Thursday, 7 February 2013


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عن جابر بن عبد الله قال كان الجواري إذا نكحوا كانوا يمرون بالكبر والمزامير، ويتركون النبي صلى الله عليه وعلى آله وسلم قائما على المنبر وينفضون فأنزل الله {وَإِذَا رَأَوْا تِجَارَةً أَوْ لَهْوًا انْفَضُّوا إِلَيْهَا} .

Jabir (r.a) reports that a slave woman (or a young virgin) was married and they were playing (the instruments such as) drums and flutes (producing musical sounds) and (the people who were seated for the Friday sermon) when they heard this (commotion) they left the prophet (who was giving his khutbah) on the minbar to see (the wedding musical celebration) and on this Allah revealed the verse (rebuking such musical display saying)

“But when they saw a transaction or a diversion, [O Muhammad], they rushed to it and left you standing. Say, "What is with Allah is better than diversion and than a transaction, and Allah is the best of providers." (62: 11) “

[Ref: Tafseer at-tabari] 

Imam muqbil ibn Hadi rahimahullah in his book الصحيح المسند من أسباب النزول authenticated this tradition saying :

"وقد أخرج الطبري بسند رجاله رجال الصحيح وأبو عوانة في صحيحه".

Muhaddith `Abdullah Yusuf aj-Judai` also authenticated this 

Another verse : 

Alif Laam Meem [These letters are one of the miracles of the Qur'an, and none but Allâh (Alone) knows their meanings.] These are Verses of the Wise Book (the Qur'ân). A guide and a mercy for the Muhsinûn (good doers).Those who establish the prayer and give Zakât and they have faith in the Hereafter with certainty. Such are on guidance from their Lord, and such are the successful. And of mankind is he who purchases """"lahhwal-hadeeth"""" [idle talks] to mislead (men) from the Path of Allâh without knowledge, and takes it (the Path of Allâh, the Verses of the Qur'ân) by way of mockery. For such there will be a humiliating torment (in the Hell-fire).”

The scholars of the Tafseer have defined lahhwal-hadeeth to mean music and its instruments. And from them are [we will mention the noble ones of whom their statements have weight upon the Ahlus-Sunnah]:

1. ‘Abdullaah ibn ‘Abbaas (radhiyallaahu ‘anhumaa), he said:

‘It (the verse) was revealed regarding music and its likes.’

[Imaam al-Bukhaaree in Aadaabul Mufrad: 1265, Ibn Abee Shaybah: 6/310, At-Tabari: 21/40]

2. ‘Abdullaah Ibn Mas’ood (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) , he was asked about it and he said :

By the One whom there is no Lord other than Him ; *indeed  It is music.’ And he repeated this three times. [Ibn Abee Shaybah, At-Tabari, Ibnul Jawzee in Talbees Iblees: pg.246, al-Haakim: 2/411 and he said: ‘its chain is authentic.’ And Imaam adh-Dhahabee agreed with him, and it is as they say.]

3. Ikrimah (rahimahullaah) : Shua’yb ibn Yasaar said :

‘I asked Ikrimah on lahhwal-hadeeth?’ And he said : ‘It is music.’ [ Imaam al-Bukhaaree in Taareekh : 2/217, Ibn Abee Shaybah, Ibn Jareer At-Tabari , and al-Bayhaqee : and it is a hasan (good narration) ]

4. Mujaahid (rahimahullaah): He said the same.[ Ibn Abee Shayba : 1167,1179, Ibn Jareer, Ibn Abee Dunya from different routes of narration, some of which are authentic, and Abu Nu’aym in al-Hilyah : 3/286.]

5. And Likewise, Jaabir and Sa’eed ibn Jubayr, and Mak-hool (rahimahumullaah) [ Tafseer ibn Katheer]

. Al-Hasan al-Basree said : ‘This was revealed concerning music and instruments.’ [Ibid]

To fully comprehend the context of the verse – we shall refer to the tafseer of al-Imaam Ibn Katheer, where he says [on the tafseer of these verses] :

After Allaah has mentioned the state of the people of success – and they are the ones who benefit by the Book of Allaah, and gain from listening [studying] to it- as Allaah has said :

“Allâh has sent down the best statement, a Book (this Qur'ân), its parts resembling each other in goodness and truth, oft-repeated. The skins of those who fear their Lord shiver from it (when they recite it or hear it). Then their skin and their heart soften to the remembrance of Allâh. That is the guidance of Allâh. He Guides therewith whom He pleases and whomever Allâh sends astray, for him there is no guide
.” [Soorat-uz-Zumar : 23]

He connected that by mentioning the state of the wretched ones – those who turn away from benefiting by listening [and studying] it – and they directed themselves to listening to flutes, and music by melodious voices, and musical instruments…’ End Quote.

This I think, alhamdulillaah, is sufficient proof for us. And now we move to the proofs in the Sunnah and salaaf

A) It is reported by Imaam Al-Bukhaaree in his “Saheeh” (5268) from Abee ‘Aamir or Abee Maalik Al-Ash’aree – may Allaah be pleased with him- that he heard the Prophet – peace and blessings be upon him- say:

“There will be a group from my people who will permit fornication, the wearing of silk, alcohol, and (Ma’aazif) musical instruments”

Ma’aazif is the musical instruments that are used to make music, such as the ‘Ood (an Arabic guitar), the wind instruments (saxophones, etc), drums, mandolins, flutes, and cymbals, and other than them.

