينٍ تُصُدِّقَ عَلَيْهِ مِنْهَا, فَأَهْدَى مِنْهَا لِغَنِيٍّ

"Or a rich person who is given a present by a needy (miskeen) person which the latter had been given as Zakah.”

But who is a miskeen? Allah says:

إِنَّمَا الصَّدَقَاتُ لِلْفُقَرَاءِ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ

"As-Sadaqat are only for the Fuqara' (poor), and Al-Masakin (the needy)" (9:60)

There is not a very major difference between Fuqara' and Masakin, both are dependent on charity. But some scholars explained that "faqeer" is the one who has nothing, if he has food in the morning then not in the evening, and vice versa, and finds difficulty for clothing as well. This is a faqeer. And a "miskeen" is the one whose basic expenditure is more than the earning, ie., his earning is not sufficient for him.

They derive this from the story of Musa (alayhis salaam) in which Khidr (alayhis salam) damaged the ship, and Musa objected to it. So, Khidr explained the reason behind it:

أَمَّا السَّفِينَةُ فَكَانَتْ لِمَسَاكِينَ يَعْمَلُونَ فِي الْبَحْرِ

"As for the ship, it belonged to Masakin (poor people) working in the sea." (18:79)

It means that they had a source of earning but it was not sufficient. Thus, if (one is not able to earn enough) and his earning is not sufficient for him and his family, then he may accept zakat.

So, if this miskeen gifts a wealthy man a part from the sadaqa that he recieved, then that wealthy man may accept the gift and there is nothing wrong with it. And as in a narration of al-Bukhari, though zakat is prohibited for the beloved messenger () and his family, but he accepted gift that was of zakat money and said that it is permissible for them to accept it as a gift.

Bareera was a slave who was later freed, and used to live with Aisha. People gave her meat as charity. The beloved messenger () visited his house while she was cooking it. He asked for some food, so she gave curry with bread to him. The beloved messenger () said, "But I saw meat boiling in the utensil. So why did you not give me the meat?" Then Aisha (radiyallahu anha) replied, "The meat is being cooked, but it is what Bareera received as zakat." The messenger () then explained that it is zakat for Bareera, but when she would give it to him, it would be regarded as a gift. Thus, it would be permissible.

Many try to avoid gifts from the poor, and see it as filthy or dirty. This is certainly wrong. Rather, the messenger () has encouraged gifting each other:

«تهادوا تحابوا»

"Gift each other as it spreads love amongst you." (Bukhari)

This is for everyone. Let the rich gift the poor, and the poor.may as well gift the rich. But if someone sees it inappropriate to accept from the poor as they give from their charity, then we say that it is charity for them, but they give it as a gift to us. In-fact, our refusal may even break their heart, and they may think we consider them to be lowly. For this reason, the beloved messenger () would accept invitations from them and visit them.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)

41. Proper behavior towards the beggars:

وَعَنْ عُبَيْدِ اَللَّهِ بْنِ عَدِيِّ بْنِ اَلْخِيَارِ: { أَنَّ رَجُلَيْنِ حَدَّثَاهُ أَنَّهُمَا أَتَيَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-يَسْأَلَانِهِ مِنَ اَلصَّدَقَةِ، فَقَلَّبَ فِيهِمَا اَلْبَصَرَ, فَرَآهُمَا جَلْدَيْنِ, فَقَالَ: "إِنْ شِئْتُمَا, وَلَا حَظَّ فِيهَا لِغَنِيٍّ, وَلَا لِقَوِيٍّ مُكْتَسِب.ٍ"} رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ وَقَوَّاهُ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَالنَّسَائِيُّ

'Ubaidullah bin ’Adi bin Al-Khiyar (radiyallahu anh) narrated that two men told him that they had gone to the Messenger of Allah () asking him to give them something from the Zakah money (as he was distributing it at that time). The Messenger of Allah () then looked them up and down and found them to be sturdy and strong. He then said to them, “If you desire, I shall give it to you, but this Zakah is not for one who is rich, neither for the one who is strong and able to earn.” (Related by Ahmad, Abu Dawud and An-Nasa'i)

If there is someone who looks apparently fine, yet comes begging, or if there is doubt about that individual's financial status, then he must be informed (or warned) personally that it is Zakat money, so it will be on him to accept or reject it. He should not beg if he is not deserving of it, but if he is begging then apparently he deserves it.

There are many who do not publicize their poverty due to their sense of honor. These are called "Mahroom".

وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَّعْلُومٌ
لِّلسَّائِلِ وَالْمَحْرُومِ

"And those in whose wealth is a recognized right. For the beggar (Saa'il) and the deprived (Mahroom)." (17:24-25)

And the word "Saa'il" is for who the situation has forced him to go and beg others. There is no doubt that begging is an act of dishonor and humility. So, the prophet () has encouraged to give charity to specifically such people (Mahroom). He (ﷺ) said,"Give him (beggar) the charity even if he comes to you riding on a horse!" (Muwatta Imam Malik, and Shaikh Albani weakened it).

And Allah said,

وَأَمَّا السَّائِلَ فَلَا تَنْهَرْ

"And don't drive away the beggar." (93:10)

So if you are not giving him, then at-least don't repulse or scorn him, rather speak to him gently.

If there is someone who had a shop (or another source of earning) but may have got burnt or got closed down, yet doesn't begs others then such a person is mahroom, he should be searched for and given in charity. This is more reward-able, insha'allah.

It is also possible that he may be asking on behalf of someone else who is in need of it, and this is the sunnah of messenger (). He saw a group of people for who he felt extreme pity. They were wearing half- torn clothes. This is a well known incident. After Dhuhr salah, he stood up and told the sahaba to give them whatever they can. In very less time, a lot of things got collected including some dates, clothing, wheat etc. The sahabi described that the prophet () became extremely delighted as if a bright moon. So the point is that the prophet () asked to help others. Thus, this is co-operation in good, and much rewarded. Because at times, it happens that a foreigner seeks help from others and people doubt whether he deserves it or not. But if someone known in their community speaks on that poor's behalf, then people would give as much as they can out of trust.

People in our countries like India and Pakistan look down and frown upon those who collect charity on behalf of Islamic schools etc., and behave in a very ill manner. A man's zakat is what he doesn't deserves to keep with himself (ie., it must be spent for Allah). So when someone comes begging to you at your doorstep, it becomes very easy for you to give it to him and get freed from that money. But many people unfortunately find it difficult to give out zakat for the sake of Allah.

Whatsoever, we should try to help and support those in need. This is what was mentioned in the hadith.

And there are those who are able to earn, yet live on others charity. If they were told to work, they wouldn't. An example of this is those who call themselves "Syed" and attribute themselves to the family of the messenger (), and have made it their profession to live on charity. We find their whole families living on charity; healthy and well built bodies, and they spend with out care, as they keep receiving charity regularly. This should as well be avoided.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)

42. Three situations when begging becomes permissible:

وَعَنْ قَبِيصَةَ بْنِ مُخَارِقٍ اَلْهِلَالِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ إِنَّ اَلْمَسْأَلَةَ لَا تَحِلُّ إِلَّا لِأَحَدِ ثَلَاثَةٍ: رَجُلٌ تَحَمَّلَ حَمَالَةً, فَحَلَّتْ لَهُ اَلْمَسْأَلَةُ حَتَّى يُصِيبَهَا, ثُمَّ يُمْسِكَ، وَرَجُلٌ أَصَابَتْهُ جَائِحَةٌ, اِجْتَاحَتْ مَالَهُ, فَحَلَّتْ لَهُ اَلْمَسْأَلَةُ حَتَّى يُصِيبَ قِوَامًا مِنْ عَيْشٍ, وَرَجُلٌ أَصَابَتْهُ فَاقَةٌ حَتَّى يَقُومَ ثَلَاثَةٌ مِنْ ذَوِي الْحِجَى مِنْ قَومِهِ: لَقَدْ أَصَابَتْ فُلَانًا فَاقَةٌ; فَحَلَّتْ لَهُ اَلْمَسْأَلَةُ حَتَّى يُصِيبَ قِوَامًا مِنْ عَيْشٍ, فَمَا سِوَاهُنَّ مِنَ اَلْمَسْأَلَةِ يَا قَبِيصَةُ سُحْتٌ يَأْكُلُهَا   [ صَاحِبُهَا ] سُحْتًا } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَابْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ, وَابْنُ حِبَّانَ.‏

Qabisah bin Mukhariq Al-Hilali (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said: “Asking for (the money of) Zakah, is justified only for the following three: first, a man who has become guarrantor for a payment, to whom begging is allowed, after which he must stop begging; second, a man who was struck by calamity, which destroyed his holdings, which also makes it permissible for him to receive [Zakah] until he is in a position to earn his own living; and third, a man who has been reduced to poverty and three persons of caliber from among his people testify to his desperate circumstances. Such will receive until he finds a means of support for himself. Other than these cases, O Qabisah, it is considered as taking suht (unlawful or haram earnings), and the person receiving it (this Zakah) will be consuming forbidden (unlawful) holdings.” (Related by Muslim, Abu Dawud, Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban)

  • 1. A man who has become a guarantor for payment:

رَجُلٌ تَحَمَّلَ حَمَالَة

This is explained as a man who has a lot of debt. Or it could be a man who resolves quarrel between people. For example, one person tells about the other that he has taken 10,000 Riyals, and the other one denies it, and both begin to argue and fight. In the midst of it, a man stands up and takes responsibility of paying him complete 10,000 Riyals, or to make part payment of 5,000 Riyals to lesser the burden; then he may in this situation collect zakat money. He may go to people and inform them about the problem, and ask them to contribute. So, it is permissible for him to ask others in such a situation.
And as he () said: "to whom begging is allowed, after which he must stop begging."
He may ask others until he doesn't receives the complete amount for which he took the responsibility. Not that he makes it a source of income, instead of 5,000 or 10,000 he begins to collect 25,000! Rather, once he receives the amount needed, it will become impermissible for him to beg.

  • 2. A man whose property was destroyed by calamity:

وَرَجُلٌ أَصَابَتْهُ جَائِحَةٌ, اِجْتَاحَتْ مَالَه

This man will beg for his minimum requirements like food, shelter etc, not to regain his wealth and property through charity.

  • 3. A man who has been smitten by poverty:

وَرَجُلٌ أَصَابَتْهُ فَاقَةٌ

A man who was wealthy, but due to some reason his financial status has gone so low that he is starving, day and night. And since he was financially well before, three people should clarify the genuineness of his claim to other people. Because people knew him as a well - off man, and see his clothes to be fine, they would doubt him if he would go alone. But if three people honestly explain his situation that his property got burnt, or lossed all his contracts, or became bankrupt, etc., then, he may continue begging until he gets a genuine source of living.

Then, he () told Qabisah:

"Other than these cases, O Qabisah, it is considered as taking suht (unlawful or haram earnings), and the person receiving it (this Zakah) will be consuming forbidden (unlawful) holdings.”

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)

43. Accepting or rejecting money from the rulers:

وَعَنْ سَالِمِ بْنِ عَبْدِ اَللَّهِ بْنِ عُمَرَ, عَنْ أَبِيهِ; { أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-كَانَ يُعْطِي عُمَرَ اَلْعَطَاءَ, فَيَقُولُ: أَعْطِهِ أَفْقَرَ مِنِّي, فَيَقُولُ: "خُذْهُ فَتَمَوَّلْهُ, أَوْ تَصَدَّقْ بِهِ, وَمَا جَاءَكَ مِنْ هَذَا اَلْمَالِ, وَأَنْتَ غَيْرُ مُشْرِفٍ وَلَا سَائِلٍ فَخُذْهُ, وَمَا لَا فَلَا تُتْبِعْهُ نَفْسَكَ".‏ } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ

Salim bin ’Abdullah bin ’Umar narrated on the authority of his father (radiyallahu anh) that the Messenger of Allah () gave 'Umar bin Al-Khattab something (some money), but he said to him, ‘Would you give it to a person, who is more needy than me'? Upon this, the Messenger of Allah () would said, 'Take it. If you are given something from this property, without your having asked for it or being eager to receive it, and if you are not given, do not go and ask for it.” (Related by Muslim)

The muhadditheen (hadith experts) explained that the messenger () was offering him zakat money. The beloved messenger () was the owner of Baitul - maal, and it would include all types of money (zakat, ordinary charity, etc). And so Umar (radiyallahu anh) probably rejected it for this reason. But the messenger () told him that it is not permissible for him to reject it as it is from Wali al Amr ie., himself. Rejecting this money is not included in Wara' and taqwa.

Scholars have explained that if the ruler practices Islam and is known for goodness, then he would give money only for some benefit. And he would not waste it. The beloved messenger () said:

إن رجالا يتخوضون في مال الله بغير حق فلهم النار

"There are such men who are wasting the wealth of Allah (charity) without any right are deserving of Naar (hell - fire)."

If the "Wali al Amr" or "Ameer al Mu'mineen" gives money, then he would give for some benefit. Take it without being avaricious or greedy, and there is no need to ask whether it is zakat money or not.

But this Ameer al Mu'mineen should be ruler of believers who is a true believer. Not that he is a fasiq and a fajir, who wastes the wealth (from bayt al maal) for personal benefits, in which case it is obligatory to avoid it.

When situation began deteriorating (evil rulers came to throne), Imam Ahmad rejected working for the government, or accepting their salaries, or to help them in anyway. And he would denounce those who would work under the govt. and say that they are not from the good ones as they are working under them though those rulers were forcing on others to accept deviant beliefs like "khalq al Qur'an" (creation of Qur'an) and were close to deviants like Ibn Abi Duaad etc.

Thus, we learn that one should accept it if the ruler is a true Ameer ul Mu'mineen. But if it is doubted that while working under the ruler, he may ask you to even oppress others and take their rights, then such jobs is what Imam Ahmad stopped others from.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)

The Book of Fasting       كتاب الصيام

44. Prohibition of fasting on the day of doubt:

Some of the madhaahib encourage fasting on the day of doubt (ie., when one is not sure whether its first of Ramadan or not) just to be on the safe-side. But the messenger () said,

صُومُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ وَأَفْطِرُوا لِرُؤْيَتِهِ

"Observe fast on sighting it (the new moon) and stop (fasting) on sighting it (the new moon)." (Saheeh Muslim)

The beloved messenger () made sighting of hilal (new moon) as the basis. And he () continued,

فَإِنْ غُمِّيَ عَلَيْكُمْ فَأَكْمِلُوا الْعَدَدَ .

"But if the sky is cloudy for you, then complete the number (of thirty for Sha'baan)." If the moon is not clearly visible or not visible due to cloudy season or whatsoever reason on 29th of Sha'baan, then complete the month with 30 days, as lunar months do not exceed 30 days. Then, the next day will be declared the 1st of Ramadan.

In conclusion, the fasting of Ramadan begins only after the sighting the moon. Some madhaahib encourage fasting on the day of doubt though the ahadith clearly contradict it.

عَنْ عَمَّارِ بْنِ يَاسِرٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: { مَنْ صَامَ اَلْيَوْمَ اَلَّذِي يُشَكُّ فِيهِ فَقَدْ عَصَى أَبَا اَلْقَاسِمِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-} وَذَكَرَهُ اَلْبُخَارِيُّ تَعْلِيقًا, وَوَصَلَهُ اَلْخَمْسَةُ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ خُزَيْمَةَ, وَابْنُ حِبَّانَ

Ammar bin Yasir (radiyallahu anhu) narrated, ‘Whoever fasts the day of doubt he has then disobeyed Abu al-Qasim (the Prophet).’ (Related by the five Imams, and Ibn Khuzaimah and Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih)

This is what this great sahabi has to say. Thus, it becomes clear that it is not permissible to fast on the day of doubt, and those madhaahib which encourage fasting are certainly wrong in this issue.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)


45. Prohibition of fasting a day or two prior to Ramadan:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ لَا تَقَدَّمُوا رَمَضَانَ بِصَوْمِ يَوْمٍ وَلَا يَوْمَيْنِ, إِلَّا رَجُلٌ كَانَ يَصُومُ صَوْمًا, فَلْيَصُمْهُ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْه

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anhu) narrated that The Messenger of Allah () said: "None of you should fast a day or two before the (beginning of the) month of Ramadan, unless it is a day on which one is in the habit of fasting (i.e. voluntary fasting that coincides with that day).” (Agreed upon)

However, if someone is in habit of fasting then he may fast. For example, if this day is on Monday and someone habitually fasts every Monday and Thursday, then it is permissible for him. But if he fasts only to be on the safe side, or whatsoever reason, then this is what is prohibited here by the beloved messenger ().

One may ask that if fasting is a good deed, then why is it being prohibited? The command is to be followed. If you begin to fast a day before, then the other would fast two days, and the others three day, and the other would fast four days.. and so on. And it may happen that they may become weak in Ramadan, and they may not be able to fast these obligatory fasts properly. Thus, we can also place this command as a proof of beloved messenger ()'s mercy and love for this ummah.

And there is a narration:

إِذَا انْتَصَفَ شَعْبَانُ فَلا تَصُومُوا

“When Sha’baan is half over, do not fast.” (Tirmidhi and Ibn Majah)

Scholars have differed on this hadith, few act according to it and consider it Saheeh (authentic). Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal said that this hadith is Munkar (odd, rejected), and for this reason what has been narrated in unquestionably authentic hadith that fasting only one or two days prior to Ramadan is prohibited is the hadith to be followed.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)


46. Why don't you sight the moon?

وَعَنِ اِبْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: { تَرَاءَى اَلنَّاسُ اَلْهِلَالَ, فَأَخْبَرْتُ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-أَنِّي رَأَيْتُهُ, فَصَامَ, وَأَمَرَ اَلنَّاسَ بِصِيَامِهِ } رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ حِبَّانَ, وَالْحَاكِمُ

Ibn `Umar (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ‘The people were trying to sight the new moon (of Ramadan.) and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah () that I had seen it, he fasted and commanded people to fast.’ (Related by Abu Dawud, and Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih.)

People should gather together and go to places where moon will be visible easily, and it is important as fasting begins and ends with it. Muslims here (in Saudi Arabia) perform Salah in state build mosques, and they don't arrange for the carpets, nor do they sight the moon! They have left everything on the government. Although, the government here announces to check for the last day of Rajab, and to sight the moon on the 29th, etc. But people do not go nowadays. So, the government now gave the judges the responsibility of moon sighting. I personally know a Qadhi (judge) who leaves on 29th of Rajab or Sha'baan with a group of people. They go with food arrangements and stay for long, and begin to sight as soon as the Sun sets. This should be done by all, and once sighted, they should inform the government. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)

47. Number of witnesses required may differ for different cases:

وَعَنِ اِبْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا قَالَ: { تَرَاءَى اَلنَّاسُ اَلْهِلَالَ, فَأَخْبَرْتُ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-أَنِّي رَأَيْتُهُ, فَصَامَ, وَأَمَرَ اَلنَّاسَ بِصِيَامِهِ } رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اِبْنُ حِبَّانَ, وَالْحَاكِمُ

Ibn ’Umar (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ‘The people were trying to sight the new moon (of Ramadan.) and when I reported to the Messenger of Allah () that I had seen it, he fasted and commanded people to fast.’ (Related by Abu Dawud, and Al-Hakim and Ibn Hibban graded it as Sahih)

If it has to do with the beginning of fasting of Ramadan, then one man is sufficient as a witness if he is known to be a trustworthy man who performs salah and gives zakat. Fasting in this case becomes obligatory on us.  But two men are required for the ending of Ramadan. And this is on the basis of proofs.

This is because the general rule is:

وَاسْتَشْهِدُوا شَهِيدَيْنِ مِن رِّجَالِكُمْ ۖ فَإِن لَّمْ يَكُونَا رَجُلَيْنِ فَرَجُلٌ وَامْرَأَتَانِ مِمَّن تَرْضَوْنَ مِنَ الشُّهَدَاءِ

"And bring to witness two witnesses from among your men. And if there are not two men [available], then a man and two women from those whom you accept as witnesses.." (2:282)

Two men are enough as witnesses, and if not then one man and two women. This is the general law, unless something contrary is proved for a specific case.

But since we have specific proof for beginning of Ramadan, then we accept one man as a witness like how the beloved messenger () accepted Ibn Umar alone as a witness. But two men are required for the beginning of Shawwal (Eid), and this is correct opinion. Furthermore, it is better to be on the safe side unless we end up missing a day of Ramadan.

