Sunday, 29 July 2012

HOW TO BENEFIT THE DEAD & REFUTE TO THE NARRATIONS SUPPORTING QURAN KHAANI



HOW TO BENEFIT THE DEAD & REFUTE TO THE NARRATIONS SUPPORTING QURAN KHAANI



Table of Contents : 

  • Methods taught and approved by Rasool (s.a.w) to benefit the dead 
  • Refutation to the concept and hadith of Quran khaani 
  • Why Quran khaani is permitted by certain scholars 
  • Conclusion
  • Some real life ways to help your deceased 

Introduction : 


Allah says " And that the human being can have nothing but (except) what he has earned (good or bad)" [Ref: Quran 53:39]

The Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) says " When a person dies, all his deeds come to an end except three: sadaqah jaariyah (ongoing charity, e.g. a waqf or endowment), beneficial knowledge (which he has left behind), or a righteous child who will pray for him."

[Ref: Reported by al-Tirmidhi, no 1376; he said this is a saheeh hasan hadeeth, Sahih Muslim 1631]

But the most Merciful (Allah) has made some exceptions in order to allow us to benefit the dead. Below are the methods which Allah allowed and prophet (s.a.w) taught us to benefit the dead : 

METHOD # 1


BENEFITTING THE DEAD THROUGH THE JANAZAH PRAYER : 



[i] Prophet (s.a.w) said "Whenever a (Muslim) person dies, and a group of Muslims numbering one hundred pray janazah for him, all interceding on his behalf, their intercession is granted (by Allaah) and he is forgiven."


[Ref: Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 2071]
[Ref: Sunan Nasa'i, Vol.3, Book1, Hadith 1994]
[Ref: Sunan Tirmidhi, Book 6, Hadith 1046 or Vol.2, Book5, Hadith 1029]


[ii] Ibn 'Abbas (r.a) reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said, "Whenever a Muslim man dies, and forty men stand for his janazah prayer, all of them not joining anything with Allaah in worship, Allaah grants them intercession for him."

[Ref: Sahih Muslim, Book 4, Hadith 2072]
[Ref: Sunan Abu dawood, Book 20, Hadith 3164]



[iii] Maymunah (r.a) reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said, "Whenever a (Muslim) person dies, and a group of (Muslim) people pray janazah for him, they are granted intercession for him."


[Ref: Sunan Nasa'i, verified hasan by al-Albaanee, sahih ul-jami'. no. 5787)]


[iv] Maalik ibn Hubayrah (r.a) reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said, "Whenever a Muslim dies, and three lines of Muslims pray janazah for him, he is granted forgiveness."

[Ref: Ahmad, Abu Dawud, and others, verified hasan by al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar and others; al-Albaanee disagrees with this because Muhammad ibn Ishaaq one of the narrators is known to be a mudallis (one who is ambiguous in stating his sources) and did not declare direct hearing of this report (Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 128). Yet the Prophet's sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam practice of forming three lines for janazah prayer provides a further supporting evidence for this hadith]

METHOD # 2



BENEFITTING THE DEAD THROUGH THE CHARITABLE DEEDS HE HIMSELF HAS DONE DURING HIS LIFE AND THROUGH THE SUPPLICATION OF HIS CHILD: 

The basic principle is that any good deed a person does during his life time, from which people continue to receive benefit (e.g knowledge) even after his death, then this continuation of his deeds are accounted for him even after his death because Allaah subhanahu wa ta'ala says - 


"We record that (deeds) which they have put forward and their traces (that which they have left behind)." [Quran 36:12]


[i] Abu Hurayrah (r.a) reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "When a human being dies, all of his deeds are terminated except for three types: an ongoing sadaqah (charity), a knowledge (of Islaam which he learns and teaches others) from which others benefit, and a righteous child who makes du'aa for him."

[Ref: Sunan Nasa'ee, Vol 4, Book 30, Hadith 3681, Tirmidhi and others] 

[ii] Narrated Abu Hurairah: Allaah's Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Verily, the good deeds and virtues (the reward of which) reaches a believer even after his death are: the knowledge that he acquires and then disseminated it, the righteous son whom he left (behind after his death), a copy of the scripture (Qur`an) that he has left as a legacy, or a mosque he built, or a building (hotel) that he constructed for the way-farers, or a canal he excavated (to flow), or a sadaqah that he gives out of his wealth during his good health and during his life-time. The (reward of) these virtues would reach him (and benefit him) even after his death."


[Ref: Sunan Ibn Maajah : 242 and others. Verified hasan by al-Mundhiri and al-Albaanee (Saheeh Ibn Maajah 200)]

[iii] Narrated Abu Hurairah: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "Verily, Allaah raises the grades of His righteous slaves in Paradise." So, he asks Allaah, "How did I attain this (high position)?" Allaah says, "Because of the supplication of your child for your forgiveness." 


[Musnad Imaam Ahmad and Ibn Maajah (3660) and graded as “Hasan” by Shaikh al-Albaanee]

[iv] Allah's Apostle (Sallallähu alaihi wa sallam) said, "There is none amongst the Muslims who plants a tree or sows seeds, and then a bird, or a person or an animal eats from it, but is regarded as a charitable gift for him."

[Ref: Bukhari Book:39 No:513]

METHOD # 3



BENEFITING THE DEAD THROUGH GOOD DEEDS OF HIS OWN CHILD AND THE CHARITY THE CHILD GIVES ON BEHALF OF THE DECEASED


22 - أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْقَاسِمِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ الْبَغَوِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا خَلَفُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ، وَأَبُو كَامِلٍ الْجَحْدَرِيُّ قَالَا: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُوعَوَانَةَ، عَنْ سِمَاكِ بْنِ حَرْبٍ، عَنْ مُصْعَبِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ صَلَاةً بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ، وَلَا صَدَّقَةً مِنْ غُلُولٍ»


`Abdullah ibn `Umar radhiallahu `anhu narrated that the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said " Allah does not accept charity from ghulool (i.e an amount acquired illegally i.e by violating one of the shar`i laws such as stealing from the war booty or acquiring money in a treacherous or haraam way) 


[Ref: Saheeh. Narrated by Imam Abu Ahmad Yahya al-Hakimul kabeer an-Naysapuri (d. 378 A.H) in his book shi`ar Ashaabil Hadeeth (no. 22) and in Saheeh Muslim from another narrator] 




[i] Prophet (s.a.w) said : "Indeed the best that one eats is that which he earns. And his child is from his earning."

[Ref: Sunan Nasa'i Book 45, Hadith 4467, Also 4461,4463,4464; 
 Jami' Tirmidhi, Vol 3, Book 13, Hadith 1358; Ahmad, Abu Dawud 3528, Ibn Maajah 1751, and others. Verified sahih by al-Albaanee in Akhaam ul-Jana'iz, 217]

The Above hadith shows that the parents receive a reward for all the good training, teaching and grooming they have done to their children. Every good action that a child does in which he learnt or deduced from the teachings of his parents, thereby entitle his parents to at least get a share in the reward of those good deeds performed by their child.

[ii] Aa’ishah (may Allaah be pleased with her) reported that a man said to the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him): "My mother has passed away, and if she could have spoken, she would have given something in charity. Will she receive a reward if I give something on her behalf?" He said, "Yes."

[Ref: Reported by al-Bukhaari, Fath, 1388, Sahih Muslim, Book 13, Hadith 4003]

[iii] Narrated by Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah that his mother died when he was absent, and he said: “O Messenger of Allaah, my mother has died when I was absent. Will it benefit her if I give in charity on her behalf?” He said: “Yes.” He said: “I ask you to bear witness that my garden that bears fruit is given in charity on her behalf.”

[Ref: Sahih Bukhaari, 2756, 
Muwatta Malik, Book 36, Hadith 52, 53]

[iv] Abu Hurayrah (r.a) reported that a man asked the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam "My father has died, leaving behind a wealth; but he did not bequeath { Leave (a personal estate or one's body) to a person or other beneficiary by a will} anything. Would it help him if I give sadaqah on his behalf?" He sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam replied, "Yes!". 