Rather, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- said in his book, “Ighaathatul Lahfaan” (1/291):

“Ma’aazif is all the types of musical instruments, there is no differences of opinion with the people (scholars) of the Arabic language in that.”

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar al-‘Asqalaani said: ‘And in this hadeeth is a severe warning for the one who deceives by [and] makes permissible that which is impermissible by changing its name..[Fath-ul Baaree.]

Imaam Al-Albaanee said : ‘In his statement : make permissible’ it is a clear proof that the four things mentioned are not halaal (permissible) in the legislation: and amongst them is : musical instruments.’

Al-‘Allaamah ‘Alee Qaari said: ‘And its meaning is: they make these things to be from the permissible things by """bringing doubts and weak proofs""", and from this [kind] is what our scholars –meaning the Hanafee’s- mention that silk is only haraam if it is worn directly
on the body, but if it is worn over some clothe than there is no problem!

So this is making an exception -by neither an intellectual nor a textual proof- to the generality of his statement: ‘The one who wears silk in the world would not wear it in the here-after.’[Authentic. This ruling as is known is for men]

Points to be noted :

1] From his – Peace and Blessings be upon him- statement: “permit“, because this act of permitting cannot happen except for something that was prohibited.

2] The Prophet – Peace and Blessings be upon him – equated the “making permissible” to making the alcohol, fornication, and wearing of silk permissible. These matters are well-known to be prohibited in the Sharee’ah (legislation).

3] Shaykh ‘Abdul-Qaadir bin Muhammad al-Junayd in is reported to have said that this Hadeeth has been graded as authentic by many of the people of knowledge in different times and lands, and from them:

Al-Bukhaaree, Al-Ismaa’eelee, Al-Burqaanee, Ibn Hibbaan, Ibnus Salaah, Ibn Jamaa’ah, Ibn Badraan ad-Dushtee al-Hanafee, Ibn Taymiyyah, Ibn Qayyim al-Jawziyyah, Ibn Katheer, Ibnul Mullaqin, Zaydudeen al-’Iraaqee, Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee, Badruddeen al-’Aynee, Ibn Hajar al-’Asqalaanee, Ibn Hajar al-Haythamee, as-Sakhaawee, Ibnul Wazeer, Muhammad Ameer as-San’aanee, Ahmad Shaakir, Muhammad Ameen ash-Shanqeetee, Al-Albaanee, Ibn Baaz, Ibnul ‘Uthaymeen, Al-Waadi’ee, Muhammad ‘Alee Aadam

B) What has been reported by Imaam Ahmad (1/278,289,350) and Aboo Daawood (3696) from Ibn ‘Abbaas that the Prophet – Peace and Blessings be upon him – said:

“Verily Allaah has prohibited upon you: Alcohol, gambling, and the Koobah (drum)”

This Hadeeth has been authenticated by a group from the people of knowledge, and from them:

Ibn Hibbaan, Ibnul Mullaqin, Ibn Hajar al-Haythamee, Ahmad Shaakir, and Al-Albaanee.

And the Koobah is the drum. Ibn Al-A’raabee, Ibn Durayd, al-Jawharee, Ibn Faaris, and Ibn Seedah from the people (scholars) of the Arabic language have mentioned that.

Likewise the narrator of the Hadeeth, ‘Alee bin Judhaymah, explained that and so did others from the Aa’imah (Imaams).

And the proof from this Hadeeth is that it contains a prohibition for one of the musical instruments, and it is from the smallest of the drums, then what about what is greater than that?

It was reported from Abu Umaamah (may Allaah be pleased with him) that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Do not sell singing slave women, do not buy them and do not teach them. There is nothing good in this trade, and their price is haraam. Concerning such things as this the aayah was revealed (interpretation of the meaning): ‘And of mankind is he who purchases idle talks (i.e. music, singing) to mislead (men) from the path of Allaah…’ [Luqmaan 31:6].” ([ Șaheeha: 2922, Șaheeh Sunan at-Tirmidhee, Imaam Ahmad in al-Musnad: 22181 )

Abu Umamah reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “I have been sent as mercy and guidance for the worlds, that I will annul the idols, the flutes, the instruments, and the affairs of ignorance.”