There are other cases as well like when a righteous and truthful woman tells a married couple that she herself milked both of them (the husband and the wife). The couple could even ask her to take an oath. If she does, then it will be judged that the husband and wife are foster siblings, and it is known that marriage is not permissible for foster siblings. As for what has already happened, then:

عَفَا اللَّهُ عَمَّا سَلَفَ

"Allah has pardoned what is past." (5:95)

Because they were not aware. But now that they know about this, it is not correct to continue this relationship. This single woman's testimony is a sufficient reason for both of them to separate from (ie., divorce) each other.

A companion named Uqbah bin al-Harith married a woman and even had children. Then, a black woman said that she had milked both of them. He got concerned and so, he went to the beloved messenger () and informed him. The messenger () asked him to separate...(and perhaps he pleaded the prophet so) Then the messenger () replied : 

كيف وقد قيل؟ 

How can you continue (being married) when you are foster siblings? (Saheeh al Bukhari, and others)

So again, this is as well an exception to that general rule, as only one woman's testimony will be considered sufficient here. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)

48. Global moon sighting or local sighting:

This is a very important issue with a lot of difference of opinion. Should all Muslims begin fasting together? If the Moon is seen in Makkah, then do people of other lands as well begin to fast? Or if it was seen in Pakistan, or America, or London, or Europe, then should people of Makkah as well fast? 

Few say that people should unite for global moon sighting. But it doesn't seems to be Islamically correct in reality, although this has been mentioned by some earlier scholars as well. And it is understandable to apply this where ever news can be reached using the earlier standards (of transportation and media). If moon has been seen in Makkah, then all the places around Makkah where the news can reach should begin to fast. There was no television nor telephone. If someone from Makkah were to walk to spread the news, how much would he cover? Let's assume 40 km or how much ever be it (by riding a horse). If they say that the people of Madinah should fast if the moon is seen in Makkah (according to the shar'iah of Allah), then we ask them how would the news reach them in that era? The beloved messenger () himself took seven days to travel from Makkah to Madinah. If the travel time is assumed to be seven days, then what will they achieve after seven days of Ramadan have already passed? Should they perform qadha' for the missed day? And how about Eid? 

Look at the other issues as well where you're not trying for 'unity'? Why are you trying to unite only for Eid ul Fitr, Eid ul Adha, and Ramadan only?

Salah is performed in India/Pakistan after two and half hours from the Makkah time, and they pray after five hours in China, and after six hours in other lands; then why is it not said that Muslims all over the Earth should perform Dhuhr salah at such and such time? The beloved messenger () has taught the timing for salah. If you are not trying for this, then what makes you think that unity is only for Ramadan? 

People still talk about this. Few people gathered on stage approximately fifteen years back and their topic was "Tauheed-ul Ahillah" which was held to discuss on implementation of global moon sighting. Many people gathered, ate and drank, and they all left without achieving anything. Yet people are calling to it. Although the proofs from the beloved messenger () and the sahaba who lived after him are contrary to their view.

And Allah said:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ 

"Allah does not charge a soul except [with that within] its capacity." (2:286)
When Allah does not burden anyone beyond their capability, then how would Allah obligate the people of Madinah to fast according to the sighting of Makkah when it was not even possible for the news to reach in that era?

So, what we can conclude is that unity of people for one moon sighting (even using modern techonology) can only be implemented for those whose time difference is only of half an hour or so. For instance, if the moon is visible from the center of a city, but the people of east and west of that city are not able to see, yet they would follow the people in the center.

Imam Muslim narrated a hadith from Ibn `Abbas (radiyallahu anh) that Kurayb came to him in Al-Madinah from the Levant (the region covering Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, and Palestine) at the end of Ramadan and told him he sighted the new moon in the Levant on Friday night and that Mu`awiyah and the people fasted accordingly. Ibn `Abbas said: But we saw it on Saturday night and so we still fast until we sight the new moon or complete the term of thirty days. Kurayb said: Do you not consider the sighting and fasting of Mu`awiyah as enough? Ibn `Abbas said, "No as this is what the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) commanded us to do". 

[Note from Admin: This hadeeth is recorded under some chapter name named as follows by the muhadditheen who compiled their books and by later scholars who inserted the chapter headings in some of these books such as Muslim by nawawi and others.

[Ref: Recorded in Saheeh Muslim, Book of Fasting, Chapter : Each land has its own sighting of the moon, and if they see the crescent in one land, that does not necessarily apply to regions that are far away from it, Book 6, Hadith 2391; Sunan an-Nasa`ee, Book of Fasting, Chapter : The People Of Different Lands Differing In Sighting (The Moon), Vol. 3, Book 22, Hadith 2113; Sunan Abi Dawood, Book of Fasting, chapter : When The Crescent Is Sighted In A Land A Night Before It Is Sighted In Other Lands, Book 13, Hadith 2325; Jaami` at-Tirmidhi, Book of fasting, Chapter: What Has Been Related About: For The People OF Every Land There Is A Sighting, Vol. 2, Book 3, Hadith 693; Saheeh.

This fatwa of Ibn Abbas is also the same opinion followed by Ikrimah the student of Ibn Abbas , Saalim, Naafi and jumhoor among the Muhadditheen have opted for this stance. Imam at-Tirmidhi is also of this opinion.  A point to be noted is that the sahaaba did not differ due to this report and neither was it reported that (unlike today unfortunately) there were two eid’s observed.  This hadeeth also shows us that there is no obedience in disobeying Allah, even if the ruler has a different stance to follow.  End of Admin's note]

It means that Ibn Abbas did not consider his seeing of the moon, had he considered it an obligation to fast together then he would at-least perform qadha'. Today, in this era news can reach everywhere yet unity will only be for places where moon is seen together. These people should fast together, and this is what needs to be discussed. This issue comes up in India sometimes, so what I say is that the astronomers should gather and decide on whether what areas have the same moon timing. If the moon is seen in Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, then will the moon timing be the same for people of Afghanistan? This is what needs to be understood. If the scholars discuss on this, then this is acceptable in shar'iah. But to say that if moon is seen China then people all over should fast, this does seems to correct according to the shar'iah. And they won't be able to implement this, just like how people perform salah seperately according to their local timings. 
And they try to justify using Laylatul- Qadr, that it can't repeat twice. But who told you so? If laylatul- Qadr is on a certain day in Makkah, it could be on the next day in your land. Allah's might is incomparable. He is the one who changes day to night, and night to day, then he can do this as well. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 087)


49. No Kaffarah (atonement) for breaking voluntary fasts:

Another issue is whether it is necessary make up these terminated fasts. Similarly if one is performing a voluntary Salah and the iqamah is called. It is mentioned in the hadith:

سَمِعْتُ عَطَاءَ بْنَ يَسَارٍ، يَقُولُ عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ، عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صلى الله عليه وسلم أَنَّهُ قَالَ ‏ "‏ إِذَا أُقِيمَتِ الصَّلاَةُ فَلاَ صَلاَةَ إِلاَّ الْمَكْتُوبَةُ ‏"‏ ‏.‏
Abu Huraira reported the messenger of Allah () as saying: "When the prayer commences, there is no prayer but the obligatory one." (Muslim)

If you will continue with the voluntary salah while the Iqamah is called, you may even miss the obligatory one. In whatever position you be, bowing or prostrating, just end the salah with salaam, and join the congregation. Now that you intended to pray the voluntary salah, it has become obligatory according to some. They also claim that since you intended to fast and then broke it, you must now make it up. They use a hadith as a proof:

Aisha narrated that she and Hafsa woke up in a state of fasting, and later on the prophet invited them for food. When they said that they're fasting, he said:

  فَقَالَ : " صُومُوا يَوْمًا مَكَانَهُ .

"And fast another day in its place."

But what you need to know is that this hadith is not authentically proved from the beloved messenger. From this we learn that the one who breaks his voluntary salah or a voluntary fast, then it is not obligatory on him to make it up by fasting another day. Few madhaahib consider it obligatory, and the aayah that they use is:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ 

"O you who have believed, obey Allah and obey the Messenger and do not invalidate your deeds." (47:33)

The aayah mentioned not destroying your deeds. So they say that it obligatory (to make it up, so that the deed doesnt get destroyed and invalidated).

However, the correct ruling is that it is not obligatory. Other madhaahib consider is obligatory,  and specifically the hanafi madhab. But this is incorrect [1] And if someone wants to fast, then he may fast another separate voluntary fast to gain reward.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 088)

[Note from Admin: [1] : The hanafi madhab stipulates such a condition based on certain texts and interpretations of some verses and ahadeeth. For e.g Imam tirmidhi in his Jami`,  in Kitab as-siyam put this hadeeth under the title "باب مَنْ رَأَى عَلَيْهِ الْقَضَاءَ |Chapter: (among those scholars) Whoever held the View That Such Person Has To Make It Up; in another place it is labelled as " Chapter: What Has Been Reported About: The Obligation On Him To Make Up" . So on and so forth. A best place to study the reasoning behind the various hanafi views is summarized by imam Abu Ja`far at-tahawi in his sharh ma`ni al-athar.  So as per one opinion of a group of scholars this view of making up/compensating for voluntary fast is not required. End of note from Admin] 

50. Benefits and blessings of Sahoor:

وَعَنْ أَنَسِ بْنِ مَالِكٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ تَسَحَّرُوا فَإِنَّ فِي اَلسَّحُورِ بَرَكَةً } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ .‏
Anas (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said: “Eat the suhur (pre-dawn meal), for there are blessings in this meal.” (Agreed upon)

The word "sahoor" refers to the meal, and "suhoor" refers to the act taking meal prior to the fast.

And "barakah" means multiplication of good and value.

This religion is simple. Allah does not wants to put anyone into difficulty. And thus Allah has encouraged sahoor, and forbid wisaal ie., connecting many fasts together without any break. So, if a man thinks that it is more virtuous to fast without eating (as it entails more hardship), then that is not the case. 

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) said, "Allah's messenger () forbade continuous fasting." (Agreed upon) And in another narration:

عَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ ـ رضى الله عنه ـ أَنَّهُ سَمِعَ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَقُولُ ‏"‏ لاَ تُوَاصِلُوا، فَأَيُّكُمْ إِذَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يُوَاصِلَ فَلْيُوَاصِلْ حَتَّى السَّحَرِ ‏"‏‏.‏

'Narrated Abu Sa`id:

That he had heard the Prophet () saying, "Do not fast continuously (practice Al-Wisal), and if you intend to lengthen your fast, then carry it on only till the Suhur (before the following dawn)." 

Meaning if some really wants, then the maximum he can he have a sahoor, and fast until the time of next sahoor (ie., he may fast from fajr until fajr). But if someone wants to fast for two days or so, then this is certainly prohibited. Although it has been reported from some tabieen like Abdullah ibn az-Zubair that he would fast continuously for a few days. But this is strictly prohibited by the beloved messenger ().

On the contrary, there is blessing in sahoor. He will have the energy and strength, and he'll be able to do other daily works, orelse he may begin to feel weak very early.
And, the one who wakes up for sahoor would make many supplications. When he would wale up, he'd say:

الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ الَّذِي أَحْيَانَا بَعْدَ مَا أَمَاتَنَا وَإِلَيْهِ النُّشُورُ 

"Al-hamdu li l-lahi al-ladhi ahyana ba'da ma amatana wa ilaihi-nnushur." 

'Praise be to Allah Who restored unto us life, having caused us to die and unto Him shall be the Resurrection'. (Bukhari)

And he would make a lot of other duas as this is the time when supplication are answered, And Allah descends down and says, ‘Who will call upon Me, that I may answer Him? Who will ask of Me, that I may give him? Who will seek My forgiveness, that I may forgive him?’ (Bukhari and Muslim)

Another benefit is that you could give some food to the poor who came to your doorstep (or lives nearby, or invite your neighbor and friends). And thus, the blessings of sahoor are many.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 088)

51. Breaking the fast with dates has health benefits:

The scholars of medicine like 'allamah Ibn al-Qayyim, who even wrote the book 'Tibb an - Nabawi' (Medicine of the prophet), said that there is a reason for preferring dates. He () had knowledge of religion and health, and shared everything with the ummah that he received from Allah. Any sweet, and specifically the benefits in dates, that first goes into the stomach, is a cure for many diseases. And this is why the beloved messenger () practiced tahneek ie., he would rub the inside of the baby's mouth with some chewed-up date. This even cleans up the stomach of the baby.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 088)


52. The prophet's love for worship of Allah:

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: { نَهَى رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-عَنِ اَلْوِصَالِ, فَقَالَ رَجُلٌ مِنَ اَلْمُسْلِمِينَ: فَإِنَّكَ يَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ تُوَاصِلُ? قَالَ: " وَأَيُّكُمْ مِثْلِي؟ إِنِّي أَبِيتُ يُطْعِمُنِي رَبِّي وَيَسْقِينِي ".‏ فَلَمَّا أَبَوْا أَنْ يَنْتَهُوا عَنِ اَلْوِصَالِ وَاصَلَ بِهِمْ يَوْمًا, ثُمَّ يَوْمًا, ثُمَّ رَأَوُا اَلْهِلَالَ, فَقَالَ: " لَوْ تَأَخَّرَ اَلْهِلَالُ لَزِدْتُكُمْ " كَالْمُنَكِّلِ لَهُمْ حِينَ أَبَوْا أَنْ يَنْتَهُوا } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ.‏

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anhu) narrated, the Messenger of Allah () forbade us from practicing wisal in fasting (i.e. fasting continuously without breaking one’s fast in the evening or eating before the following dawn). So a man said to him, ‘But you practice wisal O Messenger of Allah!’ The Prophet Allah () replied, “Which one of you is like me? I am given food and drink during night by Allah." So when people refused to stop wisal, the Prophet fasted day and night continuously along with them for a day and then another day and then they saw the crescent (of the new month of Shawwal). The Prophet said to them, "If the crescent had not appeared, I would have made you fast for a longer period." That was a lesson (o punishment) for them because they refused to stop (practicing Wisal). (Agreed upon)

The beloved messenger () prohibited wisal ie., connecting one fast with another fast without sahoor (meal before fasting) or iftaar (meal for breaking the fasting). He was a mercy for mankind, as Allah said:

لَقَدْ جَاءَكُمْ رَسُولٌ مِّنْ أَنفُسِكُمْ عَزِيزٌ عَلَيْهِ مَا عَنِتُّمْ حَرِيصٌ عَلَيْكُم بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

"There has certainly come to you a Messenger from among yourselves. Grievous to him is what you suffer; [he is] concerned over you and to the believers is kind and merciful." (9:128)

If the beloved messenger () noted difficulty in something, then he would dislike it for the ummah. Without doubt, there is much difficulty in this. If a man omits meal of any time, he begins to feel the weakness and hunger. So fasting two or three days continuously is not from Allah, and the beloved messenger () prohibited it. 
Someone from the noble sahaba said, "But you fast continuously, O messenger of Allah ()?" This question was valid on the part of that companion. Because Allah said:

لَّقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِّمَن كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ وَذَكَرَ اللَّهَ كَثِيرًا

"There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allah an excellent pattern for anyone whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and [who] remembers Allah often." (33:21)
The beloved messenger () is our leader, role-model, and heroe, so we do whatever he did. That companion meant to say that if he () is doing, then it is a sunnah for us to follow. So, he () replied: 

وَأَيُّكُمْ مِثْلِي؟ إِنِّي أَبِيتُ يُطْعِمُنِي رَبِّي وَيَسْقِينِي 

"Who of you is like me? During the night my rabb gives me food and drink."

What is meant by food and drink? Few people said that he was given food from Jannah. But the correct understanding of it is that he was provided strength by Allah. If he was eating and drinking (as they say), then how will it be called wisaal? It's logically incorrect to think that prophet () would say that he is doing wisaal, yet claiming to eat food from Jannah! He would not eat, rather he was provided physical strength, such that he wouldn't need food for longer time, as the muhaqiqeen (researchers) said. 

And the scholars say that every human has similar feelings. The beloved messenger () would be so busy in dhikr and adhkaar, that he would not feel the need for many essential things like food and drink. Compare it with a man who receives some really very good news, and suddenly forgets his thirst and hunger. We all feel the same. Similarly if a big problem comes up, he doesn't cares about thirst or hunger at all, and works day and night until the problem is solved. So due to the beloved messenger () being busy in Allah's worship and his remembrance, Allah blessed him with such strength that he would not feel the need for food and drink (for longer duration).

When they refused to stop the continuous fasting, he fasted with them for a day and then another then they saw the moon. He then said, "If the moon had not appeared, I would have made you fast more (in this way)." He seemed to want to punish them when they refused to stop. He tried to teach them a lesson, that they are unlike him in strength.
But few used this as a proof to say that it is makrooh (disliked), and not haraam to fast continuously. But had it not been haram, the sahabi would have not said so. The understanding of the sahabi is better, and the beloved messenger () did that only to teach them a lesson. Thus, the ruling for wisaal is that it is haraam for us.
- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 088)

53. Allah is not in need of our fasts:

وَعَنْهُ قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ مَنْ لَمْ يَدَعْ قَوْلَ اَلزُّورِ وَالْعَمَلَ بِهِ, وَالْجَهْلَ, فَلَيْسَ لِلَّهِ حَاجَةٌ فِي أَنْ يَدَعَ طَعَامَهُ وَشَرَابَهُ } رَوَاهُ اَلْبُخَارِيُّ, وَأَبُو دَاوُدَ وَاللَّفْظُ لَه .‏

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anhu) narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said: “Whoever does not give up forged speech and evil actions and does not abandon foolishness, Allah is not in need of his leaving food and drink.” (Related by Al-Bukhari and Abu Dawud, and the wording is from the latter)

Allah ta'aala said:

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُون

"O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become righteous." (2:183)
The purpose of fasting is taqwa. Taqwa means controlling oneself from every act that would take one to Jahannam (hell fire).

This is what is meant by the hadith. If a man does not abandons sinning, then why does he just leaves eating and drinking?!  As the very purpose of fasting is not attained. The purpose of fasting is to train oneself to exercise control this whole month. If he feels angry on his servant, then he should control his anger. Similarly, if he feels like speaking ill, then he must remember this and control himself. Once he'll learn to abide by this for one month, then he'll find it easier to implement this even in other days. But if there's no change, then what is the point? Therefore, it is obligatory to leave wrong acts, or abuses, backbiting, and speaking foolishly as Allah dislikes all this. It is prohibited at all times, but sin may multiply in a state of fasting.

Another issue is, does Allah needs that we leave our eating and drinking?

فَلَيْسَ لِلَّهِ حَاجَةٌ 

"Allah is not in need of..."

This means that Allah does not likes it. 

Allah is not in need of the worship of men! Allah said, "O My servants, if the first and the last of you and the human and the jinn of you were as pious as the most pious heart of anyone among you, it would not add anything to My dominion. O My servants, if the first and the last of you and the human and the jinn of you were as wicked as the most wicked heart of anyone among you it would not decrease anything from My dominion." (Muslim)
So, 'need' means that Allah does not likes or wishes that you leave just eating and drinking without abstaining from sins. So it like saying: "Do what you want!" This is used to show strictness.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 088)


54 Old man should fast if he has the strength:

وَعَنِ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ ‏-رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا‏- قَالَ: { رُخِّصَ لِلشَّيْخِ اَلْكَبِيرِ أَنْ يُفْطِرَ, وَيُطْعِمَ عَنْ كُلِّ يَوْمٍ مِسْكِينًا, وَلَا قَضَاءَ عَلَيْهِ } رَوَاهُ اَلدَّارَقُطْنِيُّ, وَالْحَاكِمُ, وَصَحَّحَاهُ .‏

Ibn ’Abbas (radiyallahu anhu) narrated, ‘An elderly man is permitted to break his fast (in Ramadan), but he must feed a poor person daily, and he does not have to make up for it.’ (Related by Ad-Daraqutni and Al- hakim, who rendered it to be Sahih)

Here Ibn 'Abbas (radiyallahu `anhu) is saying that an old man may not fast, and feeding a poor will be enough for him. 

So, to who does this apply? 

We are well aware about the obligation of fasting on everyone. Allah said: 

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا كُتِبَ عَلَيْكُمُ الصِّيَامُ كَمَا كُتِبَ عَلَى الَّذِينَ مِن قَبْلِكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَتَّقُون

"O you who believe! Observing As-Saum (the fasting) is prescribed for you as it was prescribed for those before you, that you may become righteous." (2:183)
So, if an old man has become temporarily weak, who will recover after sometime, has qadha' on him (ie., he'll make up the fast after recovery).