[Ref: Sahih Muslim, Book 13, Hadith 4001,Musnad Ahmad and others]

[v] Abdullaah ibn Buraydah reported that his father (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: "While I was sitting with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), a woman came to him and said: ‘I gave my mother a slave-woman in charity, and now my mother has died.’ He said: ‘You have got your reward, and your right of inheritance has brought your gift back to you.’ She said, ‘O Messenger of Allaah, she still had (vowed) one month to fast – can I fast it on her behalf?’ He said, ‘Fast it on her behalf.’ She said, ‘She never went to Hajj – can I perform Hajj on her behalf?’ He said, ‘Perform Hajj on her behalf.’"

[Ref: Reported by Muslim Hadith 1149]



أما أبوك فلو كان أقر بالتوحيد، فصمت وتصدقت عنه نفعه ذلك ".


`Amr bin Shu`aib narrated from his father, who narrated from his grandfather t that al-`Aas bin Wa’il made an oath during the pre-Islamic times (al-Jahiliyyah) that he would slaughter one hundred goats and that Hisham bin al-`Aas slaughtered his share of 50 goats.  Then `Amr bin al-`Aas asked the Prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) about that, and he said, “As for your father, if he affirmed Tawheed and you fast and give charity on his behalf, it would benefit him.” 


[Ref: Imam Ahmad narrated this, See silsilah saheeha (484)] 


[vi] Sa’d ibn ‘Ubaadah said: "I said: ‘O Messenger of Allaah, my mother has died. Should I give charity on her behalf?’ He said, ‘Yes.’ I asked, ‘What kind of charity is best?’ He said, ‘Providing water.’"


[Ref: Reported by al-Nisaa’i]

[vii] Narrated AbuUsayd Malik ibn Rabi'ah as-Sa'idi: While we were with the Apostle of Allah! (peace and blessings be upon him) a man of Banu Salmah came to Him and said: Apostle of Allah is there any kindness left that I can do to my parents after their death? He replied: Yes, you can invoke blessings on them, forgiveness for them, carry out their final instructions after their death, join ties of relationship (i.e family ties) which are dependent on them, and honor their friends. 

[Ref: Abu Dawood, Book #41, Hadith #5123, Musnad Ahmad, vol. 3, p. 498; Al-Bukhari, Al-Adab Al-Mufrad, pp. 27-28, no. 35; Abu Dawud, vol. 5, p. 352, no. 5142; Ibn Majah, vol. 2, pp. 1208-1209, no. 3664; Ibn Hibban, vol. 2, p. 162, no. 418; Al-Tabarany, vol. 19, pp. 267-268, no. 592; Al-Hakim, vol. 4, pp. 154-155; and Al-Bayhaqy, Al-Sunan, vol. 4, p. 28, Al-Adab, p. 7, no. 4; Al-Khatib Al-Baghdady, Muwaddih Awham Al-Jam` wal Tafriq, vol. 1, p. 72, ed. India.]


THE VALIDITY OF A HOUSEWIFE CAN GIVIING CHARITY ON BEHALF OF HER DEAD FAMILY MEMBER FROM HER HUSBANDS MONEY 



It was narrated from 'Aishah that the Prophet (s.a.w) said:

"When a woman gives charity from her husband's house, she will have a reward, and her husband will have a similar reward, and the storekeeper will have a similar reward, without the reward of any of them detracting from the reward of the others in the slightest. The husband will be rewarded for what he earned and she will be rewarded for what she spent." 

[Ref: Sunan an-Nasa'i 2539, Sahih Bukhari Vol. 2, Book 24, Hadith 518, Jami` at-Tirmidhi 671, In another hadeeth the prophet said if a woman gives food from her husbands property.... see Vol. 2, Book 24, Hadith 520, others]



Narrated Asma:Once I said, "O Allah's Messenger (s.a.w) ! I have no property except what has been given to me by Az-Zubair (i.e. her husband). May I give in charity?" The Prophet (s.a.w) said, "Give in charity and do not withhold it; otherwise Allah will withhold it back from you 

[Ref: Sunan Abi Dawud 1699, Sahih Bukhari Vol. 3, Book 47, Hadith 763]


WHEN A WOMEN DOES NOT INFORM HER HUSBAND REGARDING THE CHARITY SHE GAVE 



Narrated Abu Huraira: The Prophet (s.a.w ) said, "If a woman gives something (i.e. in charity) from her husband's earnings without his permission, she will get half his reward." 

[Ref: Sahih Bukhari , Vol. 3, Book 34, Hadith 280] 


METHOD #4


BENEFITING THE DEAD BY FULFILLING THE DECEASED'S VOWS (PROMISE)


[i] Aa'ishah (r.a) reported that Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said: "Whoever dies while he has a fasting to fulfill (as a vow), his wali' (family guardian or member) should fast for him."

[Ref: Sahih Bukhari, Vol 3, Book 31, Hadith 173]
[Ref: Sahih Muslim and others]

[ii] Ibn Abbas (r.a) reported that a woman was travelling in the sea, and she vowed that if Allaah saved her she would fast for one month. Allaah saved her, but she died before fulfilling her vow. Her daughter came to the Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam and mentioned this to him. He asked "Had she owed money as debt, wouldn't you have paid it on her behalf?" She replied, "Yes". He said: "Allaah's debt is more worthy of being fulfilled. So fulfill (the vow) for your mother."

[Ref: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 21, Hadith 3304]

[iii] Sa'd bin 'Ubaadah reported that he told Allaah's Messenger sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam, "My mother has died and she had an unfulfilled vow". He instructed him: "Fulfill it for her."

Another Narration narrates that " ... It was narrated from Sa'd bin 'Ubadah that he came to the Prophet and said: "My mother has died and she had a vow to fulfill. Will it suffice if I free a slave on her behalf?" He said: "Free a slave on behalf of your mother." ...


[Ref: Sunan Nasa'i, Vol 4, Book 30, Hadith 3686]


[iv] Narrated Ibn `Abbas: A woman came to the Prophet and said, "My mother vowed to perform the Hajj but she died before performing it. Should I perform the Hajj on her behalf?" He said, "Yes! Perform the Hajj on her behalf. See, if your mother had been in debt, would you have paid her debt?" She said, "Yes." He said, "So you should pay what is for Him as Allah has more right that one should fulfill one's obligations to Him. "

[Ref: Sahih Bukhari, Vol 9, Book 92, Hadith 418]

Note : fasting on behalf of the dead is recommended only for the family members. If he does not have any family member, or if he was under the guardianship of someone then his wali (guardian or members of the guardian) can keep fasts on behalf of him to fulfil his vow and In sha Allah Both will get the sawaab for it.  But there is no fasting for one who leaves or misses his ramadan fasts. See below under title "RULING WHEN THE DECEASED HASN'T MADE A VOW (PROMISE) "

BENEFITING THE DEAD BY PERFORMING HAJJ/UMRAH ON HIS/HER BEHALF 


CAN WE PERFORM HAJJ ON BEHALF OF SOMEONE IF WE HAVEN'T PERFORMED HAJJ OURSELVES YET? 


Ans: No, 



It was narrated from Ibn ‘Abbaas that the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) heard a man saying “Labbayka ‘an Shubrumah (At your service, O Allaah, on behalf of Shubrumah).” The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Who is Shubrumah?” He said, “A relative of mine.” The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said, “Have you ever done Hajj before?” 

HE SAID, “NO.” HE SAID, “DO THIS HAJJ FOR YOURSELF, THEN DO HAJJ ON BEHALF OF SHUBRUMAH.


(Narrated by Abu Dawood, 1811; Ibn Maajah, 2903 – this version was narrated by him. The hadeeth was classed as saheeh by Shaykh al-Albaani in Irwaa’ al-Ghaleel, 4/171).