[At-Tabarani, Al-Mu’jam Al-Kabeer, Number 7757, Hasan]

D) ‘Abd-Allaah ibn ‘Abbaas (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The daff is haraam, stringed instruments are haraam, drums are haraam and flutes are haraam. [Narrated by al-Bayhaqi, 10/222 ]

Ibn `Abbas and Ibn `Umar are reported to have said :

“At-Tasdiya is clapping with the hands & al-Mukaa is like whistling. The polytheists used to do this as an act of worship”

[As-Suyuti, ‘ad-Durr al-Manthur’ [3/183] referred it to al-Faryabi, Abd Bin Humaid, ibn Jarir, ibn al-Mundhir & Ibn Abi Shaybah from Ibn Abbas. Taken from Ibn Taymiyyah's The friends of Allah and the friends of Shaytaan pages 341-350 ]

E) Aboo Maalik al-Ash’aree (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) said: The Messenger of Allaah (Șallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

“Indeed a people from among my nation will consume wine; and will call it by other than its name [they will change the name of it], while singers and musical instruments are played over their heads: Allah will cause the earth to swallow them and change them into monkeys and swines.” [Narrated by Ibn Maajah, and Ibnul Qayyim said it is authentic in two different places in his book Ighaathatul-luhfaan : 1/347 & 361. And it is in Șaheeh at-Targheeb wa tarheeb : 2378.]

F) Anas ibn Maalik (radhiyallaahu ‘anhu) said that The Prophet (Șallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

“Two voices are cursed in this world and the hereafter; Music at the time of happiness and wailing at the time of calamity.”
[Narrated by Al-Bazzaar in his Musnad: 1/377, Kashful astaar-795, and Adh-Dhiyaa al Maqdisee in al- Ahadeeth al-Mukhtaara: 6/188/2200&2201. Al-Bazzaar said : We don’t know it from Anas except from this chain.’

I (Shaikh Albaanee) say: ‘Its chain is good, rather it is authentic with what follows: And it has been followed by the narration

of ‘Isa ibn Tamhan from Anas as narrated by Ibn Simaak. So the hadeeth is authentic, and all Perfect praise is for Allaah. And it is emphasized in its strength of Authenticity by the following hadeeth

G) From Jaabir ibn ‘Abdullah from ‘Abdurrahman ibn ‘Awf (radhiyallaahu ‘anhum) who said: ‘The Prophet (Șallallaahu ‘alayhi wasallam) said:

“Surely I do not prohibit crying ; but verily I have prohibited two asinine and evil voices: a voice at the time of happiness; play, leisure and music, and voices at the time of a calamity; slapping of the faces, and tearing of clothes and wailing.

[Sunan at-Tirmidhee and he said : It is a good hadeeth. Al-Haakim : 4/40, Al-Bayhaqee: 4/69]

Imaam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullaah) said :

‘This hadeeth is from the best of what is proof on the impermissibility of singing, as in the wording of the one narrated by Jaabir : ‘voice at the time of happiness: play, vain talk and the instruments of shaytaan.’ Thus he prohibited the sounds which are carried
out at the times of enjoyment just as he prohibited the sounds made at the time of a calamity, and the sounds made at the time of joy are the sounds of music.
’ [Al-Istiqaama : 1/292-293]

H) `Abdullah ibn Mas`ood (radhiallahu `anhu) was reported to have said : " Singing breeds hypocrisy at heart" 

[Ref: reported by Ibn Abi dunya in Dhamm ul-Malaahee from Ibn Mas`ood  and it's chain of narration is weak. See Silsilah Ahaadeeth ad-Dha`eefa (2430) and Takhreej Mishkat al-Masaabeh (4810) and Dha`eef Jaami` as-Sagheer (3940)]

However similar statements are famously known to have come from many of our sullaf. Such as Imaam Ibn Qudaamah in his
" adh-dhammu ma `alayhi madda`u at-tassawwuf " aka condemning the practises of those who claim sufism said :   brings the statement of `Umar ibn `Abdil `Azeez rahimahullah who said that it has reached him from trustworthy narrators, carriers of knowledge that attending the gatherings of musical instruments and listening to singers while being devoted to this, breeds hypocrisy in the heart just as water breeds pasture.

I) The salaaf even detested those who sung the verses of Qur'an. No doubt the prophet (s.a.w) has commanded us to recite the Qur'an melodiously but melodiously does not mean to sing it out or to imitate what we know today as singing . So the Imams of this Ummah detested such a behavior with recitation then one can only imagine how much they would have hated music in general 


It is reported that a person recited in a melodious (more than what is permitted) way in front of Al-A’mash. He said: A man once recited (sung in this similar manner) in front of Anas [ibn Mâlik – Allâh be pleased with him] in this manner and he detested it.

[Abû Bakr Al-Khallâl, Al-Amr bil-Ma’rûf wa Al-Nahî ‘an Al-Munkar, p110.]

It is reported that Sâlim [b. 'Abdillâh b. 'Umar b. Al-Khattâb] – Allâh have mercy on him – was asked to listen to someone leading the prayer. When he heard the recitation he turned back exclaiming: Singing! Singing!

[Ibn Al-Jawzî, Al-Qussâs wa Al-Mudhakkirîn article 183.]

It is reported that there was a man who used to lead the prayer in Al-Madînah. One night, he became euphoric (got carried away by emotion and ended up singing the verses).  Al-Qâsim b. Muhammad recited:

Verily it is a mighty and noble Book. Falsehood does not approach it, neither before it nor behind. It is a revelation from the Most Wise, Most Praiseworthy. [Al-Quran, Fussilat: 41, 42]

And he detested [the behavior of the reciter].

[Ibid. article 184.]