But Ibn Abbas is talking about an old man who does not has the strength to fast now and probably not even afterwards, then there is no qadha' on him.

It happens that an old man becomes weak temporarily, and gain strength afterwards; there is qadha' on such a person. But there are those who become so weak that he is expected to die without recovery; this person has no qadha'.

There was a man who I knew, he became ill. The doctor said, "It will cost a lot for the operation, and there is no any benefit." So the doctor said this based on his knowledge and experience. Such a person has no qadha'.

And the shaikh, may Allah preserve him, said in (089):

Allah said:

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ 

"Allah burdens not a person beyond his capacity." (2:286)

So, one may ask: Why does he has to feed the poor when he is not even able to fast? 
So the scholars said that although he has become old, he would be able to fast with some difficulty. Since he has the ability in-spite of the difficulty, he should be feeding the poor.
Allah has given him permission not to fast, but he should feed a poor to gain the reward. The same goes for a pregnant woman, or the breast feeding woman. She should feed a poor. But there is a difference of opinion among the scholars whether she should make up the fasts later on or not, in-spite of feeding the poor. The correct opinion is the she must make up her fast, when she is able to, as she has the strength for it.
(088 and 089)

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 088)


55. It is better not to fast while travelling:

وَعَنْ حَمْزَةَ بْنِ عَمْرٍو الْأَسْلَمِيِّ رِضَى اَللَّهُ عَنْهُ; أَنَّهُ قَالَ: { يَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ! أَجِدُ بِي قُوَّةً عَلَى اَلصِّيَامِ فِي اَلسَّفَرِ, فَهَلْ عَلَيَّ جُنَاحٌ؟ فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏- " هِيَ رُخْصَةٌ مِنَ اَللَّهِ, فَمَنْ أَخَذَ بِهَا فَحَسَنٌ, وَمَنْ أَحَبَّ أَنْ يَصُومَ فَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْهِ " } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ

Hamzah bin ’Amr Al-Aslami (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ‘I said to the Messenger of Allah () ‘O Messenger of Allah ()! I find within me the strength to fast while traveling. Would there be any blame upon me if I were to do so?’ The Messenger of Allah () said to him, "It is a concession from Allah. Whoever takes it has done well. Whoever likes to fast, there is no blame upon him." (Related by Muslim)

There is no doubt that Allah has made it easy for us by permitting us to not fast while travelling or in sickness. This person should fast later on when he is not on a travel. However, if a person fasts in-spite of little bit of difficulty, be it while travelling or in sickness, then it is acceptable. 

The noble prophet () said that it is a permission from Allah, so the one acts upon has done well. But there is no sin if he chooses to fast.

From this we learn that it is better not fast. In-fact, there is another narration where Allah's messenger () said: "Allah the Most High likes his concessions to be practiced just like he dislikes the disobedience to him be committed." (Musnad Ahmad)

So, when it is asked as a general question, whether it is better to fast or to not fast while travelling; then the correct opinion is that it is better not to fast. But there will be no sin if he does so. Because many people don't get the chance to fast other than Ramadan, and they end up failing to make up the fasts. If such is the case, then there is no issue if he fasts.

Another point to mention, if he happens to fast while travelling, but later he begins to find it very difficult to fast, then it is obligatory on him to break it. The proof for this is that when he () traveled from Madina to Makkah in the year of Fath (conquest), he and the people fasted. He fasted inspite of difficulties until Usfan (a village), which is around 80 km away from Makkah. The difficulty was less on the first day, then it increased on the second and the third day. Many people got exhausted till they reached Usfan, and they were not able to even take care of their rides. When the beloved messenger () got to know about it, he broke the fast although 'Asr had already passed. But he got to know that few people still continued to fast, so he () strictly said:

"أُولَئِكَ اَلْعُصَاةُ, أُولَئِكَ اَلْعُصَاةُ

"Those are the disobedient ones, those are the disobedient one." (Muslim)

From this we learn that when fasting becomes difficult for someone, then it is obligatory to break the fast. But if there is not much difficulty, then he may complete it, and it is acceptable.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

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56. Kaffârah (atonement) for breaking the obligatory fast:

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: { جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى اَلنَّبِيِّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-فَقَالَ: هَلَكْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ.‏ قَالَ: " وَمَا أَهْلَكَكَ؟ " قَالَ: وَقَعْتُ عَلَى اِمْرَأَتِي فِي رَمَضَانَ، فَقَالَ: " هَلْ تَجِدُ مَا تَعْتِقُ رَقَبَةً؟ " قَالَ: لَا.‏ قَالَ: " فَهَلْ تَسْتَطِيعُ أَنْ تَصُومَ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ؟ " قَالَ: لَا.‏ قَالَ: " فَهَلْ تَجِدُ مَا تُطْعِمُ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِينًا؟ " قَالَ: لَا, ثُمَّ جَلَسَ, فَأُتِي اَلنَّبِيُّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-بِعَرَقٍ فِيهِ تَمْرٌ.‏ فَقَالَ: " تَصَدَّقْ بِهَذَا ", فَقَالَ: أَعَلَى أَفْقَرَ مِنَّا؟ فَمَا بَيْنَ لَابَتَيْهَا أَهْلُ بَيْتٍ أَحْوَجُ إِلَيْهِ مِنَّا, فَضَحِكَ اَلنَّبِيُّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-حَتَّى بَدَتْ أَنْيَابُهُ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: "اذْهَبْ فَأَطْعِمْهُ أَهْلَكَ " } رَوَاهُ اَلسَّبْعَةُ, وَاللَّفْظُ لِمُسْلِمٍ

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anhu) narrated: A man came to the Messenger of Allah () and said, “l am ruined O Messenger of Allah ()!" The Messenger of Allah () asked him, “What has ruined you?" The man replied, ‘I had intercourse with my wife during the day in Ramadan (while fasting)’ The Prophet said to him, "Are you able to free a slave?" The man said, ‘No.’ The Prophet said, "Can you fast for two consecutive months?" He said, ‘No.' The Prophet then asked him, "Can you provide food for sixty poor people?" He said, ‘No.’ Then the man sat down. A basket of dates was brought to the Prophet and he said to the man, “Give this as Sadaqah (voluntary charity)” The man said, ‘To someone who is poorer than us?!’ There is no one in this city (Al-Madinah) who is in need of these dates more than us!’ The Prophet laughed until his molar teeth could be seen and said to the man, “Go and feed your family with these dates.” (Related by the seven Imams and the wording is from Muslim) 

This means that this is the order to be followed. If someone is able, then he should free a slave. 'Raqabah' refers to both male or female slave. But the slave must be a Muslim. 

Because the beloved messenger () said:

"ولا يأكل طعامك إلا تقي."

"Do not let anyone eat your food but one who is pious.” (Tirmidhi)

Meaning that it is better to feed a righteous man rather than fasiq (disobedient), fajir (open sinner) or a kafir (non Muslim). So, one must free a Muslim slave only.

I am emphasizing on this because some of the madhaahib say that it does not matter whether the slave is a Muslim or a kafir, and they say because the prophet () said "raqabah" (slave) without placing the condition of him/her being a Muslim. But Allah stated in the Qur'an the compensation for killing:

فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ 

"He must set free a believing slave." (4:92)

This was also revealed for Az-Zihaar ie., when a Muslim swears that his wife's back is like his mother. (Tafseer of Qur'an by Qur'an is the best tafseer), and so this ruling of freeing a Muslim slave applies in general, and here as well.

We learn that if someone breaks an obligatory fast of Ramadan, then this kaffarah is obligatory on him with the following order: 

1) He should free a slave, if he is able to. 
2) If not, he should fast for two consecutive months. 
3) And if not that, then he must feed sixty poor people.

Some of the fuqaha' have changed the arrangement according to the maslahah (benefits). It has been narrated that Haroon ar-Rasheed asked Imam Abu Yusuf (rahimahullah), the student of Imam Abu Hanifa (rahimahullah), so he answered that he should fast two consecutive months as a kaffârah. So Haroon said, "but Allah's messenger () asked to free a slave if one is able to. So he replied, "If you were told to free a slave, you would break your fast every other day as you have the ability to free ten slaves everyday! And so, you'll have to fast two consecutive months as kaffârah."

This fatwa (verdict) was given by him. Kaffârah refers to atonement of sins. This is sort of a punishment. But for a wealthy individual, it is very easy to free a slave. So, such a man should fast two consecutive months, and this is the correct fatwa. 

However others said, since the arrangement is from Allah, and he gave it without differentiating the ruling on a rich and a poor, then the ruling will be the same for all. They mean that even the rich one must free a slave.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

57. The time for fasting begins at fajr, not before it:

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ وَأُمِّ سَلَمَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا { أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-كَانَ يُصْبِحُ جُنُبًا مِنْ جِمَاعٍ, ثُمَّ يَغْتَسِلُ وَيَصُومُ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ  .‏ 
زَادَ مُسْلِمٌ فِي حَدِيثِ أُمِّ سَلَمَةَ: [ وَ ] لَا يَقْضِي

'A’isha and Umm Salamah (radiyallahu anhum) narrated: The Messenger of Allah () would rise in the morning (when it is already Fajr time) while he was Junub (in a state of major ritual impurity due to intercourse) on a day in Ramadan. He would then perform Ghusl and fast. Agreed upon. In the narration of Muslim on the authority of Umm Salamah, ‘And he would not make up for it (that day).’

This narration is brief. Another narration mentions that it would be fajr, but he would have not yet taken a ghusl (bath). The time for fasting begins at the appearance of dawn, ie., when fajr azan is given. This means that he spent some time of his fast in the state of Janaabah (impurity). Because Allah ta'aala has stated:

وَكُلُوا وَاشْرَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَتَبَيَّنَ لَكُمُ الْخَيْطُ الْأَبْيَضُ مِنَ الْخَيْطِ الْأَسْوَدِ مِنَ الْفَجْرِ ۖ 

"And eat and drink until the white thread of dawn becomes distinct to you from the black thread [of night]." (2:187)

Allah has permitted eating, drinking and sexual intercourse until the appearance of dawn, and thus the time after this is the time of fasting.

And you are not commanded to leave everything and to take a ghusl (bath) prior to fajr itself! It entails that, for instance, if fajr is at 5:20 AM, then it is permissible to eat, drink and intercourse up-to the last minute. Once you are into the state of fasting, you'll take a bath (minimum before performing salah).

And you being in the state of Janaabah will not effect your fast (negatively), as the messenger () himself used to do this. He was the most virtuous of men, so he () could have done the most virtuous thing. But he did so to make it a proof for his ummah. And so, he () would take a ghusl after fajr (appearence of dawn). 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

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58. Fasting of 'Arafah (and other good deeds) may expiate major sins as well:

عَنْ أَبِي قَتَادَةَ اَلْأَنْصَارِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- { أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-سُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ عَرَفَةَ.‏ قَالَ: " يُكَفِّرُ اَلسَّنَةَ اَلْمَاضِيَةَ وَالْبَاقِيَةَ ", وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صِيَامِ يَوْمِ عَاشُورَاءَ.‏ قَالَ: " يُكَفِّرُ اَلسَّنَةَ اَلْمَاضِيَةَ " وَسُئِلَ عَنْ صَوْمِ يَوْمِ اَلِاثْنَيْنِ, قَالَ: " ذَاكَ يَوْمٌ وُلِدْتُ فِيهِ, وَبُعِثْتُ فِيهِ, أَوْ أُنْزِلَ عَلَيَّ فِيهِ " } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ .‏

Abu Qatadah Al-Ansari (radiyallahu anhu) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah () was asked about fasting on the day of Arafah (the 9th of the month of Dhul Hijjah). He replied, "Fasting on the day of Arafah is an expiation for the preceding year and the following year.” He was also asked about fasting on the day of Ashura (the 10th of the month of Muharram). He replied, “Fasting on the day of Ashura is an expiation for the preceding year.” The Messenger of Allah () was also asked about fasting on Monday, and he replied, "This is the day on which I was born and the day on which I was sent (with the Message of Islam) and the day on which I received revelation." (Related by Muslim)

The day of Arafah refers to time: the nineth of Dhul Hijjah. And Arafaat refers to the land: which is one of the pillars of Hajj.
Subhanallah! How much has Allah favored us, that a man can get his sins of two years expiated by fasting just a day!

But there is a issue: Will the major sins committed by this man be forgiven, or not? 
Few scholars stated that major sins like zina (adultery), theft, etc., will not be forgiven (in general) due to other good deeds, until man seeks forgiveness for them. It means that the sins forgiven for the two years are the minor sins like if he abused, or spoke rudely to someone, etc. These minor sins  will be forgiven, and this is as well a big favor! No doubt about it. 

But it is mentioned in a hadith that the beloved messenger () asked:  "Say, if there were a river at the door of one of you in which he takes a bath five times a day, would any soiling remain on him?" They replied, "No soiling would left on him." He () said:

"‏فذلك مثل الصلوات الخمس، يمحو الله بهن الخطايا‏"‏‏.

 "That is the five (obligatory) Salat (prayers). Allah obliterates all sins as a result of performing them." (Agreed upon, also read sharh of this hadith by Shaikh Abdur Rahman Mubarakpuri in Tuhfatul ahwadhi)

Based on this, are major sins included in this, or just the minor ones? 

Scholars have differed on this. But if a man commits a major sin, forgets about it and thus could not seek forgiveness nor repent for it, then if he keeps doing good deeds, and as some proofs suggest and 'allamah Ibn Taymiyyah as well had the same opinion, that his major sins will be forgiven as well.

But if a man remembers it yet does not seeks forgiveness for it, then it won't be forgiven. 
This needs attention, as Allah said:

رَبَّنَا لَا تُؤَاخِذْنَا إِن نَّسِينَا أَوْ أَخْطَأْنَا ۚ 

"Our Lord! Punish us not if we forget (our previous minor or major sins) or fall into error." (2:286)

Then, shaikh explained that the date and day of Arafah may differ for different lands, as fasting and the date (9th Dhul Hijjah) depends on the local sighting of the moon. Please refer to point 48 for a discussion on global moon sighting and local sighting.

And he also explained that it is better for a hajji to not fast on the day of Arafah as he would find difficulty in performing other main acts of worship, and the prophet () himself did not fast. A person is rewarded even if he does not fasts because of sickness or travel, if he has the habit of fasting generally (as in the famous hadith). However, it is acceptable if he opts to fast in Hajj.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

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59. Issues related to fasts of Shawwâl:

وَعَنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ اَلْأَنْصَارِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { مَنْ صَامَ رَمَضَانَ, ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَهُ سِتًّا مِنْ شَوَّالٍ كَانَ كَصِيَامِ اَلدَّهْرِ } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ .‏

Abu Ayyub Al-Ansari (radiyallahu anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah () said: "Whoever fasts during the month of Ramadan and then follows it with six days of Shawwal will be (rewarded) as if he had fasted the entire year." (Related by Muslim)

So, if a man does this every year, then it would be as if he fasted all his life. Another aayah explains this:

‏ مَنْ جَاءَ بِالْحَسَنَةِ فَلَهُ عَشْرُ أَمْثَالِهَا ‏

"Whoever comes with a good, then he shall have ten the like thereof." (6:160)
Therefore, if we multiply 36 with 10, it makes 360, a number which equals the days of an Islamic year. And so, fasting these 36 days every year would mean fasting all life. 
Man readily remains hungry day and night for other reasons, without any worry. But if he were  to fast atleast these six days, then the reward here is so big.

However, there is a issue: Is it necessary to complete this in a continuous order right after Eid?
It is more virtuous if one fasts right after Eid, but it is acceptable if he completes it separately in any days of Shawwâl.

Another issue often asked is: A man travels in Ramadan or becomes sick, due to which he did not fast six days of Ramadan, and now he wants to fast the six days of Shawwâl. Can he fast six days in Shawwâl with the (double) intention of both Ramadan and Shawwâl?
No, the fasts of Ramadan are separate from those of Shawwâl. You have to fast for complete thirty six days to gain the reward of 360 days.

Another issue: Is it necessary to complete the missed obligatory Ramadan fasts before fasting the voluntary fasts, or can he instead fast the six days of Shawwâl? 
Few scholars said that if he doesn't completes the fasts of Ramadan, it won't be in accordance to the hadith:

صَامَ رَمَضَانَ, ثُمَّ أَتْبَعَهُ سِتًّا مِنْ شَوَّال

"He who fasts Ramadan, and then follows it with six days of Shawwâl." So, (apparently) one must complete the obligatory fasts prior to the voluntary ones.

But there is an authentic narration of Aisha (radiyallahu anha) that she would have missed her fasts of Ramadan and would make them up in Sha'baan (a month before Ramadan). Now you think, it is very obvious that his wives fasted with him (), be it a Monday, Thursday, or Muharram etc. It means that it is not neccessary to complete the obligatory fasts to keep the voluntary ones. The fasts of Shawwâl must be in Shawwâl itself, and if this month passes then you missed the virtue. But as for Ramadan, you may make them up anytime of the year afterwards.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

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61. Fast a day for the sake of Allah:

َعَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ اَلْخُدْرِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ مَا مِنْ عَبْدٍ يَصُومُ يَوْمًا فِي سَبِيلِ اَللَّهِ إِلَّا

بَاعَدَ اَللَّهُ بِذَلِكَ اَلْيَوْمِ عَنْ وَجْهِهِ اَلنَّارَ سَبْعِينَ خَرِيفًا } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ, وَاللَّفْظُ لِمُسْلِمٍ

Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (radiyallahu anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah () said:
“No servant (of Allah) fasts on a day fi sabeel-illah except that Allah pushes the Hellfire seventy years further away from his face, due to fasting on this day.” (Agreed upon and the wording is from Muslim)

What is meant by 'fi sabeel-illah'? In general, the statement 'Fi sabeel-illah' (generally) refers to Jihad (battlefield). If a man leaves for Jihad, which is a chance for gaining the biggest reward, and he fasts there while engaged in Jihad, then Allah will place Jahannam (hell-fire) at a distance of seventy years from his face. What a great virtue!

Other scholars have said the phrase 'Fi sabeel-illah' here means 'li wajh-illah' (for Allah's pleasure). Be the fasting man/woman in his house or engaged in Jihad, he'll be rewarded with this.

The opinion that it refers to only Jihad is doubted, as Jihad is generally done in a state of travel. And it is more virtuous to not fast while travelling. So we learn that the correct understanding is that 'fi sabeel-illah' refers to 'li wajh-illah'. If a man/woman fasts for Allah's pleasure alone, be it in his own house, insha'allah, Allah would place him/her seventy years away from Jahannam. This is the correct opinion.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

62. Voluntary acts are performed according to one's ability:

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: { كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-يَصُومُ حَتَّى نَقُولَ لَا يُفْطِرُ, وَيُفْطِرُ حَتَّى نَقُولَ لَا يَصُومُ, وَمَا رَأَيْتُ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-اِسْتَكْمَلَ صِيَامَ شَهْرٍ قَطُّ إِلَّا رَمَضَانَ, وَمَا رَأَيْتُهُ فِي شَهْرٍ أَكْثَرَ مِنْهُ صِيَامًا فِي شَعْبَانَ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ، وَاللَّفْظُ لِمُسْلِمٍ.

'A’isha (radiyallahu anha) narrated, ‘The Messenger of Allah () used to fast until one would say, he never breaks his fast (i.e. he never stops fasting), and he would abandon fasting (at other times) until one would say that he never fasts. And I never saw the Messenger of Allah () fast for a complete month except for the month of Ramadan, and I never saw him fast in a month more than he did in the month of Sha’ban.” (Agreed upon and the wording is from Muslim)

Although, he would fast a lot in many months including Dhul Hijjah, Sha'baan etc., it was never as much as in Ramadan (i.e., all the days).

You may be confused about what is mentioned in this hadith:

"وَأَنَّ أَحَبَّ الأَعْمَالِ أَدْوَمُهَا إِلَى اللَّهِ، وَإِنْ قَلَّ ‏"‏

"And that the most beloved deed to Allah is the most regular and constant even if it were little." (Bukhari)

This means that if you're fasting on Monday and Thursday, then it is better to keep every week. Not that you keep a week, then leave it.