CAN WE PERFORM HAJJ ON BEHALF OF THE DEAD OR ALIVE? 


Ans : 


On Behalf of the dead relative then Yes [see hadeeth under Method # 3]



Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said:

In the case of one who is deceased, it is permissible to do it on his behalf without permission, whether it is obligatory or voluntary, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) enjoined Hajj on behalf of the deceased, and it is known that permission cannot be sought from the deceased.  [Al-Mughni (3/95)]



Shaikh Uthaimeen, may Allaah have mercy on him, was asked, “My mother and father passed away when I was little and, bearing in mind that they were poor, I don’t know whether they performed Hajj or not, so what should I do?” He replied, “There is no Hajj on your parents in such a state and there is no deficiency in their religion which they are to be blamed for, and that is because Hajj is only obligatory on the person who is able to carry it out, due to Allaah’s Statement, the Most High, ‘And [due] to Allaah from the people is a pilgrimage to the House, for whoever is able to find a way thereto.’ [Aali-’Imraan 3:97]

But if you do want to perform Hajj or ’Umrah on their behalf, then start firstly with your mother and secondly, your father.”

[Fataawaa Nurun-’ala-Darb, CD.]



Imam of Imaams, al-Humaydi (D. 219 AH.) noted in his Usool as-sunnah (the book of the manhaj of ahlus sunnah called foundations of sunnah) the following : 



When is the proof established on the one who leaves the pillars of Islam, or some of them?


As for three of them, then do not dispute the one who abandons them: The one who does not give the testimony of faith; nor does he pray; nor does he fast for none of these are delayed from its time nor does it suffice one to make them up after deliberately neglecting to perform them at their time. As for zakaah, whenever he gives it, it suffices him, while he is sinful in withholding it. And as for Hajj, then for whoever it is obligatory and he is capable of performing it, then it becomes binding on him, but it is not binding on him in that very year such that he is no other choice. Whenever, he performs it, then he has fulfilled it, and he is not sinful in delaying it as he would be in delaying zakaah for zakaah is the right of poor Muslims which he has withheld from them, and hence he is sinful until it reaches them. As for Hajj, it is between him and his Lord, whenever he performs it, it is fulfilled. If he dies while he is able to perform it without having performed Hajj, he asks to be returned to the Dunya to perform Hajj, and it is obligatory on his family to perform Hajj on his behalf, and we hope that would fulfil it on his behalf, as if he had a debt and it was repaid on his behalf after he died.



ON BEHALF OF THE ALIVE : 


Condition # 1 : If the person Alive cannot do Hajj due to a genuine reason such as being sick, or etc . [note: lack of money is not a genuine conditions for hajj is obligatory only upon those who have the means to do it]

Doing Hajj or Umrah on behalf of old parents :

يا رسولَ اللَّهِ إنَّ أبي شيخٌ كبيرٌ، لا يَستطيعُ الحجَّ، ولا العُمرةَ، ولا الظَّعنَ قالَ: حجَّ عن أبيكَ، واعتَمرَ


Abu Razeen Al-Uqaili reported: He went to the Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, and he said, “O Messenger of Allah, my father is an old man and he cannot perform the Hajj or Umrah pilgrimage, nor can he take a journey.” The Prophet said, “Perform Hajj and Umrah on his behalf.”


[Tirmidhi, 930; Saheeh al Albaanee in Saheeh ibn Maajah 2366]



Al-Fadl reported: A woman from the tribe of Khath’am said, “O Messenger of Allah, my father is an old man and Allah has obligated him to perform the Hajj pilgrimage but he is cannot ride on the back of a camel.” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “So perform the pilgrimage on his behalf.


[Sahih Muslim 1335]


We also would get the reward for this because :

Ibn Abbas reported
: A woman lifted up her child and said, “O Messenger of Allah, is the Hajj pilgrimage for this child?” The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Yes and you will have a reward.”
[Sahih Muslim 1336]

So if we can get rewarded for the child, Allah would reward us for our parents as well.



Note: 


hadeeth of Ibn `Abbaas (radiyallaahu anhumaa) that Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu `alaihi wassallam) said:


“Any child that performs Hajj then he reaches adulthood, then another Hajj becomes obligatory upon him. Any slave that performs Hajj, then he is freed, then another Hajj becomes obligatory upon him.”


(Ibn Khuzaymah in his Saheeh 4/349, Al-Haakim in his al-Mustadrak 2/144 no. 1812. Ibn Hajr said in Al-Fat’h, “Its chain is Saheeh.” 4/71)


At-Tirmidhee said:


“The people of knowledge are in agreement that if a child performs Hajj before reaching adulthood, then upon him is another Hajj. If he reaches adulthood, then that Hajj [which he performed as a child] does not suffice him in fulfilling the Hajj of the Pillar of Islaam. Likewise the one enslaved – if he was to perform Hajj, then he is freed, then upon him is another Hajj if he finds the means to perform it. His Hajj whilst enslaved does not suffice. That is the saying of Suyaan ath-Thawree, Ash-Shaafi’ee, Ahmad ibn Hanbal and Is’haaq Ibn Rahawaih.”



(Sunan at-Tirmidhee, p. 169)

See the conditions of Hajj here : http://www.abukhadeejah.com/hajj-the-conditions-shuroot-that-make-it-obligatory-upon-a-person/


Ibn Qudaamah (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: To sum up: if a person meets the conditions of Hajj being obligatory, but he is unable to do it for some reason that he has no hope will cease to apply, such as chronic sickness, or sickness for which there is no hope of recovery, or he is physically weak and is not able to sit firmly on his mount except with unbearable difficulty, or he is elderly, if there is someone who can do Hajj on his behalf and he can afford to send him on his behalf, then he must do that. This is the view of Abu Haneefah and al-Shaafa’i. … (cont.) 


Condition # 2 : If his problem/sickness/trouble/etc is temperory and there is hope to recover from it then ONE CANNOT DO HAJJ ON HIS BEHALF BECAUSE HE WILL HAVE TO DO IT HIMSELF WHEN HE IS CURED OR WHEN THE PROBLEM WOULD BE SOLVED



If a person has hope that he will recover from sickness or that his detainment will end, etc, then he does not have the right to delegate someone else, and if he does that, it is not valid. This is the view of al-Shaafa’i. That is because there is the hope that he will be able to do Hajj himself, so he does not have the right to delegate someone else, and it will not be valid if he does that. This is different from the one who has no hope of recovery, because he is totally unable and has no hope of being able to do it at all, and because the text speaks of doing Hajj on behalf of an elderly man, who is one who has no hope of being able to do Hajj for himself. No analogy can be made with that except in the case of one who is like him. End quote from al-Mughni (3/91). 



RULING WHEN THE DECEASED HASN'T MADE A VOW (PROMISE) :

[v] 


ان امھا ماتت ولیھا من رمضان، فقالت لعا ئشۃ : أقضیہ عنھا؟ قالت : لا، بل تصد قی عنھا وکان کل یوم نصف صاع علی کل مسکین . 




`Amrah reported that her mother died without making up her missed days of (fasting in) Ramadhaan. She asked `Aisha radhiallahu `anha, "Should I make that up on her behalf?". She replied: "No! Rather give sadaqah to the needy in the amount of a half saa' ( or one Mudd of measure of food items or grains) for every missed day."

[Ref: at-Tahawi in Mushkil ul-Athar (3/142) with an authentic chain;  Ibn Hazm in his Muhallah 7/4, verified to be sahih by al-Albaanee, Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 215] 


This hadeeth of `Aisha (radhiallahu `anhu) is with regards to (not having a) Vow. 


Imam Abu dawood after quoting this narration says 


،ھذا فی النذر ، وھو قول أ حمد بن حنبل .