It is reported that Al-Fudayl b. ‘Ayyâd – Allâh have mercy on him – was asked about reciting the Qurân with melodies (i.e the singing type), to which he replied: This is something they took from singing.

[Ibid. article 182]

Ibn Dâwûd ['Abdullâh b. Dâwûd b. 'Âmir Al-Khuraybî] – Allâh have mercy on him – was once asked by Bishr b. Al-Hârith:

If I pass by a man reciting, should I sit and listen? He asked, “Does he become euphoric  (because of emotional recitation)?” Bishr replied, “Yes.” Ibn Dâwûd said, “He has shown his bid’ah, do not sit with him.”

[Ibid article 186.]

Hanbal reports: Abû ‘Abdillâh (Imâm Ahmad) used to detest this innovated recitation which is called Al-Alhân (melodious, musical recitation).

[Ibid. article 187.]

And it is reported that Imâm Ahmad said: “This innovated recitation which is called Al-Alhân, I detest it.” He was very strict against it. He said, “I believe it resembles singing, and the Qurân is to be preserved from this.”

[Ibid. article 188.]

There are numerous narrations from Imâm Ahmad about this, amongst them:
When asked about it once he said:

It is something innovated. But [to recite in a beautiful voice is fine] if it is naturally his voice, as was Abû Mûsâ [Al-Ash'arî – Allâh be pleased with him]. When asked about reciting with alhân another time, he replied: No. [It is allowed] if that is his natural voice, like the voice of Abû Mûsâ. As for learning how to recite like this, then no.

He was asked about recitation with melodies and harmonies, to which he replied:

“It is a bid’ah.” It was said to him, ‘They gather to listen to it.” He said, “Allâhul-musta’ân (‘Allâh is the one whose aid is sought’; a statement of sorrow and disapproval.)”
Also, he said: It is a bid’ah, not to be listened to.

‘Abdullâh b. Yazîd Al-’Anbarî reports: A man once asked Ahmad b. Hanbal:

“What do you say about reciting with alhân [Arabic: Alhân. This refers to reciting in a melodious, song-like tone. See notes] ?” Abu ‘Abdillâh said, “What is your name?” The man replied, “Muhammad.” Imâm Ahmad said, “So would you like to be called Mooohammad?”

[Al-Khallâl, op. cit., p99+.]

Imâm Mâlik – Allâh have mercy on him – said:

I do not like reciting in melodies, neither in Ramadan nor at other times, because it resembles singing, and it causes the Qurân to be laughed at. It is said ‘this person is a better reciter than that person (the Quran becomes the subject of rivalry and entertainment).

It has reached me that the slave-girls are taught to recite like this as they are taught how to sing. Do you think this was the way Allâh’s Messenger – peace and blessings be upon him – used to recite?

[Al-Qayrawânî, Kitâb Al-Jâmi’ p166.]


After relating some of these traditions, Ibn Al-Jawzee rahimahullah states:

Know that melodious musical recitation (Al-Alhân) is detested for a number of reasons, amongst others: [its reciters] merge letters that are not supposed to be merged, they extend vowels (madd) where there should be no extension, and they omit the hamzah and the doubling of consonants (tashdîd) just in order to preserve the melody. Also, this kind of recitation causes people to get emotionally carried away (al-tarb) and it distracts people from pondering the Quran

[Ibn Al-Jawzî, Al-Qussâs wa Al-Mudhakkirîn p335.]

Explaining the type of recitation that is praiseworthy and the type that is detestable, Ibn Kathîr states:

What is sought in the Sharî’ah (teachings of Islam) is the type of beautification of the voice that leads to pondering the Quran and seeking to understand it, to submission, humility and compliance with the obedience [of Allah].

As for using voices with novel melodies, composed on distracting and entertaining rhythms and musical rules, then the Quran is far removed from this and is too respected and esteemed to have this approach taken in its delivery

[Ibn Kathîr, Fadâ`il Al-Qurân p198]

Shaykh Abdul Qaadir enlists the Ijmaa' of various scholars of different Madhabs in different era in favor of prohibiting music and its instruments

1) Imaam Muhammad bin Al-Hussayn Al-Aajurree, Shaykh al-Haram ash-Shareef in his time – May Allaah have Mercy upon him- born in the year 280H (and it is said 264H) as it comes in “Nazhatul Asmaa’ fee Mas’alatis Samaa’” on page 25 of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee.

2) The Shaafi’ee Shaykh Al-Qaadhee Aboo Tayyib at-Tabaree – May Allaah have Mercy upon him- born in the year 348H as it comes in “Nazhatul Asmaa’ fee Mas’alatis Samaa’” on page 62-64 of Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee.

3) Shaykh Abul Fatah Saleem bin Ayyoob ar-Raazee ash-Shaafi’ee al-Muqree (the reciter) al-Muhaddith (the scholar of Hadeeth) – May Allaah have Mercy upon him – who was born in the year 360H as it comes in “Kaff ar-Raa’aa’ ‘an Muharamaat Al-Lahw was Samaa’” on page 124 and “Az-Zawaajir ‘An Iqtiraaf Al-Kabaa’ir” (2/347) of Ibn Hajar al-Haythamee.