But look at this act of the beloved messenger () that he would fast to such an extent, that they would think that he would stop fasting. And in some other months, he would go without fasting to an extent that they would think that he would never fast again. This is as well his sunnah, that a man should fast voluntarily in accordance to his personal will and strength only (and not peer pressure, etc). And it does not has to be necessarily regular (although regular is better). This is a voluntary act, so a man should fast according to his situation and ability.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

63. The woman who loves to fast:

وَعَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { لَا يَحِلُّ لِلْمَرْأَةِ أَنْ تَصُومَ وَزَوْجُهَا شَاهِدٌ إِلَّا بِإِذْنِهِ } 

مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ, وَاللَّفْظُ لِلْبُخَارِيِّ.‏

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah () said, "A woman is not to fast (even) for one day while her husband is present except with his permission" (Agreed upon and the wording is from Al-Bukhari)

This is an important hadith explaining the etiquette of Islam, and also tells us about the right of a man. This is about the voluntary fasts i.e., other than the fasts of Ramadan. If a woman has missed her Ramadan fasts, then she does not needs the permission of her husband. It is not permissible for any woman to keep voluntary fasts except if the husband permits if he is present (and it is not required if he is on a travel). And she should inform him when she is going to keep her missed fasts, as it may happen that her husband may (not be able to control and) does something wrong that would invalidate her fast. This is a proof that a husband has rights over his wife. Allah has placed a husband's right over her right to perform voluntary acts of worship.

وَزَادَ أَبُو دَاوُدَ: { غَيْرَ رَمَضَانَ } .‏

Abu Dawud’s version states, “unless it is during Ramadan (then she does not need his permission as it is obligatory fasting).’’

Ramadan is a month that does not requires the permission. Rather, it is obligatory on everyone to fast, and so everyone is aware about it. The same goes for other obligations like Dhuhr salah etc. With that said, if she wants to go to the masjid for performing salah, then because that is not obligatory on her, so husband's right will be placed above. The husband has the right to stop her from going to the masjid, but he should have a reason for it because the messenger of Allah () said:

‏ "‏ لاَ تَمْنَعُوا إِمَاءَ اللَّهِ مَسَاجِدَ اللَّهِ ."‏ ‏

'Do not forbid the female slaves of Allah from (going to) the mosques of Allah.' (Bukhari, Muslim and many others)

But if he has a valid reason like it necessary that she prepares food for the children at that time or such reasons then he may stop her. But he doesn't has right to stop her (completely from going to masajid or) salah itself. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

64. Celeberating the days of Eid, and prohibition of fasting:

وَعَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ اَلْخُدْرِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- { أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-نَهَى عَنْ صِيَامِ يَوْمَيْنِ: يَوْمِ اَلْفِطْرِ وَيَوْمِ اَلنَّحْرِ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ

Abu Sa'id Al-Khudri (radiyallahu anhu) narrated: ‘The Messenger of Allah () has prohibited fasting on two days; the day of Fitr (breaking the fast of Ramadan) and on the day of sacrifice ('Idul Adha).’ (Agreed upon)

If a man were to fast on these days, then it would be counted as a sin. And if someone takes an oath to fast on Eid, then he should fast but on a day other than Eid.

َعَنْ نُبَيْشَةَ اَلْهُذَلِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-{ أَيَّامُ اَلتَّشْرِيقِ أَيَّامُ أَكْلٍ وَشُرْبٍ, وَذِكْرٍ لِلَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ

Nubaishah Al-Hudhali (radiyallahu anhu) narrated: The Messenger of Allah () said:
“The days of Tashrîq (the three days following 'Idul Ad-ha, i.e. 11th , 12th and 13th of Dhul Hijjah) are days of eating, drinking and remembering (dhikr) of Allah, the Most Great and Glorious." (Related by Muslim)

And another narration (of Daraqutni and others) has :


"And to have intimate relations (intercourse)." (sheikh Mukhtar Shinqeeti authenticated it in his Sharh Zâd al Mustaqni').

From this we learn that it is not permissible to fast on these three days, and the days of Eid-ul Fitr and Eid-ul Adha.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

65. Disturbing the society with loudspeakers is not correct:

I was in Delhi recently and a man complained me that people remain awake all night, and play naat (so called 'Islamic- songs') and Qur'an recitations on loudspeakers (in public and accommodation areas). And when its time for sahoor, they try to wake up people.. he was discussing with me, and asked: "Is it correct according to Islam?" I replied, "No!" He inquired, "Why?" I said, "Because this was never done in the era of the beloved  messenger ()."

It is natural for everyone get annoyed by these loudspeakers. There are Hindus, Sikhs and others who want to sleep.. so when did shariah ever permitted us to disturb them?

...And as for Azan, then it is not a disturbance. People sleep at night, and wake up close to the time of fajr. Azan is given in Banaras (Uttar Pradesh), and even Hindus benefit from it. They would wake up and begin their work. And when the government stopped it, their work was also harmed. So, azan does not disturbs anyone. But making noise all night, and playing naat all night, etc is certainly not correct.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089)

66. I'tikaaf (seclusion for worship) in Islam and other religions:

I'tikaaf refers to choosing to stay in a specific place for worship, specifically Masjid. I'tikaaf outside the Masjid is not correct.

Qiyaam of Ramadan refers to performing tahajjud (voluntary prayers) at night. It is more virtuous if performed in Ramadan, and it has separate set of rulings. If a man does not prays tahajjud outside of Ramadan, he should at-least perform it in Ramadan due to its virtues.

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { مَنْ قَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا, غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ

Abu Hurairah narrated that the Messenger of Allah () said:
“Whoever prays during the night in Ramadan out of sincere faith and seeking its reward from Allah, will have all of his previous sins forgiven." (Agreed upon)

There are so many such deeds just due to which Allah has promised forgiveness. Minor sins will certainly be forgiven, and major sins will as well be forgiven if he forgot after committing those major sins.

And I'tikaaf linguistically refers to reserving a place to stay for long for some work. There were people who used to stay and worship their idols, and this is also called I'tikaaf. Allah says:

فَأَتَوْا عَلَىٰ قَوْمٍ يَعْكُفُونَ عَلَىٰ أَصْنَامٍ لَّهُمْ ۚ

"And they came upon a people ya'kuffoon (secluded/devoted) to some of their idols (in worship)." (7:138)

But the shar'ie (legal) meaning is to reserve a place in a masjid for the sake of Allah to spend a specific number of days worshiping and remembering him.

The reality is that every religion teaches, or that it is in human instinct (fitrah) that he seeks seclusion for Allah's worship. Islamic shariah (law/legislation) and shariah of other prophets as well taught this.

We acknowledge that even Christians had something that is called "rahbaaniyyah", they would separate from the people, and spend their time in jungles or they would reserve any other place for complete confinement. Allah has mentioned it:

وَرَهْبَانِيَّةً ابْتَدَعُوهَا مَا كَتَبْنَاهَا عَلَيْهِمْ

"But the rahbaaniyyah (monasticism) which they invented for themselves, We did not prescribe for them.." (57:27)

They would abandon many human needs like marriage, and would cut ties with rest of the world. This is Islamically incorrect. They are the ones who came up with this innovation (bid'ah), and it was never prescribed by Allah.

Similarly, Hindus call it "tapasya", which entails placing oneself to difficulty to please Allah. These are called 'saadhoo' (or tapasvi, English: saint). Some of them have such exercises which help them loose desire for marriage (warmth of sexual intimacy), and they do it all to please Allah. They would as well spend their time in jungles with the animals (or Himalayas or other retreats), living on eating just leaves. Islam has no place for this.

Muslims as well left the specific days, times, and places prescribed for the worship of Allah, and instead took ways similar to what other people before us used to do. This is found specially among the Sufis. 'Sufi' itself is a name that we acknowledge to be something new (or innovated). But the difference between modern-day Sufis and Sufis of the past is like the difference between the heavens and the earth; the modern day Sufis have completely changed the religion itself! There were Sufis who would seclude themselves in huts built in jungles, and would eat whatever others provided them or-else they would live on leaves, and this was the life style that they innovated. Sufis have many such ways.

There was a scholar in Pakistan (in whose name there is a  university as well) who wrote his own father's biography. He wrote about his late father: He was so pious and righteous that he led many years in jungles. He would stay between wild animals, and sometimes when frightened, he would try to concentrate on his heart. This, in his words, would make him spiritually separate from the animals around, and so he wouldn't feel frightened anymore. This is what he wrote about his father. Reading this makes me amazed whether how is it that a man who studied Qur'an, hadith and fiqh is praising something like this, and thereby encouraging others to do it. This has never been in this deen (religion).

The methodology that the beloved messenger () took is the only way permissible for us. Or are you trying to compete with him? Subhanallah! I always mention what the beloved messenger () used to mention in his khutbah or in any special speech:

فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ وَخَيْرُ الْهُدَى هُدَى مُحَمَّدٍ

Surely the best speech is the Book of Allah and the best of all guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. (Sahih Muslim)

Whatever be it, the best lifestyle is the lifestyle of the beloved messenger (), be it as a husband, or a father, or as a friend. His complete seerah (biography) is present in front of us: how he used to sleep, or wake up, what he used to eat, or how he used to fast, and then break his fast etc. Ibn al Qayyim wrote in Zad al ma'aad that his seerah is balanced for living an ordinary life and for a life of worship. This is why Allah said:

وَكَذَٰلِكَ جَعَلْنَاكُمْ أُمَّةً وَسَطًا

"And thus we have made you a justly balanced community." (2:143)

Neither is there anything less nor is there any exaggeration against the will of Allah. It is for tazkiyat-un nafs (purification of the soul) that Allah send his messenger ().

هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ

"He is the one who sent among the unlettered ones a Messenger (Muhammad ()) from among themselves, reciting to them His Verses, purifying them (from the filth of disbelief and polytheism), and teaching them the Book (this Quran, Islamic laws and Islamic jurisprudence) and Al-Hikmah (As-Sunnah: legal ways, orders, acts of worship, etc. of Prophet Muhammad). (62:2)

People were in depths of ignorance. The beloved messenger () purified them by teaching them Qur'an and his sunnah. And the first method of purification is by fulfilling the obligations.

A man went and asked the messenger of Allah () about the (arkaan) pillars of Islam. When he informed about Salah, Zakat, Siyam and Hajj, he asked: "Is there any other obligation on me?" The beloved messenger () replied:

‏"‏لا إلا أن تطوع‏"‏

"No, but whatever you observe voluntarily." ie., additional salah, fasts and charity.

So he said:

والله لا أزيد على هذا ولا أنقص منه

"By Allah, I will neither make any addition to this nor will I decrease anything from it."
The beloved messenger () replied:

‏"‏أفلح إن صدق‏"‏

"He is successful if he proves truthful (to what he is saying)." (Agreed upon)

What I mean to say is that our beloved messenger () has left his sunnah in all things. The method for tahajjud taught by the beloved messenger () to worship Allah in the darkness of night will certainly purify the heart. Reflecting on the fact that Allah descends at this time, how much ever a man be in the depths of luxuries of this world, but gradually - inshallah - his heart will be purified.

This was the method of purification of heart of the beloved messenger (), and seeking any other ways for its purification will go futile. It is for purification of the soul that people came up with new methods. And this became a necessity for those who did not have any guiding book to trust, or any ideal seerah to follow. But beloved messenger()'s each and every thing is preserved. Their Gospel (injeel), Torah, and Vedas are not preserved, and they themselves doubt as to when exactly were their books written. A man named Paul authored their books after Isa (alayhis-salaam), and yet there were further insertions and deductions. But as for us, we have authentic information of every blink of the eye of the beloved messenger (). This is why the beloved messenger () has cautioned already:

فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الْحَدِيثِ كِتَابُ اللَّهِ وَخَيْرُ الْهُدَى هُدَى مُحَمَّدٍ

"Surely the best speech is the Book of Allah and the best of all guidance is the guidance of Muhammad." (Sahih Muslim)

This is the deen (way of life) intended by Allah to be the final deen unlike other deens, which is why they became distorted. A tabi'ee narrated that a Jew asked him, "Why is it that your Qur'an is preserved exactly how it was revealed to your prophet, but ours aren't?" So he replied, "Allah gave you the responsibility of your book:

اسْتُحْفِظُوا مِن كِتَابِ

"To them was entrusted the protection of Allah's book." (5:44)

But as for the Qur'an, Allah took the responsibility on himself:

إِنَّا نَحْنُ نَزَّلْنَا الذِّكْرَ وَإِنَّا لَهُ لَحَافِظُونَ

"Indeed, it is We who sent down the Qur'an and indeed, We will be its guardian." (15:9)

This is why each and every letter is preserved with us, and its explanation in the ahadith is as well preserved. This is why the best speech is the Book of Allah, and the best of all guidance is the guidance of Muhammad. And the worst of all affairs are newly invented things. When you have the best thing, then attempting to come up with new things would mean that you do consider this deen to be incomplete and imperfect (that you're preferring it).

With all due respect for the Sufis, no doubt that they came up with a lot of wrong things. And many who were mulhids (heretics/athiests).. Mansur al Hallaj who Indian poets revere and respect a lot, he was a complete apostate who was permitting every prohibited (haram) thing. The then caliph had him executed. He would say: "The slave is the lord, and the Lord is the slave." He was the one who made the foundation for wahdat-ul wujood among the Muslims. There are Muslims who claim to believe in this, but do not understand its meaning. And there was another man (Ibn Arabi) who said similarly:

العبد رب والرب عبد يا ليت شعري من المكلف

"The slave is the Lord and the Lord is the slave, so I do not know who is mukallaf (i.e, whether who is supposed to follow the Islamic rules and regulations of halal and haram)." This is why he freed himself from these regulations all his life.

Such were things that they innovated, and many from them were (hypocrite) Jews. There was a Hindu pandwa who went to a place in Bihar, in which 75% people were of authentic creed. He falsely claimed to be a Muslim and established himself there, and started a exorcist center specially for women, and deviated them. Later at his death, people came to know that he was a Hindu, neither circumcised nor anything else. And then it was revealed that he was from such and such place. So taking this as a lesson, I am trying to explain that the experts say that many Jews and Christians hid under the name of Sufism to deviate Muslims from the authentic creed.

Whoever turns from the sunnah of the beloved messenger (), be it even if with some good intention, it will be wrong. And those who do it with an evil intention like the hypocrites of the past who would claim Islam and hide their kufr to do their work, then - inshallah - Allah would bring them to account.

What I was trying to say was that the method of tazkiyat-un nafs that the beloved messenger () left for us must be implemented. Continue with dhikr (remembrance) and adhkaar all the time. When you pray, assume that you are seeing Allah.

‏"‏ الإِحْسَانُ أَنْ تَعْبُدَ اللَّهَ كَأَنَّكَ تَرَاهُ، فَإِنْ لَمْ تَكُنْ تَرَاهُ فَإِنَّهُ يَرَاكَ ‏"‏‏

"Ihsaan is to worship Allah as if you see Him, and if you do not achieve this state of devotion, then (take it for granted that) Allah sees you."

To Allah belongs the best of examples, but man stands in front of his dad or grand father in a such a manner that he does nothing that would make them feel unpleasant or bad. This is just a small example. It is certain that Allah is seeing us - but when we will assume that we are as well seeing him.. and compare it with a father seeing his son, no man can do any wrong acknowledging this. This is the method of the noble prophet of purifying the soul. Continue with dhikr and adhkar of morning and evening: Subhanallah, wal-hamdulillah, etc., this is all taught by beloved messenger for tazkiyat-un nafs. Aisha (radiyallahu anha) said:

"كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-يُذْكُرُ اَللَّهَ عَلَى كُلِّ أَحْيَانِهِ "

"Allah’s messenger () used to mention Allah (praise Him) at all times." (Bukhari)

If you're sitting, then know that a Muslim's sitting as well is not wasted. You may read a book if nothing else, and if you're tied (imprisoned) then use your tongue, and if you're tongue is as well tied then remember Allah. Allah says, "If he remembers Me in his heart, I remember him to Myself, and if he remembers me in an assembly, I mention him in an assembly better than his (ie., in a gathering of angels)." (Agreed upon) So, a Muslim spends his day remembering all the time like the beloved messenger . This is the only way of purification of soul acceptable in the sight of Allah. As for those who take other wrong ways, then certainly they're responsible for innovations and have deviated. So what I wanted to say is that abandoning the world for a cave or a jungle and eating leaves there, this creed and this deed is not acceptable in Islam.

The beloved messenger () used to do I'tikaaf in the first, second or third tenth of Ramadan. His I'tikaaf was such that he would sit in the masjid in seclusion from people, although he would join them for congregation and answer their queries, as for the rest of the time he had a tent and put a reed mat (over the door, as in saheeh Muslim) and he would remember Allah sitting in it. First, he did I'tikaaf in the first tenth (of Ramadan), then next Ramadan in the second tenth, and in the latter part of his life his I'tikaaf was in the last tenth. And his wives as well would observe I'tikaaf.

The condition for I'tikaaf is that it should be in a masjid. And it should preferably be in a jami' (Friday mosque), so he would not need to go to some other masjid for performing Jum'ah. It is permissible for him to leave the other worldly issues for ten days for the sake of Allah, up-to an extent that if anyone is sick, he is not supposed to visit him. Exception to this is emergency cases like if his mother or father is about to die, and this is taken from general proofs. But the hadith is explicit that he is not supposed to visit a sick, or attend a funeral. If the funeral is brought to the masjid then he may attend it, but he should not attend if it is outside the masjid. The beloved messenger engaged in I'tikaaf with such restrictions. However, if there is no one to wash or bury the dead, then he may attend it as there is no other option.

So the point is that I'tikaaf is mashroo' legal in Islam, be it for ten days or for more if he wows for it.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 089 end and 90)

67. Performing qiyam at-least in Ramadan, if not in other days:

عَنْ أَبِي هُرَيْرَةَ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- أَنَّ رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { مَنْ قَامَ رَمَضَانَ إِيمَانًا وَاحْتِسَابًا, غُفِرَ لَهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِهِ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ

Abu Hurairah narrated that the messenger of Allah () said:
“Whoever prays during the night in Ramadan out of sincere faith and seeking its reward from Allah, will have all of his previous sins forgiven." (Agreed upon)

I mentioned earlier that most scholars are of the opinion that the sins forgiven are minor sins. But if he has done major sins, then tawbah (repentance) is obligatory. If he remembers those major sins (yet does not seeks repentance), his minor sins will be forgiven but not the major ones. But if he forgets them, then - inshallah - his major sins will as well be forgiven. And this opinion matches the general proofs. So, if a person does a major sin and then forgets it, then Allah will expiate them through these good deeds.

What a virtuous thing this is! And for this reason, we should not have laziness for it. You may perform the qiyaam of Ramadan individually or in congregation. The beloved messenger () performed it individually, in-fact Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyallahu anh) would say that it is better for the one who has memorized the Qur'an to perform it individually. Be it however, the beloved messenger () has shown that congregation is mashroo' (legitimate) by performing it for three days. So, congregation is permissible as well.

No doubt that the sahaba would not leave the congregation behind the beloved messenger (). But after he passed, many would leave the congregations and perform them in their homes. The same tahajjud which is performed at the time of tahajjud (ie., late night) in ordinary days, the beloved messenger () legalized it to be prayed after Isha' salah. If he does not prays directly after Isha', or if the congregation chooses to delay salah to pray late night, then this as well is permissible.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090)

68. Waking up the family for Qiyam in the nights of Ramadan:

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: { كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-إِذَا دَخَلَ اَلْعَشْرُ ‏-أَيْ: اَلْعَشْرُ اَلْأَخِيرُ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ‏- شَدَّ مِئْزَرَهُ, وَأَحْيَا لَيْلَهُ, وَأَيْقَظَ أَهْلَهُ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ ‏ .

'A’isha (radiyallahu anha) narrated, ‘When the last ten days of Ramadan began, the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to tighten his waist belt and used to stay up praying all night, and he would also wake his wives.” (Agreed upon)‏

What is the meaning of " شَدَّ مِئْزَرَهُ" (tighten his belt)? 

Scholars have said that it means that he would not get in sexual contact with his wives while in I'tikaaf. Others have explained that he would prepare himself like how one gets ready by putting on special clothes.

وَأَحْيَا لَيْلَهُ, وَأَيْقَظَ أَهْلَهُ
He would remain wake in its nights, and would awake his family members as well.