This (hadeeth/fatwa) is with regards to Vow and this is what Ahmad ibn Hanbal also says.  [Ref: Sunan Abi dawood 2400]

[vi] Ibn 'Abbas (r.a) said: "If a man gets sick in Ramadhan and then dies without fasting, food should be given on his behalf - without a need to make up for the fasting. But if he had made a vow (to fast), his wali' should fast for him." 

[Ref: Abu Dawood, Ibn Hazm, verified sahih by al-Albaanee, Ahkaam ul-Janaa'iz, 215; Also in Musannaf ibn Abi Shaybah (4/1/25) a man asked Ibn `Abbas regarding a person who had pending vows to fast but he died before he could fulfil it, so ibn `Abbas said "(let his wali/family) fulfill it on his behalf"]


Imam Ahmad says : 

"No one will pray or fast on behalf of anyone else rather in exchange of every (missed) day (of ramadan fasting his relative should) give one mudd measure of wheat (or more) of food as sadaqah on his behalf


[Ref: Masail Imam Ahmad via the narration of Abu dawood page 96; Sunan al-Kubra lin-Nasa'ee (2917) with an authentic route]


Note : the vow (promise or iraada to fast) made by the deceased should be fulfilled only if it is lawful. for e.g If the deceased had sworn to spend money on buying a movie theater or buying a coffee parlor which could lead the mingling of males and females, flirting and etc or any such vow which is not in harmony with the islamic sharia then that vow shouldn't be fulfilled otherwise instead of sawaab, the deceased could be punished for it and so will the person who is fulfilling it on his behalf. And also fasting to make up for the deceased ramadan fasts is not allowed rather as `Aisha and Ibn `Abbas said half a sa` or ` mudd equal of charity should be given . Fasting should be made up only when the deceased has left a vow to fast. 

See: CLARIFYING IF ONE SHOULD FAST OR PAY ON BEHALF OF THE DECEASED BY ZUBAIR ALI ZAI


Link: http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.in/2015/07/clarifying-if-one-should-fast-or-pay-on.html


also see : http://www.alssunnahnet.com/en/articles.aspx?article_no=4375

METHOD #5 

BENEFITING THE DEAD BY MAKING DUA FOR HIM BY HIS CHILD OR MUSLIMS IN GENERAL

One can make dua for the Muslims who have passed away and in sha Allah the deceased will be benefited from this dua whether it be your relative or just another Muslim. This is the Sunnah of the prophets (a.s) and the awliyas of Allah 


Narrated 'Aishah: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم used to visit the Baqee' (graveyard) and used to supplicate for (its inmates). So I asked regarding that and he صلى الله عليه وسلم said, "I was commanded to supplicate for them." 

[Imam Ahmed, and graded as “Saheeh” by Shaikh al-Albaanee in Ahkaam al-Janaaiz and he said: “it is as per the condition of al-Bukhaaree and Muslim”]



[i] And those who came after them say, "O our Lord! Forgive us, and our brothers who accepted faith before us, and do not keep any malice in our hearts towards the believers - O our Lord! Indeed You only are the Most Compassionate, Most Merciful." (Hashr 59:10)

[ii] "O our Lord! And forgive me, and my parents, and all the Muslims on the day when the account will be established." (Ibrahim 14:41)

[iii] From Abu Hurairah - Radi Allaahu anhu – who said that the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam- said:

 إن الرجل لترفع درجته في الجنة فيقول : أنى ( لي ) هذا ؟ فيقال : باستغفار ولدك لك

‘Indeed Allaah raises the grade of a righteous slave of His in Paradise so much that the slave of Allaah says: ‘O My Lord! From where is all this for me? He will say: ‘By your son seeking forgiveness for you.’

[Collected by Ibn Majah, Ahmad, Ibn Abi Shaybah in ‘al-Mussanaf’, Asbahani in ‘Targheeb’, Baghawi in ‘Sharh as-Sunnah’, and by ad-Diyaa & Albaani declared its Isnad as hasan in Saheehah no.1598]


Abul Hasan as-Sindi -Rahimullaah- (d. 1138 A.H.) said in his explanation of ‘Sunnan Ibn Majah’:

‘Therefore it is necessary for the son to seek forgiveness for his parents.’

[From ‘Sunnan Ibn Majah’ No. 3660]


[iv] Prophet (s.a.w) said " When you pray over the dead, make a sincere supplication for him.

[Ref: Sunan Abu Dawood 3199]

[v] Narrated Ibn `Abbas (r.a): When (the dead body of) `Umar (r.a) was put on his deathbed, the people gathered around him and invoked (Allah) and prayed for him before the body was taken away, and I was amongst them.

[Ref: Sahih Bukhari, Vol 5, Book 57, Hadith 34]

[vi] Allah commands us to pray for the believers : Seek forgiveness for your sins and the believing men and women [Qur'an 47:19]

[vii] The prophet (s.a.w) said : " Whoever sought forgiveness for believing men and believing women, Allaah writes a good deed for him for every believing man and woman.’
[Collected by Tabrani and Albaani declared it to be Hasan in Saheeh al-Jamia no. 6026]

METHOD # 6


BENEFITING THE DEAD BY PLANTING TREES/TWIGS OVER/NEAR THE GRAVE 


Ibn Abbas reported: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) happened to pass by two graves and said: They (their occupants) are being tormented, but they are not tormented for a grievous sin. One of them carried tales and the other did not keep himself safe from being defiled by urine. He then called for a fresh twig and split it into two parts, and planted them on each grave and then said: Perhaps, their punishment way be mitigated as long as these twigs remain fresh.

[Ref: Sahih Muslim, Book 2, Hadith 575]

It is a known fact that everything created by Allah glorifies him because of the Quranic verse which stated " The seven heavens and the earth and all that is therein, glorify Him and there is not a thing but glorifies His praise. But you understand not their glorification. Truly, He is Ever Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving [Quran 17:44] .


Thus scholars state that the twigs or tree leaves glorify Allah as long as they are alive and thus prophet (s.a.w) made a dua that as long as the twigs glorify Allah, may the occupants of the grave get some relief (due to it) and thus scholars consider planting trees to be mustahab. 



[See Al Mays ed. 3/4: 206 or Sharh Muslim by Imam Nawawi ]

Please note that No scholar ever said that " the twigs pray for the deceased" or that " the sawaab of the twigs is transferred to the dead" rather they said is "the twigs simply glorify Allah and since prophet (s.a.w) made a special dua, therefore Allah made the tasbeeh of the leafs to benefit the dead as barakah and nothing else"  

in sharh mishkat al masabeeh ali bin sultan al-qari the author as quoted the same fatwa as that of imam nawawi

http://www.islamweb.net/newlibrary/display_book.php?bk_no=79&ID=11&idfrom=571&idto=1136&bookid=79&startno=57

 Imam Suyuti in his book Sharh as-Sudur (p. 312-313) also stated that it is authentically established that among the Companions, Abu Barza al-Aslami (as narrated by Ibn ‘Asakir 62:100) and Burayda (as narrated by Bukhari in his Sahih – K Jana’iz) asked to be buried together with two fresh stalks!

Note: Some scholars are against this method and condemn this. 



Al-Khattaabi and those who followed him criticized the action of placing palm-leaf stalks and the like on graves, following this hadeeth. He said concerning this hadeeth: it is to be understood as meaning that he prayed that their torment might be reduced so long as these stalks remained fresh, not that the stalk had any significance in and of itself, nor that there is any significance in the fresh stalk that is not in the dry. 



Based on this, this action was something that was only for the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and it is not recommended for anyone to place palm-leaf stalks or anything else on graves. 



It says in Fataawa al-Lajnah al-Daa’imah: 



When the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) put the palm-leaf stalk on the two graves and hoped that the torment of the two people on whose graves he placed it would be reduced, that was a specific incident related to those two people only, is not to be taken as generally applicable; it applies only to the two whose torment Allaah caused him to know of. That is something that was only for the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him), and it is not a universal Sunnah to be done to the graves of the Muslims. Rather it only occurred two or three times, if we count the number of times that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) did it. It is not known that any of the Sahaabah did that, and they were the keenest of all Muslims to follow the example of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) and to benefit the Muslims. There is only one report from Buraydah al-Sulami, who left instructions that two palm-leaf stalks should be placed on his grave. But we do not know of any of the Sahaabah (may Allaah be pleased with them) who agreed with Buraydah in that. 