4) Imaam Al-Hussayn bin Mas’ood Al-Baghawee ash-Shaafi’ee – May Allaah have Mercy upon him – who was born in the year 436H as it comes in his book “Kitaab as-Sunnah” (12/383).

5) Shaykh Jamaal al-Islaam Ibnul Bazaree ash-Shaafi’ee, the scholar of Algeria -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 471H as it comes in “Kaff ar-Raa’aa’ ‘an Muharamaat Al-Lahw was Samaa’” on page 114 and “Az-Zawaajir ‘An Iqtiraaf Al-Kabaa’ir” (2/342) of Ibn Hajar al-Haythamee.

6) Shaykh al-Qaadhee Ibn Abee ‘Asroon ‘Abdullaah bin Muhammad at-Tameemee, the scholar of the people of Shaam – May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 492H as it comes in “Kaff ar-Raa’aa’ ‘an Muharamaat Al-Lahw was Samaa’” on page 115 of Ibn Hajar al-Haythamee.

7) Imaam Aboo Bakr Muhammad bin al-Waleed at-Tartooshee al-Andalusee al-Maalikee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 520H as it comes in his book “Tahreem al-Ghinaa was-Samaa’” on page 223, point number 87.

8) Imaam Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisee al-Hanbalee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 541H as it comes in his book “al-Mughnee) (12/457) and the book “An-Nahiyy ‘An ar-Raqs wasSamaa’” (2/558) of Ibn Burdaan ad-Dishtee al-Hanafee. Ibn Qudamah has also thrashed the sufi tareeqa including their musical halloway in his book Dhammu ma `alayhi mudda`oo at-tassawuf [ Read from here :]

9) Al-Hafidh Aboo ‘Amroo bin as-Salaah ash-Shaafi’ee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 557H as it comes in the book “Fataawa Ibnus Salaah fit Tafseer wal Hadeeth wal Usool al Fiqh” (2/500) issue number 487.

10) The Faqeeh, the Muhaddith Abul ‘Abbaas Ahmad bin ‘Umar al-Qurtubee al-Maalikee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 578H as it comes in the book “Kashf an-Qanaa’ ‘An Hukm Al-Wajd was Samaa’” on page 72, and his book “Al-Mufhim Limaa Ashkafl min Talkhees Muslim” (3/403) and the book “Az-Zawaajir ‘an Iqtiraaf al-Kabaa’ir” (2/337 and 348) of Ibn Hajar al-Haythamee, and “Ar-Rahs wal waqs limustahil ar-Raqs” of Ibraaheem al-Halabee al-Hanafee on page 72.

11) Shaykh Mahmood bin Abil Qaasim Isfindaar bin Badraan ad-Dishtee al-Kurdee al-Hanafee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 604 (or 605 or close to it) in his book “An-Nahiyy ‘an ar-Raqs was-Samaa’” (2/511,546,550,676,729,744,367).

12) Imaam Abul ‘Abbaas Ahmad bin ‘Abdul-Haleem bin Taymiyyah -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 631H as it comes in his book “Majmoo’ al Fataawa” (28/118, 11/576, 597, 603).

13) Shaykh Shihaab ad-Deen Al-Adhra’ee ash-Shaafi’ee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 708H as it comes in the book “Kaff ar-Raa’aa’ ‘an Muharramaat al-Lahw was-Samaa’” on page 120 of Ibn Hajar al-Haythamee.

14) Shaykh, the Faqeeh, Aboo ‘Abdillaah Shams ad-Deen Muhammad bin ‘Abdullaah az-Zarkhashee al-Misree al-Hanbalee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 772H in his explanation of “Mukhtassar al-Kharaqee” (6/351).

15) Al-Haafidh Zayn ad-Deen Abul Faraj ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Shihaab, well-known as Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 736H as it comes in his book “Fathul Baaree” (6/83) explaining the Hadeeth number 952, and his book “Nazhatus Samaa’ fee Mas’alatis Samaa’” on pages 25 and 60.

16) Shaykh Muhammad Al-Bazaazee Al-Kurdee al-Hanafee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 827H as it comes in the book “Al-Bahr Ar-Raa’iq Sharh Kanz ad-Daqaa’iq” (7/89) of Ibn Nujaym, and “Ar-Rahs wal Waqs limustahill ar-Raqs” of Ibraaheem al-Halabee al-Hanafee on pages 72 and 85.

17) Shaykh Abul ‘Abbaas Ahmad bin Muhammad bin ‘Alee bin Hajar al-Makkee al-Haythamee ash-Shaafi’ee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 909H as it comes in his book “Kaff ar-Raa’aa’ ‘an Muharramaat al-Lahw was-Samaa’” on page 124 and his book “Az-Zawaajir ‘an Iqtiraaf al-Kabaa’ir” (2/347-348).

18) Shaykh Ibraaheem bin Muhammad al-Hanafee, well-known as Al-Halabee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him-  as it comes in his book “At-Rahs wal Waqs limustahill ar-Raqs” on pages 75, 85-86, and 92.