This was his sunnah in the last ten nights, that one spends his night worshiping Allah. One may sleep as well in case of necessity. But one must do his best as it will not last for long, rather its just a matter of just few nights. A man remains awake several nights for petty things, so waking up just few nights for the sake of Allah will get easy if he reflects on this. But people do not truly believe in the reward. If it was told that you will receive such amount of money if you go outside this Masjid al haram, you'd definitely go. Similarly, if we are certain that if we do this, we'll receive Allah's rewards in return, then we would certainly compete for this.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090)

69. When he (ﷺ) began his i'tikaaf: 

عَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: { 
أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-كَانَ يَعْتَكِفُ اَلْعَشْرَ اَلْأَوَاخِرَ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ, حَتَّى تَوَفَّاهُ اَللَّهُ, ثُمَّ اعْتَكَفَ أَزْوَاجُهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ

'A’isha (radiyallahu anha) narrated, ’The messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to perform i'tikaf during the last ten days of Ramadan until he died. Then his wives used to perform i'tikaf after his death.’ (Agreed upon)

Other narrations also show the he first engaged in i'tikaaf in the first tenth, then the second tenth, then later he would observe i'tikaaf only in the last tenth until his death. [1]And then his wives did i'tikaaf after his death, and his companions would as well do. This means that the ruling is not mansookh (abrogated). He would do, and his wives after him, but had it been mansookh it would not be permissible to do it.

وَعَنْهَا قَالَتْ: { كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-إِذَا أَرَادَ أَنْ يَعْتَكِفَ صَلَّى اَلْفَجْرَ, ثُمَّ دَخَلَ مُعْتَكَفَهُ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ

’A’isha (radiyallahu anha) narrated, "Whenever the messenger of Allah (ﷺ) intended to make I'tikaf he would pray the morning prayer and then he would enter the place of his i’tikaf (i.e. the place which he had prepared for his i'tikaf inside the mosque)." (Agreed upon)

Fajr of what date? From when does the last tenth begins?

When twenty days of Ramadan are over, then twenty - first Ramadan begins with the night itself. But he would perform Fajr salah on the twenty first, and then enter his place of seclusion (in the masjid).[2]

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090)

[1] And other narrations also show that he observed I'tikaaf in other than Ramadan as well that once he postponed it to the first ten days of Shawwal. [Muslim] The first tenth of Shawwal includes Eid-ul Fitr as well, as mentioned by scholars.

[2] Similarly, it is Sunnah to end the I’tikaaf at Maghrib.

70. The minimum length of time for i’tikaaf 

Is it correct to stay in the masjid from one salah to another salah with the intention of I'tikaaf? For example, if one stays in the masjid from Asr until Maghrib with the intention of I'tikaaf, is this correct?

No, this intention is not correct.

Because this is not called I'tikaaf. And I'tikaaf should be of atleast a day or a night, because less than this is not proved from the beloved messenger (ﷺ).[1] There is a narration of Umar (radiyallahu anh) in Saheeh al Bukhari that he said, "I vowed in the pre-lslamic period of ignorance to stay in Itikaf for one night in Al-Masjid al-Haram." So the beloved messenger (ﷺ) said:

أَوْفِ نَذْرَكَ

"Complete your oath."
[2] So he went and observed i'tikaaf.

Less than one night is not correct. But with that said, this act will be considered waiting for salah. And as the hadith mentions, a slave is as if performing salah until he is waiting for the salah, i.e., he will be rewarded for waiting. But this will not be called i'tikaaf, in the shar'iah. It used to be written in the pillars at the entrance of Masjid an Nabawi to remind people of i'tikaaf:

"نويت سنة الاعتكاف."
So that whenever you enter the masjid, you intend for I'tikaaf. However, this intention is not shar'ie (legitimate).

And I asked the Shaikh, may Allah preserve him, about narrations in the Musannaf Aburrazzaq of ‘Ata ibn Abi Rabah (rahimahullah) and others permitting I’tikaaf for a short period. So the Shaikh told me that if one stays in the Masjid for a period of time, then it will be rewarded. This is because of the proof from authentic ahadith like: Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) reported: The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, “Everyone among you will be deemed to be occupied in Salat (prayer) constantly so long as Salat (the prayer) detains him (from worldly concerns), and nothing prevents him from returning to his family but Salat.” [Al-Bukhari and Muslim].

However, there is no narration from the prophet naming this act of waiting as I'tikaaf, and this is why we choose to abstain from calling this short period as I'tikaaf. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090)

[1] This is because of the well accepted rule:

الأصل في العبادات الحظر أو التوقف
The basis for acts of worship is to not do it unless proved (from Qur’an or Sunnah).

It was narrated from Abu Dharr (radiyallahu anh) that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: “There is nothing by means of which one may draw close to Paradise and move far away from Hell but it has been explained to you." (at-Tabaraani in al-Kabeer)

[2] Scholars also deduced from this narration that fasting is not a condition for I'tikaaf. Had it been a condition, the prophet would have commanded him for that.

And the narration of Saheeh Muslim has the word 'Day' instead of 'Night.' However, Ibn Hajar mentioned in Fath al Bari that ad-Daraqutni considered the narration that mentions ‘Day’ to be shadh (irregular) since most narrations more authentic than this mention ‘Night’ instead of ‘Day’. And when I asked Shaikh Wasiullah about it, he said that he has no doubt that the narrations mentioning ‘night’ are to be followed.

71. What if a man becomes ill, and now he wants to leave the I'tikaaf? 

There is no problem with it. Even if he takes an oath that he will spend last tenth of Ramadan in I'tikaaf, he can leave it at any time. Because this (I'tikaaf) is a sunnah. The same applies for any sunnah: If you're performing sunnah salah, you may leave it for a need. Similarly, if you're observing voluntary fasts then you may leave it if you want in case of hunger or any other need. However, if it is an oath, then you must complete it in other days.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090)

72. I'tikaaf (seclusion) is not acceptable but in a masjid, but leaving it for necessities is permissible: 

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: { إِنْ كَانَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-لَيُدْخِلُ عَلَيَّ رَأْسَهُ ‏-وَهُوَ فِي اَلْمَسْجِدِ‏- فَأُرَجِّلُهُ, وَكَانَ لَا يَدْخُلُ اَلْبَيْتَ إِلَّا لِحَاجَةٍ, إِذَا كَانَ مُعْتَكِفًا } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ, وَاللَّفْظُ لِلْبُخَارِيِّ

’A’isha (radiyallahu anha) narrated, 'The messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to put his head into (my room) while he was in the mosque (performing i'tikaf) and I would comb his hair, while he was in I'tikaf. And he would not enter the house except for some need.” (Agreed upon and the wording is from Al-Bukhari)

An issue to mention here is that mere touch of a woman, or if a man touches a woman and madhiy (urethral discharge or any other discharge) does not occurs, then wudhu (ablution) does not breaks. This is the correct opinion. Touching any woman will not invalidate the wudhu.

أَوْ لَامَسْتُمُ النِّسَاءَ

"Or if you have been in contact with women (then perform ablution)."

Here, it specifically refers to when comes into sexual contact. But touching itself does not invalidates the wudhu. The beloved messenger (ﷺ) would touch even while performing salah (as in the narration of Aisha radiyallahu anha).

The wall of the masjid and his room was the same, as it was his masjid. And the door for his entrance to the masjid was ahead of the first line. This is what is understood from the narrations. When he wanted to get his hair combed, he would place his blessed head to Aisha (radiyallahu anha) while sitting in the masjid itself. She used to be in her room, and would wash and comb his hair.

  • So, the first point is that one may take help from his wife but the only condition is that he must not leave the masjid. He'll leave only for necessities. But one may place the head outside the masjid while he is still in the masjid.

  • Secondly, this also shows that a woman touching the husband, or husband touching his wife does not invalidates wudhu, as there is no mention of the beloved messenger (ﷺ) performing wudhu after this incident.

  • Thirdly, it is all over his seerah (life) that how much ever busy one be in worship, he should not separate completely from the wife and children, as they as well would not want that. So he would keep meeting, but this meeting would not be include sexual relations. And he (ﷺ) asking her to comb his hair could be because she would feel joyous doing so.

  • Fourthly, this also proves that a woman may visit her husband who is in his place of seclusion. Safiyyah (radiyallahu anha) went to visit the place of i'tikaaf of the beloved messenger (ﷺ). And he accompanied her in her return back to her home. Two men were looking at the beloved messenger (ﷺ). When he (ﷺ) saw them, they began to leave that place as in courtesy to him and his wife, but he called them and said:

‘Take it easy. This is (my wife) Safiyyah Bint Huyai’ (so that they don't (mis) think that she's some strange woman). So they said, O Allah's messenger, we cannot doubt you. The beloved messenger (ﷺ) replied, ‘Verily, the Devil flows through the human like the flowing of blood. And I feared lest he put some evil into your hearts.'” (Bukhari, Muslim and others)

From this we not only learn the a woman may visit her husband, but also that a man must clarify the doubts that others have about him. In order to preserve his honor, he should clarify the issue. Because the beloved messenger (ﷺ) thought that what if they begin to think that a strange woman was with him in seclusion. This is why when they said, "We can not doubt you." So the beloved messenger (ﷺ) replied:

" إِنَّ الشَّيْطَانَ يَجْرِي مِنَ ابْنِ آدَمَ مَجْرَى الدَّمِ "

‘Verily, the Devil flows through the human like the flowing of blood."
So, the point is that a woman may visit the place of seclusion as ’A’isha (radiyallahu anha) narrated, 'The messenger of Allah (ﷺ) used to put his head into (my room) while he was in the mosque (performing I'tikaf) and I would comb his hair, while he was in I'tikaf. And he would not enter the house except for some need.” (Bukhari)

A man in I'tikaaf should leave the masjid only for necessities. What is a 'haajah' (necessity)? A type of necessity is sexual relations with wife, but a man in I'tikaaf cannot get into sexual contact as Allah says,

وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ

"And do not have sexual relations with them (your wives) while you are in I'tikaf in the mosques."

So, leaving the masjid for this necessity is not correct. Other than this, it is permissible for necessities like urination or defecation, or to take a bath and change the clothes. He may leave the masjid only if is not possible to do all this in the (boundaries of the) masjid itself.

You acknowledge that he engaged in I'tikaaf in the end of his life in the last tenth of Ramadan. Toilets were not built in the houses until 5th to 6th hijri. Aisha (radiyallahu anha) said that they used to consider it bad to build toilets in the houses, and mentioned that they used to leave their homes for completing their necessities. This is an incident of 5th Hijri, until then there were no toilets in the houses. But later they began building toilets in the houses itself, as narrated by Abdullah ibn Umar that once he went to the roof top of the house his sister Hafsah and found that he was answering the call of nature while facing the qiblah and his back was towards Shâm (the area around modern day Syria). He (was a young boy) and just unexpectedly saw him.

So "haajah" (need) will be explained here that he would not enter his house except for responding to the call of nature in terms of urination or defecation, or to take a bath. And food used to brought to him, as is mentioned in the narrations. From this we learn that whatever need can be fulfilled in the masjid, he must fulfill it there itself and he should not leave it. But if there is necessity (the word 'haajah' is used), like if no one is able to bring food from home so he may eat outside but not occupy himself with unnecessary things and return back to his place of seclusion.

Some of them have mentioned this as well, like there is a shaikh may Allah bless in his age, a very good da'ee in Jeddah - Shaikh Muhammad ibn Abdul Wahhab Al Banna. He could not leave his job, so he would go for his work in Jeddah early in the morning and return back here (in masjid al haram, Makkah) by Dhuhr. And he would say,

لَا يُكَلِّفُ اللَّهُ نَفْسًا إِلَّا وُسْعَهَا ۚ

Allah burdens not a person beyond his scope."

When I have ability and time to do this, then why should I waste it. He used to say that this is as well a need, as he had no other option. Thus, such an I'tikaaf may also be done. So the point is that if a man is unable to give all his time then he may give the part of it that he is able to. This type of necessity has as well been made permissible by scholars.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090 and parts from 091)

. Conditions of i'tikaaf, and things that are forbidden on the mu'takif: 

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَاقَالَتْ: { اَلسُّنَّةُ عَلَى اَلْمُعْتَكِفِ أَنْ لَا يَعُودَ مَرِيضًا, وَلَا يَشْهَدَ جِنَازَةً, وَلَا يَمَسَّ امْرَأَةً, وَلَا يُبَاشِرَهَا, وَلَا يَخْرُجَ لِحَاجَةٍ, إِلَّا لِمَا لَا بُدَّ لَهُ مِنْهُ, وَلَا اعْتِكَافَ إِلَّا بِصَوْمٍ وَلَا اعْتِكَافَ إِلَّا فِي مَسْجِدٍ جَامِعٍ } رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَلَا بَأْسَ بِرِجَالِهِ, إِلَّا أَنَّ اَلرَّاجِحَ وَقْفُ آخِرِهِ

’A’isha (radiyallahu anha) narrated, ‘It is Sunnah for the one performing I'tikaf not to visit the sick, attend a funeral, or touch his wife (with sexual desire), nor have sexual intercourse with her. He should also not go out (of the mosque) for anything but for which he has no other option. There is no i'tikaf except in a state of fasting, and there is no i'tikaf except in a congregational mosque.' (Related by Abu Dawud with an acceptable chain of narrators, but the last part (starting from : ‘no I'tikaf is accepted….) is Mawquf (i.e. that which the companion does not connect to the Prophet (ﷺ) or it is her ijtihaad))

This statement is based on the ahadith of the beloved messenger (ﷺ). He never observed I'tikaaf without fasting. But this was what he did, and so the best form of I'tikaaf will be in a state of fasting. Scholars have explained her statement, 'there is no I'tikaf except in a state of fasting' as her personal opinion. Meaning that fasting is not a condition for I'tikaaf. Many say on the basis of this fatwa (verdict) of Aisha (radiyallahu anha) that fasting is obligatory (for a mu'takif). If it is in Ramadan, then one would certainly fast. Yet exceptional cases like of a man who has been asked (by the doctor) not to fast. Can such an individual then observe I'tikaaf? He may observe I'tikaaf without fasting. Furthermore, I'tikaaf is mashroo' (legitimate) in other ordinary days as well, and fasting is not a condition for it. This condition of fasting without I'tikaaf is her own fatwa (from her understanding).

Similarly her statement:

وَلَا اعْتِكَافَ إِلَّا فِي مَسْجِدٍ جَامِعٍ

'And there is no i'tikaf except in a congregational mosque.'

This has also been regarded as Aisha (radiyallahu anha)'s verdict. And scholars have stated that it is permissible to stay in any ordinary masjid, and he may leave the masjid for performing Jum'ah. And the correct opinion is that it can be any masjid, as Allah says:

وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ

"While you are in I'tikaf in the masaajid."

I'tikaaf should be in a masjid only, but a Friday masjid is not a condition. But it is afdhal (more virtuous) to observe I'tikaaf only in those masajid where Friday prayers are performed, as he won't need to leave the masjid for performing Jum'ah.

These two are the only points of difference of opinion (among the sahaba and later scholars), rest of them including sexual intercourse or to fondle a woman, or to visit a sick is prohibited. Although those deeds (like visiting a sick, etc) are important, but one must complete the I'tikaaf, as i'tikaaf is better than all that.

وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا; أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ: { لَيْسَ عَلَى اَلْمُعْتَكِفِ صِيَامٌ إِلَّا أَنْ يَجْعَلَهُ عَلَى نَفْسِهِ } رَوَاهُ اَلدَّارَقُطْنِيُّ وَالْحَاكِمُ, وَالرَّاجِحُ وَقْفُهُ أَيْضًا

Ibn ’Abbas (Radiyallahu anh) narrated that the messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said: "The one who is performing I'tikaf does not has to fast unless he obliges himself to do so.” (Related by Ad-Daraqutni and al-Hakim, and it is as well Mawquf)

This narration says in contrary to the last narration (of Aisha). But this narration is not authentic in terms of its isnaad (chain). Had this narration been authentic, there would be no difference of opinion. The one who is observes I'tikaf does not has to fast unless he obliges himself to do so i.e., if he takes an oath to do so. Similar to how fulfilling any other oath is obligatory, this oath will also become obligatory.

But attributing it to the beloved messenger (ﷺ) is incorrect. Rather, this was Ibn abbas's own fatwa, just like the last fatwa of Aisha that I'tikaaf is not correct except in a Friday masjid. Similarly, this is Abdullah ibn abbas (radiyallahu anh)'s fatwa because he noticed that the beloved messenger (ﷺ) did not put fasting a condition for I'tikaaf. Just because the beloved messenger (ﷺ) did not happen to observe I'tikaf without fasting does not mean that its a condition. This is the fatwa of Abdullah ibn Abbas, and many act according to it. But when it is not proved from the hadith of the beloved messenger (ﷺ), it is not correct to obligate it. And until it is not proved that the beloved messenger (ﷺ) gave a command for fasting in I'tikaaf, it won't be considered a condition.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090 and parts from 091)

And I asked sheikh that few people say that if fasting is not a condition for I'tikaaf as there is no explicit statement of messenger making it a condition, then can we also say that I'tikaaf may be done outside a masjid as well?

So the sheikh said:
How is it not a shart (condition)? Allah has clearly stated:

وَلَا تُبَاشِرُوهُنَّ وَأَنتُمْ عَاكِفُونَ فِي الْمَسَاجِدِ ۗ

“And do not have relations with them as long as you are staying for worship in the mosques.”

And the messenger had his home just together with the masjid. If he wanted, he and his wives could have observed I'tikaaf in the room itself. But rather, they would specially make tents for I'tikaaf in the masjid. Thus, no scholar of sunnah would say any such thing.

74. Status of I'tikaaf in other than the three sacred Masâjid: 

َعَنْ أَبِي سَعِيدٍ اَلْخُدْرِيِّ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-: { لَا تُشَدُّ اَلرِّحَالُ إِلَّا إِلَى ثَلَاثَةِ مَسَاجِدَ: اَلْمَسْجِدِ اَلْحَرَامِ, وَمَسْجِدِي هَذَا, وَالْمَسْجِدِ اَلْأَقْصَى } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ .‏

Abu Sa 'id AI-Khudri (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said:

“One should not undertake journeys except to three mosques: al-Masque al-Haram (in Makkah), the Aqsa mosque, or this mosque (in Madinah)." (Agreed upon)

If someone travels (i.e., a very long distance) to a Jami' (friday mosque) with the intention that the reward will be more there is not permissible. But if someone happens to be there for anyother reason (like a business trip, etc) then it is permissible. But travelling purposefully for it will not be permissible.

From this we also deduce that travelling to visit a grave is not permissible. But if a person happens to travel for some other reason, it is mashroo' (legitimate/permissible) to visit a grave (or a graveyard). Scholars have agreed that it is prohibited, and their deduction is from this very hadith. When it is not permissible to travel to any other masjid, then how about travelling to a grave? It is not allowed to travel even if it is with a correct intention of going an praying for them. Because this type of reverence may lead to exaggeration in revering them, and this is exactly what deviated the other nations. This is why the beloved messenger has completely prohibited traveling to the graves.

But if we look at the situation of Muslims, travelling to graves has been made easier (and promoted) by many governments. This should never happen in a Muslim country. If a kafir does it for kuffar then it is something different, but a Muslim's etiquette with a grave is just this that he does not sits on it, nor urinates or defecates on it. Its etiquette are only what is taught by the beloved messenger. Neither should one build a building over it, nor should it be surrounded by walls, nor anything else that has been prohibited by beloved messenger. He even prohibited cementing it, because such a grave may become a reason for deviation of people.

I don't think that people nowadays travel to masajid, like travelling to such and such grand masjid of Lahore, rather they travel to graves! They prepare for the travel with food and drinks and sacrifice chickens there, and others usually steel those sacrificed chickens. How strange this is! May Allah give us all understanding of this deen (religion).

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090)


I asked Shaikh Wasiullah, may Allah preserve him, when I visited Masjid al Harâm in Sha'bân 1437: Is the hadith following hadith authentic:

"لا اعتكاف إلا في المساجد الثلاثة" ؟

Translation: "There is no I`tikaf except in the three Masjids (mosques)."

Yes, the hadith is authentic. But its interpretation is not like that. There is a hadith:

لا ايمان لمن لا عهد له

"The one who does not keep his promises has no faith."

Here as well, it is not complete negation of presence of faith. Similar is this one:

"لا اعتكاف إلا في المساجد الثلاثة"

"There is no I`tikaf except in the three Masjids (mosques)."

So, no I'tikaaf is kaamil (perfect/complete) except in the three masajid. There are few youngsters who take some speeches and stick to it stubbornly. They take what few scholars said that I'tikaaf is not permissible except in Masjid al Haram, Masjid an Nabawi and Masjid al Aqsa. And the hadith, 'There should be no I`tikaf except in the three Masjids (mosques)' is authentic.