Shaykh Ibn Baaz said: 

That is not prescribed in Islam, rather it is bid’ah (an innovation), because the Messenger (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) only placed the palm-leaf stalk on the two graves of the people whose torment he was made aware of; he did not place them on any other graves. From that we know that it is not permissible to put them on graves, because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever introduces anything into this matter of ours (Islam) that is not part of it, will have it rejected.” According to a version narrated by Muslim: “Whoever does anything that is not part of this matter of ours (Islam), will have it rejected.” 

Similarly, it is not permissible to write on graves or to place flowers on them, because of the two hadeeth quoted above, and because the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) forbade plastering over graves, erecting structures over them, sitting on them and writing on them. 

Majallat al-Buhooth al-Islamiyyah, 68/50.

The scholars differ on this opinion as per their Qiyaas and thus it is the personal choice of a person in this regard 

HOWEVER THE FATWA CLOSEST TO THE SUNNAH AND SALAF IS TO PERMIT PLANTING THE TWIGS


In Sahih Muslim 3006-3014; the Prophet (s.a.w) ordered Jaabir radhiallahu `anhu to go cut and then plant the twigs over graves. Again we read in Sahih Muslim 292a the prophet (s.a.w) commanded his sahaaba to bring two twigs. Also in Sunan abi dawood 20. 

This particular action of the prophet (s.a.w) commanding his companions to go plant the twigs and doing it in front of everyone is taken as a proof by some aslaaf to validate this practise. 

We also read Imaam Bukhaari having one of his chapters named :Chapter on (placing) a date branch on the grave. We also read before hadeeth 1361 in Bukhaari and Taarikh ad-Dimishq (62/100) and Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (hadeeth 216) shows that this action was copied by two sahaaba , namely - Burayda and Abu Barza and Ibn Hajar rahimahullah said this practise is worth following. 


METHOD # 7 

BENEFITTING THE DEAD IF THE DEAD WAS GUARDING IN ALLAH'S WAY

"The deeds of a dead person are sealed (at the time of death) except the one who stands guard in the way of Allaah; his good deeds continue to increase until the Day of Resurrection, and he is protected from the trial of the grave."

[Ref: Ahmad, Abu Dawud, at-Tirmidhi, and others, verified sahih by al-Albaanee in Sahih ul-Jami' no. 4562]

There is another ahadeeth which says : 


Salmaan al-Faarisi (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Guarding the borders of Islam for one day and one night is better than fasting and praying at night for a whole month, and if he dies (whist performing this duty), he will go on receiving the reward for this great deed and his provision (continually), and he will be spared the questioning in the grave. ”  [Sahih Muslim 1913]

METHOD # 8 


MAKING DUA'A AFTER THE BURIAL 


Narrated `Uthmaan ibn `Affaan رضي الله عنه: Whenever the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم became free from burying the dead, he used to stay at it (i.e. his grave) and say: “Seek forgiveness for your brother, and beg steadfastness for him, for he will now be questioned.” 

[Sunan Abu Dawood (3221) and and graded as “Saheeh” by Shaikh al-Albaanee]



METHOD # 9 

MAKING DUA'A UPON VISITING THE GRAVEYARD 



Narrated `Aaishah رضي الله عنها: The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “He (Gabriel) said: Your Lord has commanded you to go to the inhabitants of Baqi' (to those lying in the graves) and beg pardon for them.” I said: Messenger of Allaah, how should I pray for them (How should I beg forgiveness for them)? He said: “Say: Peace be upon the inhabitants of this abode (graveyard) from among the Believers and the Muslims, and Allaah have mercy on those who have gone ahead of us, and those who come later on, and we shall, God willing, join you. [I beg of Allaah, well-being, for us and for you.]” 

[Saheeh Muslim (1625), what is between the two brackets is from another Hadeeth of Saheeh Muslim]


METHOD # 10


BENEFITING THE DEAD BY SETTLING (PAYING) HIS DEBT 

THE SERIOUSNESS OF DEBT:

[i] We were sitting with the Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) when he raised his head towards the sky, then he put his palm on his forehead and said: “Subhaan-Allaah! What a strict issue has been revealed to me!” We remained silent and were afraid. The following morning I asked him, “O Messenger of Allaah, what is this strict issue that has been revealed?” He said, “By the One in Whose hand is my soul, if a man were killed in battle for the sake of Allaah, then brought back to life, then killed and brought back to life again, then killed, and he owed a debt, he would not enter Paradise until his debt was paid off.”

[Ref: Classed as hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Nasaa’i, 4367]


[ii] The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) refrained from offering the funeral prayer for one who had died owing two dinars, until Abu Qataadah (may Allaah be pleased with him) promised to pay it off for him. When he saw him the following day and said, I have paid it off, the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Now his skin has become cool for him.”

[Ref: Musnad Ahmad (3/629); classed as hasan by al-Nawawi in al-Khalaasah (2/931) and by Ibn Muflih in al-Adaab al-Shar’iyyah (1/104)]

[iii] It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The soul of the believer is suspended because of his debt until it is paid off.”

[Ref: Narrated by al-Tirmidhi (1078)]

[iv] Ibn ‘Umar (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: O Humraan, fear Allaah and do not die in debt, lest it be taken from your good deeds when there will be no dinars and no dirhams.

[Ref: Mussanafi Ibn Abdar razzaq 3/57]


Hence the child or anyone else should pay off the debt of the deceased for this is a serious issue.  

ONE CANNOT BENEFIT THE DECEASED IN ANY WAY IF HE/SHE WAS A NON MUSLIM 


Narrated Abdullah ibn Amr ibn al-'Aas (Allah be well pleased with him): Al-'As ibn Wa'il left his will that a hundred slaves should be emancipated on his behalf. His son Hisham emancipated fifty slaves and his son Amr intended to emancipate the remaining fifty on his behalf, but he said: I should ask first the Apostle of Allah. He, therefore, came to the Holy Prophet and said: Apostle of Allah, my father left in his will that a hundred slaves should be emancipated on his behalf and Hisham has emancipated fifty on his behalf and fifty remain. Shall I emancipate them on his behalf The Apostle of Allah said: Had he been a Muslim and you had emancipated slaves on his behalf, or given sadaqah on his behalf, or performed the pilgrimage, that would have reached him. 

[Ref: Sunan Abu Dawood, Book 17, Hadith 2877] 

THUS : 


Indeed in Muhammad is a good example to follow [Quran 33: 21]

Whatever the messenger (s.a.w) gives you take it, and whatever he forbids you then abstain from it [Quran 59:7] 

The above mentioned methods are taught and permitted by the Messenger of Allah (s.a.w) and there is no other method taught by rasool (s.a.w) or his sahabas (r.a.a) 

CAN WE READ QURAN FOR THE DEAD SO THAT ITS REWARD BE TRANSFERED TO HIM? (QURAN KHAANI)

He has chances of being rewarded - Yes but transfer of your reward/reading to him - No . 


For Case # 1 :Yes :
If for e.g the person who taught you to read the Qur'an or has helped you learn the Qur'an in any way for e.g by providing you the fees or transport or etc, then for every time you recite the Qur'an, the deceased gets his reward as much as Allah has stipulated/assigned. But if the deceased has no connection or contribution to you learning or reading the Qur'an then in the light of Islamic principles there is no evidence that he gets the reward for the Qur'an you "transfer" to him 


So here he is actually rewarded for the good deed he left behind by teaching you qur'an and he is not rewarded as a transfer. Because your reading has the reward for you and your reward is not transfered nor shifted. However the dead who taught you or facilitated for you to learn/read qur'an then he will be rewarded every time you read qur'an in ACCORDANCE to the reward which Allah deems fit to give him for teaching you. 