19) Shaykh Abul Layth as-Samarqandee-May Allaah have Mercy upon him- as it comes in the book “An-Nahiyy ‘an ar-Raqs was –Samaa’” of Ibn Burdaan ad-Dishtee al-Hanafee (2/548) who was born in the year 604 or 605.

20) Shaykh Abul Mahaasin al-Harraanee al-Hanbalee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- as it comes in the book “An-Nahiyy ‘an ar-Raqs was –Samaa’” of Ibn Burdaan ad-Dishtee al-Hanafee (2/548) who was born in the year 604 or 605.

21) Al-’Allaamah ‘Abdur-Rahmaan bin Qaasim al-’Aasimee an-Najdee al-Hanbalee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 1312H as it comes in his book “Haashiyah ar-Rawdh Al-Muraba’” (7/357).

22) Al-’Allaamah ‘Abdul-’Azeez bin ‘Abdullaah bin Baaz -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 1330H as it comes in the book “Majmoo’ Fataawih” (3/393).

23) Al-’Allaamah Muhammad Naasiruddeen al-Albaanee -May Allaah have Mercy upon him- who was born in the year 1914CE as it comes in his book “Tahreem Aalaat At-Tarb” on page 105, and his book “Silsilah al-ahaadeeth as-Saheehah” (5/330).

24) Al-Haafidh Ibn Rajab al-Hanbalee –May Allaah have Mercy upon him- said in his book “Fathul Baaree” (6/83) explaining the Hadeeth number 952:

“As for listening to musical instruments, then it is something that was developed from the A’ajam (non-Arabs), it is prohibited completely with consensus, I do not know of anyone who has an excuse for anything from that, and whoever reports an excuse in it from an Imaam then he has lied and committed Iftiraa’ (a severe lie)”

Shaykh Ibn Hajar al-Makkee al-Haythamee ash-Shaafi’ee – May Allaah have Mercy upon him- said in his book “Kaff ar-Raa’aa’ ‘an Muharramaat al-Lahw was-Samaa’” on page 124:

“The Awtaar, musical instruments such as the harp, Arabic guitar, and symbols –like the Awtaar- and rabbab and janko and violin and Santheer and Daryj and other than that… these are all prohibited without any difference of opinion, and whoever narrates difference of opinion has erred or has done so from desires such that he has become deaf or blind and guidance has been prevented from him and the way of piety has been removed from him. And from those who narrate consensus (Ijmaa’) of the complete prohibition is Imaam Abul ‘Abbaas al-Qurtubee and he is reliable and just.”

K) Imam Ibn Qudaamah al-Maqdisi rahimahullah in his book titled : " adh-dhammu ma `alayhi madda`u at-tassawwuf " aka condemning the practises of those who claim sufism said :

Makhool said : "Whoever dies while having a female singer with him, should not be prayed over (i.e funeral)

Mu`mar said : " If a man were to take the view of the people of Madeenah concerning hearing, i.e singing, and entering women from behind (anal sex); the view of people of Makkah regarding temperory marriage (mut`ah) and sarf, and the view of the people of Koofah regarding intoxicants, he would be from the most evil of Allah's slave.
Maalik ibn Anas rahimahullah was asked about what the people of Madeenah permit from singing, so he replied: " In our opinion, the only ones who do it are the evil sinners (fusaaq)

Ibraahim bin al-Mundhir al-Khazaamee also said something similar to this.

Conclusion :

Imaam Muslim reported in his “Saheeh” (2674) from Abee Hurayrah that the Prophet – Peace and Blessings be upon him- said, “Whoever calls to misguidance then the sin is upon him along with the sin of those who follow him and nothing is removed from the sins of those who follow him either.”

‘Allaamah as-Sa’adee –May Allaah have Mercy upon him – said in his Jawaami’ al-Akhbaar on Hadeeth number 10:

“This Hadeeth and what is similar to it from the Ahadeeth has a warning from calling to misguidance and sin, and the greater sin and punishment is on the caller.”

And this has been confirmed in the Book of Allaah in Surah an-Nahl:

“They will bear their own burdens in full on the Day of Resurrection, and also of the burdens of those whom they misled without knowledge. Evil indeed is that which they shall bear!”


1] What was reported by An-Nasaa’ee (3385) and Al-Haakim (2/184 and 1183) and at-Tabaraanee in “Al-Mu’jam al-Kabeer” (17/247) and the wording is from there, and Al-Bayhaqee (7/289) from ‘Aamir bin Sa’ad Al-Bajalee that he said:

“I entered upon Abee Mas’ood and Qurdha bin Ka’ab and Thaabit bin Zayd, and a slave girl was beating a drum and singing. I said to them: you allow this and you are the companions of Muhammad -Peace and Blessings be upon him-. They said: Verily he gave us an excuse for the wedding, ....…”

Al-Haakim said about this: This Hadeeth is authentic according to the conditions of the two Shaykhs (Bukhaaree and Muslim) and they did not record it and Adh-Dhahabee agreed with him, and al-Albaanee authenticated it, and Muhammad ‘Alee Aadam al-Eethiopee graded it hasan (good). Ad-Daruqutnee mentioned it in his “Al-Ilzaamaat”.