The I'tikaaf is not complete or perfect except in the three masajid, as scholars explained. And this explanation is found in a lot of issues like:

لا ايمان لمن لا عهد له

"The one who does not keep his promises has no faith."

لا صلاة لجار المسجد إلا في المسجد

“There is no prayer for a neighbor of the mosque except in the mosque.”
(Al-Salaah wa Hukm Taarikiha)

There are many such (narrations) of this type (i.e., in the same meaning). End quote.

And shaikh was asked: 

Which is the best place on this earth ? Is it Makkah or Madinah ?
Makkah has its virtue, and Madinah has its virtue and the place where the messenger (sallallahu alayhi wa sallam) is buried has its virtues. All the places are virtuous.Salah is best and most virtuous if performed in Makkah.

But which place is most virtuous ? We do not know about this. However, all the places mentioned are very virtuous!

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 010)

Lesson: Don't get into issues or fight about which there is no clear ayah or a narration.

75. Lailat ul Qadr (Night of decree) and its date: 

وَعَنْ اِبْنِ عُمَرَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا: { أَنَّ رِجَالاً مِنْ أَصْحَابِ اَلنَّبِيِّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-أُرُوا لَيْلَةَ اَلْقَدْرِ فِي اَلْمَنَامِ, فِي اَلسَّبْعِ اَلْأَوَاخِرِ, فَقَالَ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-"أَرَى‏ رُؤْيَاكُمْ قَدْ تَوَاطَأَتْ فِي اَلسَّبْعِ اَلْأَوَاخِرِ, فَمَنْ كَانَ مُتَحَرِّيَهَا فَلْيَتَحَرَّهَا فِي اَلسَّبْعِ اَلْأَوَاخِرِ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْهِ

Ibn ’Umar (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ‘Some of the companions of the Prophet were shown in their dreams that the night of Qadr was in the last seven nights of Ramadan. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said to them, “It seems that all of your dreams agree that (the Night of Qadr) is in the last seven nights, and whoever wants to seek that night should do so in the last seven nights (of Ramadan)." (Agreed upon)

The virtues of Lailat-ul qadr (the Night of Decree) is that worship on this night alone is better than a worship of thousand months. Subhanallah! Few narrations have that the beloved messenger (ﷺ) mentioned few from Ahl-al kitaab of the past who worshiped Allah with much sincerity for seventy years. Some of the sahâba then said that they don't even get to live for seventy years, so Allah blessed Muslims with this favor. That he choose a night in the year that if a man were spend it according its etiquette, then it will be regarded as better than the worship of seventy years!

And there is no doubt that this is one of the virtues of the ummah of the beloved messenger (ﷺ), that they (ahlal kitâb) kept worshiping for several years but he made one night better than that. It entails beloved messenger's virtue, and Allah's love for him, and is a proof of virtue of this ummah as well.

Allah says,

إِنَّا أَنزَلْنَاهُ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ

1. Indeed, We sent it (the Qur'an) down during the Night of Decree.

وَمَا أَدْرَاكَ مَا لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ

2. And what can make you know what is the Night of Decree?

لَيْلَةُ الْقَدْرِ خَيْرٌ مِّنْ أَلْفِ شَهْرٍ

3. The Night of Decree is better than a thousand months.

How many years do a thousand months make? Eighty three years (and four months) So, this night is better than worship of eighty three years. But the ummah of Muhammad is today so lazy that we find many of them careless about this night.

This is one night that needs to be searched for in the (last) ten nights. It is not any specific night, and this is the reality. Few narrations mention that it is on the twenty seventh, and its correct explanation is that it may be on that date in that year. But Allah's messenger (ﷺ) said, 'I was informed of (the date of the Night of Qadr) but I was caused to forget it..' (Bukhari)

"تَحَرَّوْا لَيْلَةَ الْقَدْرِ فِي الْعَشْرِ الأَوَاخِرِ مِنْ رَمَضَانَ‏"‏‏.‏

"Look for the Night of Qadr in the last ten nights of the month of Ramadan."
(Bukhari and Muslim)

This means that if you were to worship in those ten nights, then you'll certainly get that night as well. This is similar to what the beloved messenger (ﷺ) has said regarding friday: "There is a time in it at which no Muslin would stand up while praying and asking Allah, who is Great and Glorious, for something but he would give it to him." (Agreed upon) And this issue as well, if you search there are many opinions concerning this time but the (best) conclusion is that if a person occupies himself with dua and adhkâr from morning to evening, then he will get that time. The same is about Lailat-ul qadr that if a man awakes (the last) ten nights for the worship of Allah, he would certainly get it.

But if someone limits it to only twenty second night, or twenty third, or twenty fifth, or to twenty seventh only as is the creed of many of the common masses, then this is not correct. A night from these ten nights may be in a year, and then another night in the next year. For instance, a year on twenty third, another on twenty fifth and so on. Allah has taken the knowledge of this date as the beloved messenger informed.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090 and parts from 091)

76. The sahâba would search for Lailat ul Qadr through the signs: 

وَعَنْ مُعَاوِيَةَ بْنَ أَبِي سُفْيَانَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا, عَنْ اَلنَّبِيِّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-قَالَ فِي لَيْلَةِ الْقَدْرِ: { لَيْلَةُ سَبْعٍ وَعِشْرِينَ } رَوَاهُ أَبُو دَاوُدَ, وَالرَّاجِحُ وَقْفُهُ.‏

وَقَدْ اِخْتُلِفَ فِي تَعْيِينِهَا عَلَى أَرْبَعِينَ قَوْلًا أَوْرَدْتُهَا فِي " فَتْحِ اَلْبَارِي."
Mu'awiyah bin Abi Sufyan (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ’The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said regarding the night of al-Qadr, "It is the 27th night (of Ramadan).’’ (Related by Abu Dawud. And it is Mawqûf ie., the saying of Mu’awiyah and not the Prophet (ﷺ))

[Ibn Hajr said: Forty different sayings were mentioned regarding the exact night of Lailat-ul Qadr and I mentioned them in Fath Al-Bâri.]
Only the experts of a field can inform about the field. The muhaqqiqeen (researchers) said that attributing this to the beloved messenger (ﷺ) is not correct. Or else, there would be no arguments or differences on this topic. This is the personal opinion of Mu'waiyah ibn Abi Sufyan, because certain signs of this night have been mentioned, like when the sun rises it will not be very bright, and morning would be calm with cold wind blowing. So, Mu'awiyah may have guessed through these signs on twenty seventh of that year. But the later narrators of this chain took it from Mu'waiyah (radiyallahu anh) and attributed it to the beloved messenger (ﷺ). The scholars of hadith (like Ibn Hajr) say:

وَالرَّاجِحُ وَقْفُهُ.‏
"And it is Mawqûf" ie., the saying of Mu’awiyah (radiyallahu anh) and not the Prophet (ﷺ).

Very often you come across narrations where a companion narrated from the beloved messenger (ﷺ). And then it is written that it is the opinion of the companion himself, not the statement of the beloved messenger (ﷺ). How do we get to know this?

It happens very often, that a man says something but the listeners add a lot of other different things (while narrating others). Later when a research is made, you find that it was not said by him but was added by the listener himself. The same happens in hadith narrations as well. People attributed things to the prophet (ﷺ) thinking that it must be from him, as was the narration of Aisha. But it was the strength and will of Allah that he placed such scholars that they would check each and every letter and conclude whether it is the statement of the beloved messenger (ﷺ) himself, or someone else.

For instance, in Usool al hadith, there is something called mudraj (interpolation) which refers to addition of words by someone else to the statement of the beloved messenger (ﷺ) may be to explain or clarify the meaning, be it a difficult Arabic word or something else. And similarly, people would attribute statements to the beloved messenger (ﷺ) mis-thinking it to be his statement. And this usually happens by those who came after the sahâba, like the tabi'een and others. So how do the scholars get to know this? This narration must have been narrated by many people from Mu'awiyah, and ten people narrated it as his statement and fatwa, but one but one of them mis-thought, and narrated it as Mu'waiyah attributing it to the beloved messenger (ﷺ). Therefore, there are narrations of a sahâbi narrating something from the beloved messenger (ﷺ), but when tahqeeq (research) is made the conclusion comes that it was the statement of the sahâbi himself.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090 and parts from 091)

77. Explanation of dua on Lailat ul Qadr: 

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: { قُلْتُ يَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ : أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ عَلِمْتُ أَيَّ لَيْلَةٍ لَيْلَةُ اَلْقَدْرِ, مَا أَقُولُ فِيهَا؟ قَالَ: " قُولِي: اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ اَلْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنِّي " } رَوَاهُ اَلْخَمْسَةُ, غَيْرَ أَبِي دَاوُدَ, وَصَحَّحَهُ اَلتِّرْمِذِيُّ, وَالْحَاكِمُ

'A’isha (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ‘I asked the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) ‘O Messenger of Allah (ﷺ), if I know what night the night of Qadr is, what should I say during it?’ He said, “Say: 

Allahumma innaka 'afuwwun, tuhibbul 'afwa, fa'fu anni

"O Allah, You are the Pardoner and You love to pardon, so pardon me."
(Related by the five Imams except for Abu Dawud. At-Tirmidhi and Al-Hakim reported it as Sahih)

She means to ask: "If I get to know which night is Lailat-ul Qadr, what "If I get to know which night is Lailat-ul Qadr, i.e., I look for it (using the signs), then what should I say? Note her question (shows that they used to learn the adhkaar (supplications) from the messenger (ﷺ) only, and also that used to look out for the signs of Lailat-ul qadr as they did not know the exact date). So, the beloved messenger (ﷺ) said, 'Say:

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ تُحِبُّ اَلْعَفْوَ فَاعْفُ عَنِّي

"O Allah, You are the Pardoner and You love to pardon, so pardon me."

If a man is forgiven for his sins, then this is the greatest benefit. And it is for this reason that the beloved messenger (ﷺ) used to like to do istigfaar (seek forgiveness) a lot. He himself says, "I ask for my own forgiveness a hundred times a day." (Saheeh Muslim) For this reason, the beloved messenger (ﷺ) preferred that one asks for forgiveness as much as possible.

اَللَّهُمَّ إِنَّكَ عَفُوٌّ

'Afuw means the one who forgives a lot. You are extremely forgiving one.

تُحِبُّ اَلْعَفْو

"You love to pardon."

Allah has mentioned this in the noble Qur'an in many instances:

وَأَنْ تَعْفُوا أَقْرَبُ لِلتَّقْوَى

"And to forego it is nearer to Taqwa (righteousness)."

Allah himself forgives others, and wants us as well to forgive others. Allah said praising his righteous servants:

وَالْعَافِينَ عَنِ النَّاسِ

"Those who are forgiving towards mankind."

And this issue of forgiving others is very important for the islaah (rectification) of the ummah. Small mistakes happen by us at times, and in reality it is absolutely fine (and normal for it to occur). When your own blood-brother says anything wrong, you feel as if it is a very big issue! Bearing a grudge against him just due this small mistake will certainly widen the distance. But I always repeat, few people should gather and solve the issue. This is as well very important. If we leave these two in their situation, their hatred for each other will increase and their friendship will decrease, widening the distance between them. But if people gather and remind them to fear Allah, and remind them that they're children from the same parents, etc., will solve the problem and their hatred for each other will be buried at that very point. Allah considers this act of forgiveness to be very pleasing.

"O Allah, You are the Pardoner and You love to pardon, so pardon me."
Allah himself asks,

هَلْ مِنْ مُسْتَغْفِرٍ يُغْفَرُ لَهُ

"It there any supplicator of forgiveness so that he be forgiven?"

So Allah loves to forgive such people.

فَاعْفُ عَنِّي

"So forgive me."
Keep repeating this, as Aisha (radiyallahu anha) would keep repeating it all night. When anyone would ask for something, she would answer them and after that she would continue again repeating it, as the beloved messenger (ﷺ) had himself taught her.

And another benefit of this dua is as Allah says:

وَلِلَّهِ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ فَادْعُوهُ بِهَا ۖ

"And (all) the Most Beautiful Names belong to Allah, so invoke him by them."

Use Allah's names and attributes to call upon him.

For example, Oh Allah, you are the Most forgiving; or Oh Allah, you are the Bestow-er; or Oh Allah, you are the Malik-ul Mulk (owner of the Kingdom) so bestow me with such and such, etc. If a man were to call upon Allah using his sifaat (attributes) or in this manner, his heart would feel content, and Allah would as well be pleased by this.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090 and parts from 091)

78. Numbers of rak’ahs (units) in Taraaweeh prayer: 

The issue of taraweeh was not mentioned, so brothers may ask concerning it. The reality is that the beloved messenger (ﷺ) did not perform more than eight units. And scholars have said using other general proofs that be it Ramadan or any other month, it is permissible to pray how much ever voluntary rak'ahs (units) you wish. This is permissible, and to add, no one should believe that performing eight units is not permissible, or less than twenty units is not permissible. Rather, if someone believes this then it would be told to him that this belief is innovated thing.

But the correct understanding is that performing eight units is sunnah, and that performing more than that, be it thirteen units or fifteen (or more) is permissible, and thus he may pray more number of rak'ahs. But the one who prays just eight units has performed Qiyam-ul lail in accordance to the sunnah of the beloved messenger (ﷺ), and he will receive the reward for performing Qiyam-ul lail.

This is why those who perform just eight rak'ahs should not be criticized. Rather, these people are reviving the sunnah of the beloved messenger (ﷺ).

And they say that it is not permissible to perform less than twenty rak'ahs, nor more than it. If performing more than eight rak'ahs, which is the sunnah of the beloved messenger (ﷺ), is permissible, then you should permit more than twenty as well (for example, thirty six or forty rak'ahs). This is as well something that does not matches the sunnah of the beloved messenger (ﷺ).

And I have seen that people nickname those who perform eight rak'ahs and make fun of them, although this is the sunnah and it is not proved that he ever performed more than eight rak'ahs (as in the narration of al-Bukhari). However, if someone wants add more rak'ahs with the intention of extra reward, then you may pray even eighty instead of eight.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090)

[Link: ]

The Book of Hajj       كتاب الحج

79. Is my Hajj accepted (Mabroor)?

 Chapter: Virtues of Hajj and those upon whom Hajj (Pilgrimage) is obligatory 

Abu Hurairah (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) said, 'From one Umrah to the next Umrah, whatever sins were committed are forgiven.' This is why the beloved messenger said: 'Perform Hajj and Umrah again and again.' (an-Nasai')

From this we learn the virtue of performing Hajj and Umrah repeatedly. But scholars have differed for a person who lives in Makkah and performs Umrah repeatedly. But if a person is travelling from some other place, then he may reach in 2-4 days, or 10 days, or even a month. So, scholars have said that it is not correct for a person to leave Makkah repeatedly for Umrah. And some people said that performing repeatedly is not good, but this is not the case. If a man stays outside Makkah, he may leave anytime to perform Umrah, even if twice a day. There is no problem. This is the meaning of: 'Perform Hajj and Umrah again and again.'

"And the reward for Hajj Mabrur (the one accepted by Allah) is nothing but Paradise.” Meaning it's reward is Jannah. Allah will certainly grant paradise. This is the promise of Allah from the tongue of the beloved messenger (ﷺ).

But what is meant by 'Hajj Mabroor'? Hajj mabroor has conditions, the first being as for every act: 'The reward of deeds depends upon the intentions.' The intention should be correct that one does is solely because it is an obligation of Allah on us, and that it is one of the five pillars of Islam. Then, be patient to whatever problems come up, and continue with dhikr and supplications.

And the other conditions like: 'Whosoever intends to perform Hajj, then he should not have sexual relations, nor commit sin, nor dispute unjustly (or speak ill) during the Hajj.' [Baqarah 2:197]

If he performs Hajj this way, then his Hajj will be Mabroor, certainly. This is Hajj Mabroor. If it is in accordance to the sunnah, all evils are abandoned, and intention is pure, then it will be accepted.

'And the reward for Hajj Mabrur is nothing but Paradise.'

There shouldn't be any violations. We perform Hajj tens of times, but ask yourself: Which Hajj was performed without any violation? A lot of violations happen. Sometimes, we leave Salah, abuse others as well, etc. Our Hajj is full of all such wrong acts, which causes deficiency, and it becomes doubtful if it would be accepted. But if a man performs Hajj fulfilling all the conditions, then he should be hopeful that Allah would certainly accept. Allah is not an oppressor! But the condition is that you think before taking every step.

We shouldn't make any violations, and our wealth should be pure. This is as well a condition. It is mentioned in the Hadith: “When the pilgrim, who journeys to Hajj, says. ‘Here I am! At your service.” If his wealth is lawful, the reply comes: 'Your call is approved, your wealth is lawful, May Allah forgive you.' But if his wealth is unlawful, it is said: 'Neither is your wealth is lawful, nor is your Hajj accepted, nor will Allah be pleased with you.' [1]

So, wisdom is if a man reminds and checks himself with all what was mentioned and earns lawful. When he will reminds himself that he has to perform Hajj, he will keep his earning lawful from the very beginning, and continue it for life-long.

Believe me, that many people perform Hajj, especially many business men who openly say that they are doubtful... And when some of them are asked to perform Hajj, they say that there is a lot of Haram mixed with Halal, we don't know if it will be accepted. They say this clearly. So, their heart is a full of faith, and is at discomfort that there is a lot of Haram.

So Allah has given the solution as well, that if you have consumed unlawful wealth, and you have not stolen or took someone's right, then if possible, calculate the Haram wealth, separate it, and then live on the Halal wealth rest of the life. So the point is that, if a man reminds himself of Hajj, he will decide from the very beginning to earn lawfully to be able to perform a valid Hajj.

Thus, Hajj would become a reason for earning Halal. Because if a man performs Hajj with Halal - Haram wealth, then he'll never have the satisfaction of Hajj being accepted.

[1] Footnote: The exact narration is as follows:

Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) also reported that the Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him) said: "As soon as a pilgrim sets out for Hajj with a provision earned by lawful means, and puts his (or her) foot in the stirrup (i.e. rides his mount to start the journey) and calls out: 'O Allah! Here I am in response to Your call,' an announcer answers him from Heaven: 'Your call has been answered; how lucky you are: your provision is lawful, your mount is lawful, your Hajj is accepted and it will remove your sins.'

But, if he (or she) sets out with a provision unlawfully gained, and he (or she) puts his (or her) foot in the stirrup and calls out: 'O Allah! Here I am in response to Your call,' an announcer from Heaven answers him (or her) back: 'Your call is not accepted; how unlucky you are: your provision is unlawful, your Hajj is not accepted and it will not remove your sins."

[Al-Mundhri says: This Hadith is reported by At-Tabaraani in his book Al-Awsat]

81. Hajj is the Jihad of women:

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا قَالَتْ: { قُلْتُ: يَا رَسُولَ اَللَّهِ! عَلَى اَلنِّسَاءِ جِهَادٌ ? قَالَ: " نَعَمْ, عَلَيْهِنَّ جِهَادٌ لَا قِتَالَ فِيهِ: اَلْحَجُّ, وَالْعُمْرَةُ " } رَوَاهُ أَحْمَدُ, وَابْنُ مَاجَهْ وَاللَّفْظُ لَهُ, وَإِسْنَادُهُ صَحِيحٌ 1‏ وَأَصْلُهُ فِي اَلصَّحِيحِ 2‏ .‏
A’ishah (radiyallahu anh) narrated, ‘I once asked the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) ‘O Messenger of Allah! Is Jihad incumbent upon women? He replied, “Yes. They have to take part in Jihad in which no fighting takes place, which is: Hajj and 'Umrah." [Related by Ahmad and Ibn Majah and the wording is his. It is reported with a sound chain of narrators]

A’ishah: ‘I once asked the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ):‘O Messenger of Allah! Is Jihad incumbent upon women?’

The general understood meaning of ‘Jihad’ is to take on the weapons and fight the enemy, and defeat them. The purpose is not to just to die in the war. Our aim should be to gain victory over the enemy. This is the purpose of Jihad. The beloved messenger said:

“Whoever dies and did not fight in battle, nor did he have the sincere wish to fight in battle, dies on a branch of hypocrisy.”
 [Saheeh Muslim]

Therefore, this must be the case with every Muslim, as enemies are always out there waiting to attack. The beloved messenger said that enemies will always keep attacking us. And that a time will come when there will be a major battle against the Christians. Much is about to occur, and much has already occurred.