For Case # 2 : No


Claims and Narrations {{which are highlighted in red}} given in support of Quran Khaani are refuted below: 


{{The Prophet of Allah Said: Recite It (Iqarahu) on ('Inda) the deceased/dying that means Surah Yaseen.(Sunan Ibn Majah, Kitab Al Janaiz #1438)} 

REFUTE 



This hadeeth is Da'eef, as there are two narrators in its chain who are unknown.

One is Abu Uthmaan. regarding whom d scholars said :

(i) Haafidh Dhahabi said: "I do not know him and neither his Father" [Meezaan ul-I’tidaal: 4/550]


(ii) Ali ibn al-Madeeni said: "No one narrates from him except Sulemaan at-Taymee, and his Isnaaad is Majhool" [Tahdheeb al-Kamaal: 34/75]


(iii) Haafidh Ibn Hajar declared him Maqbool – a narrator whose narration is only acceptable if supported by another narration. [Taqreeb]


The Second narrator is his Father, who is unknown as well.


Moreover, this hadeeth is graded to be Weak by: 

(iv) Imaam Ibn al-Arabi al-Maaliki [‘Aaridat ul-Ahwadhi: 6/34],


(v)  Imaam Ibn Al-Qattaan [a-Wahem wal Ayhaam: 5/49],


(vi) Imaam al-Nawawi [al-Majmoo: 5/110],


(vii) Shaikh Al-Albaani [Silsilah ad-Da’eefah: 5861],


(viii) Shaikh Ibn Baaz [Majmoo Fatawa Ibn Baaz: 13/93], 


(ix) Shaikh Ibn Uthaymeen [Majmoo Fatawa Ibn Uthaymeen: 17/74] and others.



Also this hadeeth is recorded by Imam ibn Hibban (3002) and Imam Hakim, Imam ibn Hibban even after authenticating the hadeeth said : 

       أراد بہ من حضرتہ المنیّۃ لا أنّ المیّت یقرأ علیہ، وکذلک قولہ صلّی اللہ علیہ و سلّم: ((لقّّّّنوا موتاکم: لا إلہ إلّا اللہ))۔

the intention of this prescription is to recite it over those who are (on the verge of) dying and not those who have already died and likewise is the intention and implication of the Messenger of Allah sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam when he said " urge your dying one's to say laa ilaaha ilallah..." 


{{Another version of the above statement of the prophet (s.a.w) (i.e recite yaseen over your dead is also found in Sunan Abu Dawood:

123 - حدثنا محمد بن العلاء ومحمد بن مكى المروزى - المعنى - قالا حدثنا ابن المبارك عن سليمان التيمى عن أبى عثمان - وليس بالنهدى - عن أبيه عن معقل بن يسار قال قال النبى -صلى الله عليه وسلم- « اقرءوا (يس) على موتاكم ». وهذا لفظ ابن العلاء.}}



REFUTE :

Ibn Hajar said:


وأعله بن القطان بالاضطراب وبالوقف وبجهالة حال أبي عثمان وأبيه ونقل أبو بكر بن العربي عن الدارقطني أنه قال هذا حديث ضعيف الإسناد مجهول المتن ولا يصح في الباب حديث

"Ibn Qattan noticed the mess (in this narration). And unknown status of Abu Uthmaan, and his father (both of them red marked in arabic text). Abu Bakr ibn Arabi reported from Daraqutni : "the chain of this narration is weak, text is unknown. There is no authentic narration is this issue". (Talkhis al Hubayr" 2/104)

Imam Nawawi in "Al Azkar" chapter 112, p 339 said:

قلت : إسناده ضعيف فيه مجهولان
"I say: "Chain is weak. It contains two unknown narrators".

Al Dhahabi
in "Mizan" # 10409 said:

لا يعرف أبوه ولا هو
"His (Abu Uthmaan's) father and he are unknown".

Shaykh Albani said narration is weak. ("Muhtasar irwa al qaleel" #688)



{{Narrated byMa'qil ibn Yasar al-Muzani - The Prophet (peace be upon him) said, "If anyone recites Ya-Sin out of a desire for Allah's favour, his past sins will be forgiven him; so recite it over those of you who are dying." Bayhaqi transmitted it in Shu'ab al-Iman.}}


REFUTE

It contains a Majhool narrator "Rajul" whose name is not mentioned and neither is anything known about him. Therefore, this hadeeth is Da'eef.

Graded to be Weak by Shaikh Albaani in Da’eef al-Jaami [1/834] and others

{{Imam Shafi'i (rah) and his companions said: To recite something from Quran (at the grave) is recommended, If "KHATAM UL QURAN" is done then it is even better.}}


REFUTE:  


First of All, any act of worship or Islam which is not proven authentically from the teachings of rasool (s.a.w) and his companions (r.a.a) is not a Hujjah for Muslims. However , in this narration No reference is given besides this saying. And even if it is proven from Imaam Shaafi'ee then it is not talking about reading Quraan over the dead or near the graves.

On the Contrary it is proven from Imaam Shaafi'ee that he was of the view that Quraan cannot be read over the dead and he took the evidence from the following verse of Quraan: "A Man does not get except what he strives for" And the following hadeeth: "When a man dies, his A'maal are disconnected except three"

[See Tafseer ibn Katheer, v.4, p.258 from the Book Shaykh Abu Muhammad Badee'ud-Deen Shaah ar-Raashidee as-Sindee, p.14-16 ]





{{It is narrated in Sunnan Baihaqi with "HASSAN CHAIN" that Ibn Umar (ra) considered it Mustahab to recite Beginning and ending Ayahs of Surah Baqarah at the grave after burying [Kitab ul Adhkaar, Page No. 278]}}


The reference given is of Kitab ul Adhkaar by Imam Nawawi (r.h) (and not bayhaqi) but however this narration is present in Sunan Bayhaqi and is declared weak because of the narrator “Abdur Rahmaan al-Lajlaaj”, who is Majhool ul-Haal by some people. 



{{Imam Nawawi said: "Whoever visits a grave, let him greet its dweller, recite some Qur'an, and make an invocation for the deceased." al-Nawawi, Minhaj al-Talibin, end of Kitab al-Jana'iz.
He also said in al-Majmu` sharh al-muhadhdhab: "It is desirable (mustahabb) that one who is visiting the graves recite from the Qur'an what is easy for him to recite, after which, that he invoke Allah on their behalf. Shafi`i stipulated it and his companions all agreed with him." In another place he says: "If they conclude the recitation of the Qur'an over the grave it is better."}}


REFUTE 


This fatwa of Imam Nawawi (r.h) is based on his Qiyas (analogy) from the hadith of Sahih Muslim (mentioned above) wherein the dhikr of the twigs/leaves become a source of relief for the deceased, hence Imam Nawawi (r.h) concluded that the dhikr of Human beings is more superior and thus it becomes permissible but not mustahab. [See Al Mays ed. 3/4: 206 or Sharh Muslim by Imam Nawawi ]



Allamah Qurtubi says, ‘Just as the reward of charitable deeds benefit the deceased, similarly, the recitation of the holy Qur’an, Du’a and Istighfar (seeking forgiveness)also do the same, because all of these are regarded as sadaqah (charity) in Shari’ah.’ (al-Tazkirah, pg.71)


He also states that : ‘Some of our ‘Ulama have based the permissibility of Isal al-Thawab of the recitation of the Qur’an on the hadith of Sahih al-Bukhari (hadith 216, 1361) and Sahih Muslim wherein there is mention of Rasulullah sallallahu’alaihi wasallam placing fresh branches on 2 graves and He sallallahu’alaihi wasallam said, ‘Perhaps their punishment will be lightened through it as long as the branches do not dry up.’ (The ‘Ulama explain the reason for the punishment being repelled was the tasbih that those fresh branches will recite). 