Explaining the hadeeth:

The above hadeeth in itself explains the ruling for the sahaabas did not respond by saying " Music is allowed", rather they clearly implied and meant  " This (drums and singing) is allowed on certain occasions ONLY and not for all the time"

Also, on other occasions it is reported from Imaam Ahmad in his Masaail that Ibn Mas`ood would tear apart duff instruments and they would be very severe in that issue

[Ref: See Masaail Imaam Ahmad from the narration of Ibn Haaneee an-Naysaburee (2/174) ]

Those special occasions on which daff ONLY accompanied by singing is allowed are:

1 – It was narrated from ‘Aa’ishah that Abu Bakr (may Allaah be pleased with him) entered upon her and there were two girls with her during the days of Mina beating the daff, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) was covering himself with his garment. Abu Bakr rebuked them, and the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) uncovered his face and said, “Leave them alone, O Abu Bakr, for these are the days of Eid.” That was during the days of Mina.

Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 944; Muslim, 892

2 – It was narrated that al-Rubayyi’ bint Mu’awwidh ibn ‘Afra’ said: “After the consummation of my marriage, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) came and sat on my bed as far from me as you are sitting now, and our little girls started beating the daff and reciting verses mourning my father, who had been killed in the battle of Badr. One of them said, ‘Among us is a Prophet who knows what will happen tomorrow.’ On that the Prophet said, ‘Omit this (saying) and keep on saying the verses which you had been saying before.’”

(Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 4852).

3 – It was narrated that Buraydah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) went out on one of his military campaigns, and when he came back, a black slave woman came and said, “O Messenger of Allaah, I vowed that if Allaah brought you back safe and sound, I would beat the daff before you and sing. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “If you vowed that, then do it, otherwise do not do it.’” So she started to beat the daff, and Abu Bakr came in whilst she was doing so. Then ‘Ali came in whilst she was beating the daff, then ‘Uthmaan came in whilst she was beating the daff, then ‘Umar came in and she threw the daff beneath her and sat on it. The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “The Shaytaan is afraid of you, O ‘Umar. I was sitting and she was beating the daff, then Abu Bakr came in when she was beating the daff; then ‘Ali came in when she was beating the daff; then ‘Uthmaan came in when she was beating the daff, but when you came in, O ‘Umar, she put the daff down.”

Narrated by al-Tirmidhi, 3690; classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Tirmidhi, 2913.

These ahaadeeth indicate that it is permissible to beat the daff in these three situations. Apart from that, the principle remains that it is haraam.

[See al-Mawsoo’ah al-Fiqhiyyah, 38/169 for details. ]


The correct view is that it is not permissible to beat the daff except for women. If a man does that, he is imitating women, which is a major sin.

Shaykh al-Islam (Ibn Taymiyah – may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

In general, it is a well known principle of the Islamic religion that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did not prescribe that the righteous men, devoted worshippers and ascetics of this ummah should gather to listen to verses of poetry chanted to the accompaniment of handclapping, rhythm sticks or daffs. It is not permissible for anyone to go beyond the limits of Islam and follow something other than that which was narrated in the Qur’aan and Sunnah, whether that has to do with inward matters or outward, whether for the common man or the elite. But the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) granted a concession for some kinds of entertainment on the occasion of weddings and the like, and he also granted a concession to women allowing them to beat the daff at weddings and on other joyous occasions. But with regard to the men of his time, none of them used to beat the daff or clap his hands, rather it was proven in al-Saheeh that he said, ‘Clapping is for women, and Tasbeeh is for men,’ and he cursed women who imitate men and men who imitate women.

Because singing, beating the daff and clapping the hands are actions of women, the salaf used to call a man who did that mukhannath (effeminate), and they used to call male singers makhaaneeth (pl. of mukhannath). This is well known.

[Majmoo’ al-Fataawa, 11/565, 566 ]

Ibn Hajar said:

The strong (qawiy) ahaadeeth indicate that this is permissible for women (only), but that does not include men, because of the general meaning of the prohibition on men imitating women.

[Fath al-Baari, 9/226 ]

Shaykh ‘Abd al-‘Azeez ibn Baaz (may Allaah have mercy on him) said:

Rather the concession allowing women to use the daff is for them only. With regard to men, it is not permissible for them to do any of that, whether on weddings or on other occasions. Rather Allaah has prescribed for men to train in the instruments of war and skills needed for battle, such as shooting and horse riding, and competing in that.

[Majallat al-Jaami’ah al-Islamiyyah (Magazine of the Islamic University in al-Madeenah al-Munawwarah), 3rd edition, 2nd year, Muharram, 1390 AH, p. 185, 186 ]

Conclusion of this Objection
: thus the only thing allowed is the daff and that too on certain occasions the conditions of which are :

1) The one playing the duff should be women or girls only

Anas bin Malik radhiallahu `anhu said : The prophet sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam once passed by a group of girls from Banee an-Najjar and they were beating their daff saying : " We are the slave-girls from Banee an-Najjar and how wonderful is Muhammad as a neighbour" so he sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam said : "Allah knows that i love you"
[Ref: Reported by Tirmidhi  on the authority of Buraidah radhiallahu `anhu. See  Takhreej Mishkat al-Masaabeh (6039)]

2) they should be among women and their voices should not go out to men (small girls are excluded from this)

3) Men and Boys both are not allowed to engage in Musical gatherings or instruments and its likes whatsoever

4) the prophet (s.a.w) has allowed it only in certain circumstances as mentioned above and that too using words that are honorable and not like how we see today filled with haraam wordings, and similar incitement.

5) Apart from these exceptions it is now allowed to engage in Daff or any other musical instruments whatsoever

2] Some put forward historic claims in support of music and other petty excuses. This has been enlisted and refuted in great detail in the book titled " ISLAMIC RULINGS ON MUSIC AND SINGING"  - Abu Bilal Mustafa Al-Kanadi . You may download it from here :

3] Some scholars like Ibn Hazam and etc have allowed Music using Qiyaas .

Ans : Let them ! we have enough proofs from Qur'an and sunnah and ample of scholars refuting them. we don't need to bow down towards minority leaving the clear and evident majority.


Imaam Ibn al-Jawzi:

Indeed, iblees went far in his deception of the early soofees, so he commanded them with (eating) very little food and the rough (part) of it, and he forbade them from drinking cold water.  And when he reached those (soofees) who came after (the early soofees), he took a rest from toil and preoccupied (them) with self-amazement due to their abundant foodstuffs and comfortable lifestyles. [Paraphrased: Talbees Iblees of Imaam Ibnul Jawzi page 234- with the checking of Al-Allaamah Zayd Bin Haadi (may Allaah preserve him)]

Imaam Ibnul Jawzi (rahimahullaah) also said:

There were people amongst them who did not eat meat, until some of them said: ‘’To eat a dirham of meat hardens the heart for forty mornings.’’  And there was amongst them one who forbade all the good lawful things and used as proof a fabricated hadeeth (as follows): ‘’Make good food forbidden for yourselves, for indeed it gives shaytaan strength to run in the veins’’ [Declared fabricated by Imaam Albaanee in Ad-Da’eefah. Number: 1879]

Amongst them was one who forbade himself from drinking pure water; and amongst them was one who forbade himself from drinking cold water, so he drank hot water (instead); and amongst them was one who placed his water in an earthen jug buried under the earth so that it became hot; and amongst them was one who punished himself by abandoning water for a prolonged period. [Talbees Iblees page 238 with the checking of Al-Allaamah Zayd Bin Haadi (may Allaah preserve him)]

Imaam Ibn Qudaamah rahimahullah
in his " adh-dhammu ma `alayhi madda`u at-tassawwuf " aka condemning the practises of those who claim sufism said

It is reported from Abu Bakr al-Athram that he said : I heard Abu `Abdillahh (Ahmad) say : Taghbeer [1] is innovated

[1] The practise of reciting durood or adhkaar or anything moving to and fro, singing in the praise of Allah which these sufis have adopted copying the christians.

Abu Haarith said : I asked Abu `Abdillah (Ahmad) about Taghbeer, saying to him: " The hearts become softened due to it" . So Ahmad ibn Hanbal replied : "it is an innovation"

Al Hasan bin `Abdil `Azeez al-Jarwee said : " i heard as-Sha`fee say : " I left behind something in `Iraq called Taghbeer, which the heretics introduced to divert the people away from Qur`an.
[Ref: Refer to al-Hafiz Diya ad-Din al-Maqdisi, ‘Juz Ittiba as-Sunan’ [pp.28-29] & Tablis Iblis [p.301 of the summary]

Yazeed bin Haroon said : "No one engages in Taghbeer except a Faasiq (a wicked sinner). When was Taghbeer done in the past?"

`Abdullah ibn Dawood said : “ I hold that whoever performs/indulges in Taghbeer should be beaten”

Ibnul Qayyim in “Masalah as-Sama”, pp119-120, said,

Taghbir was where they struck stretched leather with the stick or a cushion which gave off a particular sound to which they would recite moving poetry that would incite one to asceticism. Now if this is what ash-Shaafi’ee, may Allaah sanctify his soul, thought of taghbir then what would he have said concerning listening to the types of poetry & singing that contains mention of the belover, the excellence of meeting him, the sweetness of his reprimand, communion in love, coming close to him, the bitterness of leaving….” 

The Awliya of Allaah know this fact well & know that shaytan has a major role to play in it and this is why the best of them who used to attend such sessions later repented. 

The further a person is from cognizance & completion in his closeness to & love of Allaah, the greater the role that shaytan has to play in misguiding him. This innovated listening [i.e. Music] is comparable to alcohol; rather its affect upon the soul is greater than the affect of alcohol. 

This is why when the intoxication of the listeners becomes strong the devils descend to them, speaking upon the tongues of some and carrying others through the air. 

It is also possible that enmity arise between the listeners in the same way that enmity appears amongst the drunk, the devils accompanying one person could be stronger than the devils accompanying another therefore when they fight, and they kill the opponent. 

…In reality such sessions take the person further away from Allaah & are actually satanic states.

Also see :

And :

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