This is why a man must be mentally prepared, and when this will be the case, he'll leave out whenever required. If one feels frightened of it, that he'll die as soon as he enters… he should remind himself that this death will be in the path of Allah. And if he keeps in mind the reward of Shahaadah, then he will never be afraid of death. The enemies described the Muslims as: 'People who love death as much as we love this life.'

So a Muslim must remember that: Say, "Indeed, my prayer, my rites of sacrifice, my living and my dying are for Allah , Lord of the worlds. [6:162]

And when we die on the path of Allah, it is mentioned in the Hadith that Allah forgives the shaheed (martyr) at the very first drop of his blood.

But the issue is that first of all, Muslims are not united. The beloved messenger never fought in times of weakness. If you are weak, then there is a danger of waste of Muslim life. The beloved messenger did not fight in Makkah as they were very less in number and means. But in this era, undoubtedly Muslims do not have any excuse. They must be prepared for it. And if they are not prepared, then it is merely fear, about which the beloved messenger informed.

This is a deficiency among Muslims, although no doubt that enemy wants to chew all the Muslims. They are only looking for chances. This is a very clear matter, and there is no doubt about it. For this reason, we hope that Allah gives us the strength to raise the banner of Jihad.

And Muslims must be prepared. Their homes and their honor could be attacked anytime. As this is going on in the bordering lands, may Allah protect each and every city of Muslims. May Allah protect this house of his (al-haram).

So the point is that Jihad is obligatory on men. And when will it be obligatory? When the leader of the Muslims orders everyone to come out who is +15 years of age and is healthy. So it is required that every Muslim learns the correct way of Jihad. We learn that when the ruler calls out, then it is not permissible for anyone able to perform Jihad to stay back. This is the Truth. This is why one of the virtues of guarding the boundaries is that fire won't touch such a person. The exact words in the hadith are: 'Guarding a day for the sake of Allah.' [And the prophet said:] 'A place in Jannah as small as the whip of your horse is far better than the world and all that it contains.' (Bukhari)

This is why Muslims should be always mentally prepared for Jihad to raise the religion of Allah. May Allah grant this to the ummah. Allah has commanded us to be prepared with whatever possible. Muslims undoubtedly showed deficiency in this. Muslims are disunited, instead of following Allah's command to be prepared.

And no doubt that they want to destroy our deen, our faith and everything. As the beloved messenger had informed that there will come a time when all nations would attack you. They will target us like how people run for food. A companion asked: Will we be less in number? The beloved messenger replied: No, you will be many but weak like the foam of the sea. Another narration mentions: Fear, weakness and love of this world will be in your heart.

This is the reality. But we pray Allah to give us such strength that enemy does not dares to attack our deen and faith. So it is due to such virtues of Jihad that Aisha asked: Is Jihad incumbent upon women?

And I also want to point out that those who kill innocent souls here and there, this is not permissible. Because the beloved messenger asked us to fight only those who fight. But as for children and old people... the prophet sent Abu Bakr and said: Fight for the sake of Allah. But don't kill children or old. And in another narration, he said that you'll find priests worshipping in their places so don't harm them. Look at this side of Islam. Don't harm them, as they did not come out to fight.

Allah has stated in the noble Qur'an that he doesn't stops you from being good to those who are good to you. He only stops you from those who fight against you. So those who do such things in the name of Jihad is actually un-Islamic.

Because innocent people who are not responsible, are killed due to this. Jihad is in a situation where an actual battle goes. But killing one or two - here and there in the market places, and blasting cars of innocent people, etc. These things are not approved by the Shar'iah and that won't be called Jihad.

It is due to such virtues of Jihad that Aisha asked: 'We see Jihad to be best of good deeds. Shouldn't we then fight?' Notice that even women would wish for Jihad. So the beloved messenger said: 'Your Jihad is Hajj.' There is a change in wording here: She said: Is Jihad incumbent upon women (just like men)? He replied, “Yes. They have to take part in Jihad in which no fighting takes place, which is: Hajj and 'Umrah."

Thus, if a woman intends well and performs Hajj, then she will receive the reward of Jihad. So, we learn that Hajj is virtuous for both men and women, but it is equivalent to Jihad for women.

81. 'A prostitue's mind' & Veiling the face is obligatory:

Abdullah ibn abbas narrated: "And al-Fadl started looking at her and she also started looking at him. The prophet (ﷺ) kept on turning al-Fadl’s face to the other side. She said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Allah has prescribed Hajj for His servants, and it has become due on my father who is an old man, who cannot sit stable on his mount. Shall I perform Hajj on his behalf?’ He (ﷺ) replied, “Yes, you may." (Bukhari) This incident took place during the Farewell Pilgrimage of the Prophet (ﷺ).

[Abdullah] lbn ’Abbas (radiyallahu anh) narrated about ‘Al-Fadl Ibn ’Abbas, with regards to Hajj. Both these are brothers, but from different mothers. ‘Al-Fadl Ibn ’Abbas was riding behind the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) If two people are sitting on a mount, the one who sits behind is called 'Radeef'. Fadl, the brother of Abdullah Ibn ’Abbas, accompanied the beloved messenger (ﷺ) specially from Muzdalifah to Jamarah on a camel. And he stoned while he was mount on the camel.

Then a woman from the tribe of Khath‘am came along, and al-Fadl was a young man, so he started looking at her and she also started looking at him. The prophet (ﷺ) kept on turning al-Fadl’s face to the other side. It should not be understood from this hadith that this woman's face was unveiled. She said, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Allah has prescribed..' She is a asking a question. The voice of a woman is enough to make a man turn his face. This is how it goes. So it should not be understood from this hadith that the woman's face was unveiled. Because this occured in 10H year, but the ruling of veil was in full force from 5H year. Women would veil, and cover their faces as well!

To say that her face was unveiled, and this is why he began looking at her, this is wrong because this hadith merely mentions that they both were looking towards each other. As Abdullah ibn Abbas said in the explanation of the aayah: 'And draw veils all over the juyūbihinna.' Jaib (singular of Juyūbihinna) refers to the area of the opening of the cloth from where you insert your head. And another aayah mentions: 'Draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies' [33:59] Abdullah ibn Abbas said that only one eye should be open, and they should walk by looking from one eye. This was Abdullah ibn Abbas's verdict. So if she veiled herself like this, then it is can be known that she was as well looking. Because the eyes are open and visible. So to say that she was unveiled is wrong. That cannot be deduced from this Hadith.

Many people want that Muslim women... and this is a very important issue, and has to do with self-respect and honor that a man takes his daughter outside unveiled. Due to living with wrong people for long would make a man behave like this. But from an Islamic perspective, when a woman goes out she should move with chastity and modesty. And everyone should control their gaze, there are still some risks.

But to say that woman should leave and work openly in the offices with all other men, this is not Islamic in reality. Yea, it is fine if they work in a special women's section, as it is here (in KSA), women teach girls school, And they are the ones who do all the work. So a woman may work in such a place. But to work, side-by-side with men, as is today's culture.. The reality is that Europeans saw that Muslims have preserved the chastity of their women, if we remove this from them, their life will as well become meaningless.

As it is said: 'A prostitute wishes that all women become immoral like her.'

The case is same for those who want our women as well to become 'free', and several attempts are being made. And there have always been people reviving this religion every time it goes down. They know well that they won't sell their religion, if anyone says something wrong the other points the error. By the grace of Allah, this religion is preserved in its original form till today. There have been misguiding people, but there were also those who corrected and guided them, And they will always remain. The beloved messenger said: 'There will always be people from Ummah victorious on truth.' This is a point. And another thing is that they say: 'These people (Muslims) can be deviated and corrupted using women. They keep trying to achieve this. They know that women and children stay in the homes, so they yell and keep chanting: Half of the nation's population is trapped in darkness, and does not come out.

They say: 'Let the women drive! Let the women appear on television.' What is the need for them to appear? They are our women, we will safeguard them (from your filthy eyes)!

But they want the world to become perverted like them. A son does not has any respect for his father. Whatever the case be, a son is not certain whether he is his own father's son! Because women are 'free.'

And a brother had come, maybe he was originally from Kolkata, but stays in America from 20-25 years. He attended the lectures here for ten days, and then spoke out in tears: 'My situation is such that my daughter brings her boy friend to my house in front of me, and spends the night, but I can't say a word!' I told him: 'It is not permissible for you to stay in such a place where you cannot even preserve your religion.' He says that he has no issues with money. I said: 'Okay but you're losing your deen gradually.' So he promised and asked where to go as evil is everywhere, so we advised him that there are better places in comparison.

Go to Pakistan, or even India. Muslims have secured their religion while living in a Hindu nation. But due to being oppressed, they safeguard more. So I told him to go wherever, be it even Bangladesh, it is a land of Muslims. May Allah bring a day when they implement Islam completely. So the point was that they're not sure who their parents are. The men are free and the wives are free. And the daughters are free, and even the husbands are free! They can't stop or restrict anyone on gender relations, so they want the complete world to become like this.

So few people take these doubtful narrations to spread among the Muslims that women would not cover. Even if this woman had not done, what is the teaching of the Qur'an? Allah says: 'O Prophet, tell your wives and your daughters and the women of the believers to draw their cloaks (veils) all over their bodies.' [33:59] It's explanation will be taken from only from the sahaba.

Several incidents show that they would veil: 'Aisha (radiyallahu anha) said that once she had accompanied for some battle, her necklace fell down when she had gone to answer the call of nature. So, she went back to search, and the group left. She was light weighted, she says, so they lifted her howdaj unaware that she is not inside it. She felt asleep. Then Safwaan ibn Al-Muʻattal came, who had seen her before the order of veiling was revealed. She was asleep. This is as well a great blessing from Allah that a person fells asleep at a time of such danger.

She says Safwaan ibn Al-Muʻattal had seen me before the order of veiling was revealed. Meaning that no one saw her after that. No one could see. He saw suddenly and recognized that she is the daughter of Abu Bakr, the wife of the beloved messenger. He said: Inna lillaahi wa inna llayhi raajiʻoon. She says: I woke up when he recited istirjaa' (Inna lillaahi..)

So the point is that she used to cover, and even the average women would cover. But to create doubt that women did not used to cover their face, this is following of desires in vain. So, the beloved messenger turned Fadl's face, and he would do so everytime he looked at her.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 090 and parts from 091)

82. The meeqat are fixed:

عَنِ اِبْنِ عَبَّاسٍ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهُمَا; { أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-وَقَّتَ لِأَهْلِ اَلْمَدِينَةِ: ذَا الْحُلَيْفَةِ, وَلِأَهْلِ اَلشَّامِ: اَلْجُحْفَةَ, وَلِأَهْلِ نَجْدٍ: قَرْنَ اَلْمَنَازِلِ, وَلِأَهْلِ اَلْيَمَنِ: يَلَمْلَمَ, هُنَّ لَهُنَّ وَلِمَنْ أَتَى عَلَيْهِنَّ مِنْ غَيْرِهِنَّ مِمَّنْ أَرَادَ اَلْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ, وَمَنْ كَانَ دُونَ ذَلِكَ فَمِنْ حَيْثُ أَنْشَأَ, حَتَّى أَهْلُ مَكَّةَ مِنْ مَكَّةَ } مُتَّفَقٌ عَلَيْه

Ibn 'Abbas (radiyallahu anh) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) specified for the people of Madinah, Dhul Hulaifah (a place 540 km to the north of Makkah) as meeqat. For those coming from ash-Sham (including Syria, Jordan and Palestine), he specified al-Juhfah (a place 187 km to the north-west of Makkah and close to Rabigh, where they now perform their Ihram). For those coming from Najd, he specified Qran al-Manazil, (a mountain, 94 km to the east of Makkah, overlooking 'Arafah. For those coming from Yemen, he specified Yalamlam (a mountain 54 km to the south of Makkah. These places are for the people (coming from the above specified countries) as well as for others, who pass by them on their way to perform Hajj or ’Umrah. Those living within those boundaries can assume Ihram from where they set out (for the journey), and even the residents of Makkah, their Miqat would be the place where they are staying in Makkah.’ [Agreed upon]

The beloved messenger (ﷺ) classified Dhu hulaifah, which is also called 'Abiyar Ali' today, as the meeqat for the people of Madinah. So, the one coming from Madinah should get into the state of Ihram from Dhul hulaifah. But is it permissible to get into the state of ihram before Dhul Hulaifah, for instance if someone wants to wear Ihram from Madinah or Tabuk, then would that be permissible?

Firstly, we need to understand that Ihram refers to the intention (niyyah), and not the cloth. If a man takes a bath and wears the Ihram cloth, then after reaching intends for Ihram by saying 'Labbaik...', then it is correct. But if someone begins to say 'Labbaik' from his hometown itself, then scholars have permitted although it is in opposition to the sunnah.

وقد سئل الإمام مالك رحمه الله بنحو هذا: جاء إليه رجل فقال له: من أين أحرم ؟ قال: من حيث أحرم رسول الله [ يعني من ذي الحليفة - فقال له: أني أريد أن أحرم من بيتي! يعني من بيته بالمدينة، فقال له مالك: لا تفعل، فإني أخاف عليك الفتنة! فقال: وأي فتنة، وإنما هي أميال أزيدها! فقال له الإمام مالك رحمه الله: وأي فتنة أعظم، من إنك ترى أنك خصصت بفضل، لم يخص به رسول الله

[الاعتصام للامام الشاطبي]

A man went to Imam Malik and asked, 'From where should I get into the state of Ihram?' So, Imam Malik answered: 'Wear it from where the prophet (ﷺ) wore.' So he said, 'I want to wear it from my home (in Madinah).'

Imam Malik replied, 'Don't do so.' So he questioned, 'What is wrong with that, when it is just a matter of few miles?'

Focus on this, and learn to follow the prophet (ﷺ) step by step. We have been commanded to follow the beloved messenger (ﷺ)!

When he questioned Imam Malik whether what is wrong with wearing it few miles before, Imam Malik replied: 'I fear Fitnah to befall upon you.'

What he meant by fitnah is that he may leave the deen and deviate. And Imam Malik then recited the aayah:

فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَن تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ

'And let those who oppose the Messenger's commandment (i.e. his Sunnah legal ways, orders, acts of worship, statements, etc.) beware, lest some Fitnah (disbelief, trials, afflictions, earthquakes, killing, overpowered by a tyrant, etc.) befall them or a painful torment be inflicted on them.' [Nur 24:63]

Therefore, it is better to get into the state of Ihram from the recognized meeqat. You may wear the cloth and get ready before the meeqat, but labbaik must be proclaimed only from meeqat.

Similarly, there are those nowadays who like to wear Ihram and proclaim labbaik from Madinah, from the grave of the beloved messenger (ﷺ). We understand your love for the prophet that you want to get into Ihram from Madinah, but it goes against what the beloved messenger legislated.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 096)


83. The prophet's guidance on Traffic rules and over-speed:

Jabir bin 'Abdullah (radiyallahu anh) narrated in his famous narration describing the Hajj of the prophet: He (ﷺ) pulled the nose string of al-Qaswa’ so forcefully that its head touched the saddle (in order to keep her under perfect control), and pointing with his right hand, advised the people to be moderate (in speed) saying: “O people! Calmness! Calmness!" Whenever he passed over an elevated tract of land, he slightly loosened the nose-string of his camel until she climbed up. This is how he reached al-Muzdalifah. [Saheeh Muslim] This is from the etiquette of traveling. The companions would walk close to the prophet (ﷺ) looking at his actions and speech, to follow and imitate him. The beloved messenger (ﷺ) had pulled the halter so that it moves gently.

No doubt that those who drive cars speedily while the pilgrims are walking (or crossing) commit sins, as they make them frightened. And this is against the sunnah of the beloved messenger (ﷺ) . One should make the people feel the peaceful, so that they cross the road calmly and continue with their supplications.

Many drivers don't find space on the road, so they shift to the walking area which makes the people frightened. All this is wrong.

Other report also has:

فإذا وجد فرجة أسرع

(Majmoo Imam an-Nawawi)

When he would find free space in front of him, he would speed-up. And when there would a lot of traffic, he would ride slowly. Thus, this is as well an important traffic guideline. And if you were to over-speed, you may be caught by the police as well!

Furthermore, pressing the horn unnecessarily to make the people move fast is as well wrong. [1]

[1] Ibn 'Abbas reported:
I accompanied the Prophet (ﷺ) while we were returning from 'Arafat. Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) heard behind him a loud noise of beating and of driving the camels forcibly. He pointed towards it with his whip and said, "O people! Proceed calmly. No virtue lies in rushing." [Agreed upon]

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 096)

84. Is sleeping in Muzdalifah better, or voluntary prayers?

حَتَّى أَتَى اَلْمُزْدَلِفَةَ, فَصَلَّى بِهَا اَلْمَغْرِبَ وَالْعِشَاءَ, بِأَذَانٍ وَاحِدٍ وَإِقَامَتَيْنِ, وَلَمْ يُسَبِّحْ ‏ بَيْنَهُمَا شَيْئًا, ثُمَّ اِضْطَجَعَ حَتَّى طَلَعَ اَلْفَجْرُ, فَصَلَّى اَلْفَجْرَ

Jabir bin 'Abdullah (radiyallahu anh) narrated in his famous narration describing the Hajj of the prophet: This is how he reached al-Muzdalifah. There he led the Maghrib (sunset) and Isha prayers with one Adhan, and two lqamas, and did not pray any optional prayers in between them. The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) then lay down until dawn and then offered the Fajr (dawn) prayer. [Saheeh Muslim]

Even if a man is not sleepy, laying down is better as it gives relief to the body. As for the prophet (ﷺ), he not just laid down, but he slept until fajr.

Student interrupts: So he did not perform tahajjud as well?

Shaikh: There is no mention of him performing tahajjud (night prayers), and probably he did not pray. This is the correct opinion among the scholars, that he did perform tahajjud as well. As for witr, it has been mentioned in a general narration, that he would not omit witr whether in travel or residence, so probably he did not miss Witr. So, if someone performs it following this general narration, then he wouldn't be opposing the Sunnah, insha'Allah.

But there come those who declare the night of Muzdalifah to be better than Lailat-ul Qadr, and say that this night must be spent awake. Notice that one violation comes wih multiple violations.

Once, we happened to counter such people from Jamaat (at-Tableegh), they kept disturbing all night and did not let people sleep.

Note that the sleepers also have rights, as in the teachings of the beloved messenger (ﷺ) :

لا يوقظ نائمًا، ويسمع اليقظان

When he would enter a Masjid, he would greet salaam quitely, as exactly mentioned in the narration: 'The awake would be able to hear and the sleeping ones would not be disturbed.' [Saheeh Muslim]

Never in a loud voice that the sleeping one awakes out of shock!

Such were the manners of the messenger (ﷺ) . But these people do not care about those sleeping, nor do they care about the Sunnah, rather they mention fabricated narrations like the night of Muzdalifah is better than Lailat-ul Qadr as well. And they practice their bid'ah of supplicating together in one voice, etc., which means that they would have to carry these sins! Therefore, the sunnah is to lay down, but if he does not feely sleepy he may quitely do his dhikr and adhkaar (supplications). One may even perform voluntary prayers, as Asmaa' bint Abu Bakr (radiyallahu anha) stood and perfomed it late night.

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh Al Maram 096)

85. A tremendous lesson from Tawaf:

It has been mentioned in the hadith that when the kuffar of Quraish saw the prophet (ﷺ) and his companions coming from Madinah, they expected them to have become very weak and said:

وَقَدْ وَهَنَهُمْ حُمَّى يَثْرِبَ‏.

'The disease of Madinah must have weaken them.' [Bukhari] So they climbed to the mountain to watch their weakness.

Allah informed the beloved messenger (ﷺ) and asked him to practice ramal (walk at a faster pace) in the first three rounds from the black stone (hajr al aswad) till the yemeni corner (rukn al yamani).

Ramal is not legislated in the area which they were not able to view i.e., from the black stone till the yemeni corner; only the three sides (of the Ka'bah), not the fourth one. So to make them see, the beloved messenger (ﷺ) made the companions walk fast. When they saw them walking in strength, they exclaimed:

إن هم إلا كالغزلان

'Their speed is like the deers!' (Sharh araba'een makkiyyah, etc)

Therefore, it is legislated to make a show of your strength to the enemies. Because everytime he will see your weakness, it will naturally motivate him to attack or will atleast look for a chance.