‘Allamah al-Qurtubi further states, ‘If the tasbih of trees can benefit the deceased, then why not the recitation of the Qur’an by a believer inAllah?’ (Al-Tazkirah pg.70)




Under the hadeeth of the prophet planting two green twigs over the grave, Imam Nawawi said (Sharh Sahih Muslim 3:202):


“Due to this hadith, the ‘Ulama have declared it recommended (mustahabb) to recite Qur’an at the graves, because if the lessening of punishment could be hoped for from the glorification of a palm stalk, then the recitation of Qur’an is more worthy of this special distinction...and Allah knows best.”


Also Hafiz Ibn Hajar rahimahullah has mentioned in a reply to a query of whether the reward of recitation of the Qur’an reaches the deceased, that; it is mustahab (meritorious) for one to do this form of (Isal al-Thawab) abundantly. (refer Tawdih al-Bayan li wusul thawab al-Qur’an of Shaykh ‘Abdullah Siddiqui al-Ghumari pg.2) Besides these there are numerous other narrations of this nature.



Also see Minhaaj at-Taalibeen and Al-Adhkar page 218 and Refer Kitab al-Ruh of Ibn Qayyim pg.153; Fath al-Bari vol.5 pg.477 hadith2761; Sharh al-Sudur of Allama Suyuti pgs.402, 403 Dar ibn Kathir; al-Hidaya vol.1 pg.296-297; Fath al- Qadir vol.3 pg.65-66; Rad al-Muhtar vol.2 pg.243 



this Qiyas is responded to in many ways, 

1. Prophet (s.a.w) said "Dua is worship" and any act of worship should be based on evidence. we have numerous ahadeeth wherein prophet (s.a.w) has instructed us to pray for the dead and do certain things that could benefit the deceased (as mentioned above), but nowhere did rasool (s.a.w) ever recommend us to recite some verses of Quran or some tasbeeh (like allahu akbar and etc) and donate it to the dead. Similarly, the sahabas also never taught us these methods. on the contrary they encouraged doing what the prophet (s.a.w) taught.


2. Some scholars like shaikh fawzan and others regard this to be an innovation. the reason for this is because of their saying "  These issues are that with which there is evidence for benefitting the deceased and the living Muslims and as for doing an act for which there is no evidence, then this is regarded as an innovation, contrary (to the truth). [See   al-Bid'u wal-Muhdathaat wa maa laa Asla lahu - Page 311;Noorun 'alad-Darb Fataawa Fadheelatush-Shaykh Saalih Ibn Fowzaan - Volume 1, Page 92 ]


3. This kind of Qiyas falls under the category of doubtful matters as the wide majority from the earlier salaaf has not been found practising this method. Hence the ruling for falling into doubtful matter as taught by rasool (s.a.w) is that it is a sin (sahih Muslim) hence one should avoid this.

ash-Shaafi’ee said in ar-Risaalah (p. 599-600, printing of Shaakir):

“…since analogy (Qiyas) is not permissible when a text is present, just as tayammum is a means of purification only when water is not to be found.”

Imam al-Shaafa’i (may Allaah have mercy on him) said: No one has any right whatsoever to say that something is halaal or haraam except on the basis of knowledge, and the basis of knowledge is a text in the Qur’aan or Sunnah, or ijmaa’ (scholarly consensus) or qiyaas (analogy). End quote from Al-Risaalah (39).




{{It is related that al-`Ala' ibn al-Lajlaj said to his children: "When you bury me, say as you place me in the side-opening (lahd) of the grave: Bismillah wa `ala millati rasulillah -- In the name of Allah and according to the way of Allah's Messenger -- then flatten the earth over me, and read at the head of my grave the beginning of Surat al-Baqara and its end, for I have seen that Ibn `Umar liked it."}}

REFUTE 


Well, in its chain, Abdur Rahmaan bin Al-Alaa is Majhool, See: Taqreeb, Meezaan and al-Kaashif. Shaikh Al-Albaani has also declared this narration to be weak in Ahkaam al-Janaaiz (Pg 192) Along with other Muhaditheen

This is the same hadeeth that is quoted above as one of the claims.


{{Abbas Ad-Dori (rah) narrates that he asked Imam Ahmed bin Hanbal if there is any tradition about reciting (Quran) on the graves? (Imam Ahmed) said No! However when Yahya bin Moin (rah) was asked he narrated that he along with Imam Ahmed (rah) and Ibn Quduma (rah) took part in a funeral procession. After burial a blind person started to recite (Quran) on the Qabr, Imam Ahmed said: It is Bidah to recite (Quran) near the grave, however when we left the graveyard ibn Qudama (rah) asked Imam Ahmed (rah) what his stance was on Mubashar al Halbi (rah)? Imam Ahmed said that "HE IS THIQA" (Ibn Qudama) said: Have you taken his narrations? Imam Ahmed said "Yes" at this Ibn Qudama said: Mubashar narrated from Abdur Rahman bin Ala’ bin Lajlaj (RA) … (and he mentioned the same narration as mentioned above), hearing this "IMAM AHMED ASKED TO CALL THE BLIND MAN BACK FOR RECITING (ON THE GRAVE)"}}

REFUTE 
Its chain is also weak. In its chain, the narrator Al-Hassan bin Ahmed al-Warraq is Majhoo i.e. Unknown And another narrator, Ali bin Moosa al-Haddad is also Majhool. [See Ahkaam al-Janaiz of Shaikh Albaani (243)]



{{Anas ibn Malik said that the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said that whoever enters the graveyard and recites Surah Yaseen then Allah reduces the intensity of his punishment on those burried in that graveyard and rewards the one reciting yaseen in accordance to the number of deceased buried there [Ref: Sharh Sudoor of Suyuti; page 404}}

REFUTE:

This was recorded by Tha`labi in his Tafseer (3/161/2) via the chain :

محمد بن أحمد الرّیاحی، حدّثنا أبی، حدّثنا أیّوب بن مدرک عن أبی عبیدہ عن الحسن عن أنس بن مالک۔۔۔۔

Its narrator Ayyoub ibn Mudrak was labelled as a liar by Imam Yahya ibn ma`een, Matrook by Imam nasa'i, daraqutni and Abu Hatim ar-razi,  whereas Imam abu Zur`ah ar-razi, Imam ibn `Adi, Imam Ya`qoob ibn Sufyan , Imam Salih ibn Muhammad al-jazari and others have called him weak [Ref: Meezan ul-`Itidaal] 

Imam ibn Hibban said about him

روی أیوب بن مدرک عن مکحول نسخۃ موضوعۃ و لم یرہ۔


He has narrated a forged Nuskha from Makhool and hasn't met him 

[Ref: Leesan al-Meezan 1/488] 

Ahmad ibnYazeed ibn Dinar Ar-Riyahi and Abu `Ubaidah here are unknown and their tawtheeq is needed 

Imam hasan basri is also a muddalis and there is no tasreeh of his sama here. 

Many other such baseless, or chainless or weak statements or dreamy deductions from dreams are given by those endorsing this act. However as is known, holding on to decayed branch can not help the case. 





Logical Refute to Quran Khaani: 


A rich man will be able to pay more reciters and hence thereby get more sawaab as compared to a poor man who may not be able to do Quran khaani on a larger scale. And hence this Indifference CAUSED DUE TO MONEY is not what ISLAM TEACHES US because prophet (s.a.w) informed us that " No Arab is superior over A Non arab and no Non arab is superior over an Arab and no White man is superior over a Black and No black man is superior over a white except in Piety (i.e righteousness) [Agreed Upon]

Another narration says " Allah's Messenger (s.a.w) said to Abu Darda (r.a) "You are not better than people with red or black skins unless you excel them in piety." [Musnad Ahmad - Classed As Weak But Strengthened By Witnesses - Source. Classed Sahih By Shiekh Arna'oot, Number 23536 - Source. Also In Bayhaqi (slight difference in wording) - Declared Sahih By Albani -Source]


There are many more reports similar to the above one. 


However, there is a dispute of scholars over this topic and those scholars who support this don't have any strong evidence in their support. Even if let's say their Ijtihaad (opinion) were to be right still we Muslims should avoid falling into this DOUBT because of the below 2 warnings :Warning #1 - 


It is narrated by al-Nu’maan ibn Basheer (r.a) that Rasool (s.a.w) said " That which is lawful is Clear and that which is unlawful is clear, and between the two of them there are doubtful matters about which not many people know. Thus he who avoids doubtful matters clears himself (i.e. saves himself) in regard to his religion and his honour, but he who falls into doubtful matters falls into that which is unlawful (i.e sins himself) 

[Ref: Sahih Muslim 1599 & Bukhari 3.267]

Warning # 2 - 


Al-Hasan bin Ali (r.a) who said: I committed to memory from the Messenger of Allah, sallallahu alayhi wasallam, (the following words): "Leave that about which you are in doubt for that about which you are in no doubt." 

[Al-Tirmidhi and al-Nasaii related it, and al-Tirmidhi said: It is a good and genuine Hadith]


HENCE

All the narrations which are given to support Quran khaani are either Da'eef or Mawdoo. some brothers even give certain athars and ahadeeth which are out of context of mis interpreted to justify Quran khaani. I have avoided refuting them here, because it is not relevant. the narrations which relate to hinting towards quran khaani becoming permissible are all mentioned above. wa Al Humdulillah !


WHY CERTAIN SCHOLARS PERMIT RECITING QURAN FOR THE DECEASED?

It is proven that there is no sahih hadeeth which proofs that either rasool (s.a.w) or his sahabaa (r.a.a) encouraged, practiced, permitted or taught to recite Quran and transfer its sawaab to the deceased. However, certain Scholars use qiyaas, which is a valid instrument of Fiqh used to deduce islamic rulings. Hence those scholars (May Allah have mercy on them) have used Analogy to come to permit reciting over the dead. 

But the correct view is that, this is a matter of doubt and moreover, there is no hadeeth in solid support to this qiyaas, rather the teachings of salaf differs over this issue and the strongest of the opinion is that this should not be done and one should avoid this action. some more reasons to abandon this method are stated under the conclusion section below. 

CONCLUSION 

The paternal uncle of the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) – Hamzah (may Allaah be pleased with him) was martyred , as did his wife Khadeejah and three of his daughters, and his sons died, so did hundreds and 100's of sahabas but it is not narrated in any sahih report that he (s.a.w) ever gathered a group of people to recite Quran or verses of Quran for the deceased. Rather he used to make dua for them and taught us other methods to benefit the dead as explained above. 

Some may argue that " why would he need to recite over those sahabas who were already guaranteed Jannah? we aren't as pious as them so we need this". Well this question makes me smile, for rasool (s.a.w) is the best of creations, who was already forgiven and yet we have numerous ahadith which shows us that he (s.a.w) used to seek forgiveness for himself in everyday prayer, in his dua , and some narrations even show that he used to say "Astaghfirullah" 100 times in a day. 

Apart from this, he (s.a.w) was sent to teach us Islam. the sahabas even though in sha allah they are the kings of paradise, yet themselves sought forgiveness day and night. This is because they were ordered to do so irrespective of their status in front of Allah and they were commanded to teach us. 

Every action of Rasool (s.a.w) is a guide for us. He prayed even though he was forgiven, and one of the reasons for him doing this was to teach us , the future ummah about Islam for we have to obey as he taught us and not argue because Allah says " It is not befitting for a believing man or woman, when a matter has been decided by Allaah and His Messenger, to have any option about their decision." [al-Ahzaab 33:36]

Ibn Qayyim (r.h) said :

 وكان من هديه - صلى الله عليه وسلم - تعزية أهل الميت ، ولم يكن من هديه أن يجتمع للعزاء ، ويقرأ له القرآن ، لا عند قبره ولا غيره ، وكل هذا بدعة حادثة مكروهة .

 
"One of the things that the Prophet (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) taught was to offer condolences to the family of the bereaved, but it is not part of his teachings to gather together to mourn and read Qur'aan for him (the deceased), whether that is at the grave or elsewhere. All of that is bid'ah and a reprehensible innovation." (Zaad al-Maad, 1/509)

He also said

وكان إذا فرغ من دفن الميت قام على قبره هو وأصحابه ، وسأل له التثبيت ، وأمرهم أن يسألوا له التثبيت .

ولم يكن يجلس يقرأ عند القبر ، ولا يلقن الميت كما يفعله الناس اليوم ،

"When the Messenger of Allaah (Sallalahu Alayhee Was-Sallam) would finish burying a person, he and his companions would stand by the grave and would supplicate for the deceased to be steadfast and he would also command the companions with this. He would not recite (the Qur'aan) whilst sitting next to the grave nor would he instruct the deceased to do so, as the people do nowadays."[Zad al`Mad 1/504]

He also said refuting those that the dead can hear the Qur`aan

وقد رام بعضهم الانفصال عن هذا بأنه قد يكون قصد الواقف حصول الأجر له باستماعه للقرآن في قبره ، وهذا غلط ; فإن ثواب الاستماع مشروط بالحياة فإنه عمل اختياري وقد انقطع بموته ،

"And some of them have concocted a grave fissiparous reasoning that one of the objectives of reciting the Qur'aan at the grave is that the dead inside his grave shall be able to hear the recital of the Qur'aan and this is utterly wrong. Because hearing the Qur'aan and benefitting is restricted to one's life as it is a voluntary, facultative deed and with the death this choice of performing actions and deeds is cut off"[I'laam Volume 4 page 500-501 translated by Abu Abdul Rahman abd al Adheem]

Some real life good ways to help your deceased 

The following examples are given keeping a middle class earner in mind. For those who are rich they may take few steps or volumes ahead in donating 

1. Donate wheel chairs in the local hospitals where you know the hospital facility is either poor or lacks the number of chairs. 

2. Install water well supplies (called as Boring in the local Indian Urdu language) in villages. As of 16.6.2015 (16th June) the approximate cost of digging a well, installing a water pump there for an Indian village is no more than 


327 U.S Dollars

21000 Indian Rupees
100 Kuwaiti Dinar
1200 Saudi Riyal or
210 British pound 

Jaabir ibn `abdullah (radhiallahu `anhu) reports : “Whomsoever provides a well will be rewarded till the day of Qiyamah whenever any thirsty Jinn, Human or bird drinks from there”

[Ref: Imam ibn Khuzayma included this hadeeth in his Saheeh 1292]

3. Go and ask the local hospitals what do they need . Do they need beds? Perhaps certain trays to carry medicine? Or maybe a simple wooden cupboard in their pharmacy or elsewhere to keep files ? Aim for goods that will directly aid in improving the patient's ambiance (such as bed) if not then have a normal wooden small cupboard installed in the patient wards . Or see what else you think is more beneficial in terms of materials that will be used and thus with every second of its use your deceased will be rewarded 


4.  Go to a Muslim Madrasah (or madarsa in urdu) and see what the children need the most among tables, chairs , white board, a few light bulb/tube lights to read the qur'an . Or if you are rich enough , simply ask how much is the monthly electricity bill. Agree to pay half of it monthly or offer to pay any 3 months in a year on behalf of your deceased mother or father etc. Prefer an orphanage madrasah of girls or boys. 



5. Contribute in a masjid on behalf of your deceased. Contribute in donating the mattress required to spread on the floor. Or donate some tube lights, or install some fans for a long lasting reward to your deceased. 




2 comments:

  1. mashaAllah, may Allah bless you

    ReplyDelete
  2. Author forgot to quote Ibn taymiyyah's rahimahullah views on this.... May I know the reason why..

    ReplyDelete

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