Allah says:

وَأَعِدُّوا لَهُم مَّا اسْتَطَعْتُم
'And prepare against them whatever you are able.' [Anfal 8:60]

This is why before the beloved messenger (ﷺ) gifted his sword to Abu Dujaanah, he enquired: Who will give this sword its rights? So Abu Dujaanah asked: 'O Allah's messenger, what are its rights?'

The beloved messenger (ﷺ) answered, 'It is to fight with it until you become victorious or you are killed.' So Abu Dujanah banded his head with a hard turban and started strutting (walking with pride). When he wore his turban, the companions began to say:

أخرج أبو دجانة عصابة الموت

'Abu Dujaanah has worn a turban of death!'

And watching him strutting, the beloved messenger (ﷺ) said:

إنّ هذه لمشيَة يُبغِضُهَا اللهُ إلا في مثل هذا الموطن.

"This is a sort of walking that Allah detests except in such a situation."

[Narrated in different wordings in Ar-raheeq al Makhtoom, Siyar A'laam, and Sharh Manzoomat-ul al Adaab of Imam Safaarini]

This is why making a display of power to the enemy is not riyaa' (show-off), rather it is a legislated matter on which one will be rewarded!

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh al Maram 097) 


86. Drinking Zamzam after Tawaf is proof that customary acts of the prophet are as well from his sunnah:

A narration mentions that (after Tawaf) he went to Zamzam well and drank from it, then he kissed the black stone (hajrat-ul aswad).

This is as well a sunnah about which people do not know, or omit it inspite of knowing. But one must try follow completely, as the beloved messenger (ﷺ) said:

خذوا عني مناسككم

“Learn from me your rituals (of Hajj).” [Saheeh Muslim]

There is no doubt that drinking Zamzam or kissing the black stone is not from the obligations (waajibaat) or conditions (shuroot) of Tawaaf. But placing the steps where the beloved messenger (ﷺ) placed his steps makes one's worship more virtuous.

So, the beloved messenger (ﷺ) performed two units of Salah at the Yemeni corner, then went for Zamzam and himself took it out from the well and drank it.

We have spent much time here (in Makkah), there was a time when we used to ourselves remove the water from the well at-times, and there was a machine as well which used to be operated by a worker. You had the option of taking it from him, or to take it out yourself. This was in this era.

As for before, the brothers of Ibn Abbas, or the sons of al-Abbas were honored to serve and help others in drinking Zamzam. The beloved messenger (ﷺ) saw them pulling the rope (to draw out the water), so he asked him to give some to him to drink, and said: If I did not fear people making it a sunnah (drawing the water themselves instead of letting al-Abbas' family draw), I would rather draw it out myself and drink the water. (Narrated with a similar wording in saheeh al Bukhari and others) Therefore, if one gets a chance, then pull and take it out yourself to drink. [1]

[1] Footnote:

ثُمَّ أَتَى زَمْزَمَ، وَهُمْ يَسْقُونَ وَيَعْمَلُونَ فِيهَا، فَقَالَ ‏"‏ اعْمَلُوا، فَإِنَّكُمْ عَلَى عَمَلٍ صَالِحٍ ـ ثُمَّ قَالَ ـ لَوْلاَ أَنْ تُغْلَبُوا لَنَزَلْتُ حَتَّى أَضَعَ الْحَبْلَ عَلَى هَذِهِ ‏"‏‏.‏ ـ يَعْنِي عَاتِقَهُ ـ وَأَشَارَ إِلَى عَاتِقِهِ‏.‏

And then he went to the Zamzam (well) and there the people were offering water to the others and working at it (drawing water from the well). The Prophet (ﷺ) then said to them, "Carry on! You are doing a good deed." Then he said, "Were I not afraid that other people would compete with you (in drawing water from Zamzam), I would certainly take the rope and put it over this (i.e. his shoulder) (to draw water)." On saying that the Prophet (ﷺ) pointed to his shoulder. [Saheeh al Bukhari]

The scholars of Usool divided Sunnah into aadah (cutomary actions like walking, eating, etc.) and ibaadah (acts of worship like Salah, dua, etc). Many of them viewed that aadah is not to be followed, and huge bulk of the usooliyyeen went on to say that following the aadah is not rewarded. However, most scholars of Hadith maintain that following the aadah of the prophet is also rewarded. The proof for this is the action of the sahaba, and those ho followed them in guidance. Imam al-Bukhari as well followed the same.

 And recently, shaikh Ali Adam al-Ethioby did an excellent research on this issue in his book of Usool which is the best Ahl-al hadith book of Usool available with its explanation available today on Earth, in my humble opinion. This must be the point of reference for every Salafi today. The book is named 'al Minhatur Radiyyah fi sharh Tuhfatul Mardiyyah' in three volumes. Once a person reads this book, he would have a proper understanding of the authority of Qur'an and its correct interpretation, and authority of Sunnah, Ijmaa' and Qiyaas. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh al Maram 097) 


87. Walking in Hajj better or riding:

Shaikh said while explaining the Hadith of Jabir (radiyallahu anh) on Hajj:

( وركب النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم)

"And the prophet mounted his camel." [Saheeh Muslim]

There is a issue here. Scholars have differed whether riding is better in Hajj or walking. Ibn Abbas (radiyallahu anh) would walk and tell his children: Walk in Hajj, as it is more rewardable.

And the beloved messenger (ﷺ) told Aisha (radiyallahu anha):

إن لك من الأجر على قدر نصبك ونفقتك

“You will have a reward in accordance to your hardship and spending.” (Narrated by al-Haakim and classed as saheeh by al-Albaani)

But Allah does not want that you tire yourself unncecessarily. The beloved messenger (ﷺ) would use the best ways, and this is why he performed Hajj riding. He had the ability to walk, but he was as Allah described:

بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ رَءُوفٌ رَّحِيمٌ

"And to the believers is kind and merciful." (9:128)

Therefore, he legislated that if worship can be done with ease, then that is how it should be done. This is why he rode and did not walk. He had a camel by the grace of Allah, so he rode and this is why riding is better while remembering and supplicating to Allah as much as possible, and this will be a great source of reward. [1]

But some viewed walking for Hajj to be better, and they have been doing so. Some of the muhadditheen as well are reported to perform Hajj several times walking all the way. So, it is fine if one can do so.

[1] Footnote:

But if the person walks all the way, he will not be able to focus on his supplications and adhkaar due to tiresome. 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh al Maram 097) 


88. Ship of the dessert: Don't you look at how the Camels are created? 

Water used to be scarce in Mina and the Arafah, people would let their Camels drink water to their fill so that it be sufficient for few days. Such has Allah created them! It is reported that if the Camels drink to their fill, then it would be sufficient for more than a week even if it doesn't gets any water, provided that food is given. It melts and act as water.

Allah has stated: 

أَفَلَا يَنظُرُونَ إِلَى الْإِبِلِ كَيْفَ خُلِقَتْ
' Do they not look at the camels, how they are created? ' [Ghashiyah 88:17]

Such a long neck, and such legs: Had the legs not been so tall, he would fall due to the pressure of the sandy wind.

Wonderful is Allah's creation! And why is its neck tall? This is to be pondered upon. It is not loaded while it is standing, rather they are made to sit. Once they sit, they are loaded. It is universally agreed that it is difficult for a laying man to stand without raising the upper part of the body. But when the neck is raised, it gets simple to stand. This is why Allah gave it such a tall neck (but had it not have a raised neck, it would be difficult for it to stand with the load on its body).

And had it not been tall, he would find difficulty in eating from (raised and tall) trees.

And the biggest wonder is that when drinking water would become very scarce in the dessert, Allah has given it a mechanism which preserves the water up-to the extent that - subhnallah - it has been reported from the some of the battles of the companions that they let their Camels drink, then slaughter them and eat its meat and drink the soup (broth). 

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh al Maram 097) 


89. Multiple umrah from Tan'eem is not legislated and opposes the Sunnah: 

Al-Bukhari (1215) and Muslim (1211) report from ‘Aishah (radiyallahu anha) that she said: “O Messenger of Allah, you did ‘Umrah and I did not. He said: "O Abdur-Rahman, take your sister and make her perform the ‘Umrah from at-Tan’eem." So he took her on his camel and she performed the ‘Umrah.”

In another narration found in Bukhari and Muslim, the Prophet (may Allah’s peace and blessings be upon him) said to Abdur-Rahman: “Leave the sanctuary with your sister and let her intend ‘Umrah.” 

Aisha (radiyallahu anha) says that she was not yet clean (from menstruation) but 8th began. She could not go even close to the Ka'bah, but she finished the rituals at Mina, Muzdalifah, Arafaat and stoning at the Jamarah. She also completed her Tawaf ifaadah, which was her Tawaaf al Qudoom as well. Then she asked: O Allah's messenger, I could only perform Hajj, and was not able to perform the Umrah that is done prior to Hajj. So what should I do, O Allah's messenger? So the beloved messenger replied: The Tawaf and Sa'i that you have done is enough for both Hajj and Umrah.

Meaning that both Hajj and Umrah is included in the same. For example, if a woman came with intention of Hajj but could neither perform Tawaaf nor Sa'i, due to her situation, upto an extent that even 8th Dhul Hijjah begins, so she completed rituals of Mina, Muzdalifah and Arafaat. In this case, both her Hajj and Umrah is perfectly complete with only one Tawaf ifaadah and only one Sa'i. This is the judgement of the beloved messenger

يكفيك حجك وعمرك 

Thus, there shouldn't be any doubt about it. But why did she then performed Umrah from Tan'eem? 

The narrations mention that she repeated many times that people have performed Hajj and Umrah separately, so she showed her wish also because the other wives had as well done, so it was very natural for her to feel the competition. The prophet
(ﷺ) then asked Abdurrahman ibn Abu Bakr to accompany her to Tan'eem to let her perform Umrah. They got into the state of Ihram from Tan'eem and then performed Umrah and found the prophet completing his Tawaf al wadaa'. They finished and then left (for Madina).

So the point is that if a woman gets in such a situation then her Hajj is complete, yet she may do it as Aisha (radiyallahu anha) did for contentment.

As for others to perform multiple Umrah from Tan'eem, this was never legislated. The sahaba were always at the forefront to do good, yet they are not known to do this. And when Abdurrahman ibn Abu Bakr went her as her mahram, he himself did not get into the state of ihram (although he had a good chance).

Ataa' ibn Abi Rabah (rahimahullah) would say when people would ask about performing Umrah from Tan'eem t
hat it is the Umrah of a menstruating women. So, the correct understanding is that performing multiple Umrahs day and night be it from Tan'eem (or any-other place) for oneself, or for the relatives like grand fathers, great grand fathers, etc., this Umrah is not legislated. Even if someone does it, we will never consider it to be permissible as it is against the sunnah of the beloved messenger (ﷺ). Let the one who does it take the responsibility on his own head!

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh al Maram 098) 


90. Understanding Sunnah - Difference between what prophet chose to do and what he happened to do:

وَعَنْ أَنَسٍ ‏- رضى الله عنه ‏- { أَنَّ اَلنَّبِيَّ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-صَلَّى اَلظُّهْرَ وَالْعَصْرَ وَالْمَغْرِبَ وَالْعِشَاءَ, ثُمَّ رَقَدَ رَقْدَةً بِالْمُحَصَّبِ, ثُمَّ رَكِبَ إِلَى اَلْبَيْتِ فَطَافَ بِهِ } رَوَاهُ اَلْبُخَارِيُّ.‏

Anas (radiyallahu anh), narrated, 'The Messenger of Allah rested for a while at al-Muhassab (a valley opening at al-Abtah between Makkah and Mina) prayed Dhuhr, Asr, Maghrib and 'Isha prayers after which he rode to the Ka’bah and made Tawaf.’ [Saheeh Al·Bukhari]

وَعَنْ عَائِشَةَ رَضِيَ اَللَّهُ عَنْهَا: { أَنَّهَا لَمْ تَكُنْ تَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ ‏-أَيْ: اَلنُّزُولَ بِالْأَبْطَحِ‏- وَتَقُولُ : إِنَّمَا نَزَلَهُ رَسُولُ اَللَّهِ ‏- صلى الله عليه وسلم ‏-لِأَنَّهُ كَانَ مَنْزِلاً أَسْمَحَ لِخُرُوجِهِ } رَوَاهُ مُسْلِمٌ

A’ishah (radiyallahu anha) narrated that she did not use to do that i.e. rest at al-Muhassab and said, ‘The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) rested at al-Muhassab, because it was easier to stop there and depart from (i.e. it is not a Sunnah to rest there`). [Saheeh Muslim]

The place called Muhassab where the beloved messenger spent his night of 13th Dhul Hijjah is as well a Sunnah or is it something ordinary where he happened to stay?

Note that even the sahaba disagreed. Abdullah ibn Umar (radiyallahu anh) would consider it a Sunnah. He would come and stay a night. But Abu Bakr and Umar did not consider it to be a sunnah, and they did not do it.

This is a difference in usool, that the speech and action of the beloved messenger is an a sunnah for the ummah to follow. There are sunan which are waajib (obligatory) and those which are mustahab (recommended). [1]

And if the sahaba did not consider an action to be obligatory, or majority did not consider so, or did not consider it be a sunnah but something that he merely happened to do, then the understanding of Sahaba will be the correct one.

Aisha (radiyallahu anha) would not consider staying in al-Muhassab to be a sunnah. It was not like the sunnah of going to Mina or its obligation, or going to Arafaat.

After the beloved messenger passed away, she would not go so that people do not begin to consider it a sunnah. Rather she would say: ‘The Messenger of Allah (ﷺ) rested at al-Muhassab, because it was easier to stop there and depart from.'

- Shaikh Wasiullah Abbas (Sharh Bulugh al Maram 098) 


[1] Footnote:

Shaikh also explained this in detail in lecture he gave in Green Lane Masjid (Birmingham):

Allah's command has been: Obey Allah and obey the Messenger. There are several ayaat pointing this: "Obey Allah and obey the Messenger and those in authority among you (rulers and scholars)." (4:59) Obey the rulers and scholars in accordance to the rulings of Allah and his messenger.

 This is an aayah which is for the guidance of all until the Day of Judgement. And the purpose of sending messengers was, as Allah says: "And We did not send any messenger except to be obeyed by permission of Allah." (4:64) 

Meaning, for instance, if the beloved messenger says something through ijtihaad, then obeying him in that won't be obligatory. But if the messenger gave any command, it remains his personal opinion and non obligatory, until Allah as well commands the same. But if Allah remains silent, or does not commands on the contrary, it will be considered part of the deen. If the sahaba were to do something, be it even in the darkness of night, and nothing is revealed from Allah in Qur'an or Sunnah, if Allah did not reveal anything about it, for ex., a companion doing something in the darkness of night with his wife..and Allah does not objects it, then that will as well be sunnah (taqreeri). 

Jabir (radiyallahu anh) said: We practiced coitus interruptus while the Qur'an was being revealed. And had it been prohibted, Qur'an would prohibit it.

This means that whatever the sahaba did in the era of beloved messenger is also part of the deen. This can be deduced from it. All prophets called others to obey them with obeying Allah. And Qur'an, which is the most authentic source of history, mentions that Allah destroyed few nations, and raised others. Those which disobeyed their prophet were destroyed, And those who followed them were raised. This is history, but the same stands true for Muslims. The religion is one. 

Allah stated: "And whoever turns away from My remembrance - indeed, he will have a depressed life, and We will gather him on the Day of Resurrection blind." (Taha 20:124)

 Depression in this life, and hardship in the Hereafter! However, Allah is very Merciful and Generous. So, he gave them time and was easy with them. But when the matter crossed the boundaries, then a time came when Allah punished them with flood. Few sought forgiveness witnessing the punishment, so Allah forgave them. 

The unparalleled example that the noble companions showed to the ummah is not possible to find until qiyaamah (resurrection). They acknowledged that Allah has send the messenger as an ideal to follow. There is no need of insertion of rational or qiyas to argue against it. 

Once, the beloved messenger was leading for Salah, and suddenly he removed his shoes and placed them to his left. Let me remind you all, although this is a famous story. When the sahaba saw him removing them, those in the first line as well removed their shoes, and those in the second line followed, until they all removed their shoes out. When the noble prophet completed his salah, he asked them, "Why did you all remove your shoes?" They said, 'We saw you take off your shoes, so we took ours off too.' (Abu Dawood) 

What an example this is, since neither did he direct them nor did he command! But because they'd decided, in accordance to the command of Allah, that whatever he does is a sunnah to follow. So, they as well removed their shoes.

 Similarly, when the command for Salah was revealed in Makkah even before migration. Once, Ali and the noble prophet were performing salah. Abu Talib asked them: 'What are you both doing?' Ali replied: 'We are praying to our Lord.' So, he said: 'That's fine, but I dislike that my buttocks is raised above my head (while prostrating)." Strange! This was his viewpoint. So, Salah was obligated in Makkah. The noble prophet was asked to face towards Bait-al Muqaddas for Salah. But, he would stand such that both Bait-ul Muqaddis and Ka'bah would be to his front, as he wanted Ka'bah to be the qiblah. Allah said: "We have certainly seen the turning of your face, toward the heaven, and We will surely turn you to which you like." (2:144) 

He wanted his qiblah to be the qiblah of Ibraheem (alayhissalam). After reaching Madina, he used to pray towards Bait-ul Muqaddis for 16-17 months. Then, Allah commanded to face towards Ka'bah. It is narrated that Asr was the first salah towards Ka'bah, a man who had prayed with him, went out and passed by a group offering prayer towards Bait-ul Muqaddis. And they were in rukoo'. He said, "I, (swearing by Allah) testify that I have prayed with the Prophet (ﷺ) facing Ka'bah." Hearing that, they turned their faces to the Ka`bah while they were still bowing. (Bukhari)

 If someone in Madina prays facing Bait-ul Muqaddis, then the Ka'bah would be at the back. This means that the Imam went from his place to the last line at the back, and then all those in the row turned like him. No prophet or nation had such exemplary followers. 

And when the time comes to sacrifice the life.. When the noble prophet left for Badr, he consulted the people for what is to be done. So, Miqdad ibn Aswad said: 'It seems that you are seeking the suggestion of Ansar.' He said: 'Yes.' Because when the pledge was taken from the Ansar, it was only for defence while staying in the city itself. So the promise was not for outside the city. But it was the generosity of the noble prophet, that he consulted, instead of commanding them. So, Miqdad ibn Aswad says, 'O messenger of Allah, do whatever Allah commands you, and we are with you.' "We will not say as the People of Moses said: 'Go you and your Lord and fight you two.' (5:27) But we declare openly that we will fight with you.

 And no doubt that no one ever witnessed as brave, courageous and sacrificing men as the sahaaba. And it is due to them following everything with such perfection that Allah placed a tag with their names which is better than all other name tags, and the glad tiding: 'Allah is pleased with them and they are pleased with him.'

 The sahaba would do everything, following even the wink of the eyes of the beloved messenger. A man came who the prophet had already judged to be executed, as he used to abuse and mock him. But he came and began begging for mercy... I remembered this incident thinking of 'wink of the eye.' The beloved messenger said: Why didn't one of you execute him from the back when I had not yet forgiven him? But the sahaaba were such that they wouldn't do anything without the signal of the beloved messenger. "O you who have believed, do not step before Allah and His Messenger." (49:1) They said that if he had signaled to them by winking with his eye.. the Prophet clarified to them that it is not proper conduct for prophets to have a deceit of the eye (to wink). Do it straight if you want. 

So, the point is that even if they acknowledged something very well.. for instance, he asked: 'What is the day today?' They replied: 'Allah and his messenger know best.' Which city is this? They replied: 'Allah and his messenger know best.' He asked about Makkah: 'Which city is this?' They replied: 'Allah and his messenger know best.' So, then the prophet informed them: 'Isn't this the day of sacrifice?' They said: 'Yes.' Which month is this? They knew well that it is the month of Dhul - Hijjah, yet they passed on by saying:

 اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ أَعْلَمُ 

(Allah and his messenger know best)

Because all their struggle was to take every step in accordance to the direction of the beloved messenger. They said: We kept quiet thinking that he might give another name. As they have just passed the days of ignorance. Then the beloved messenger said: Your blood, your property are sacred to you like the sacredness of this day of yours, in this city of yours...

  • On another occassion in the sacred masjid, we asked the shaikh:

 Ibn Umar (radiyallahu anh) would walk on the path on which the prophet walked, And once he even answered the call of nature in the same place, and Umar (radiyallahu anh) denounced it.. 

Shaikh answered: