Wednesday, 26 February 2014

WARNING FROM SELF INTERPRETATION OF QURAN AND HADEETH




This blog post is associated to the article titled : "   TdHE OBLIGATION AND IMPORTANCE OF SEEKING KNOWLEDGE FROM THE SCHOLARS


So i am going to directly jump to the subject quoting some of the narrations for the same. I highly recommend reading the aforementioned article first. It will not only clarify but also further enhance the understanding of the importance for this short compilation.



WHAT HAPPENED TO THE MURTAD SECT QADIYANI ?

WHAT HAPPENED TO THE  MURTAD SECT OF MUNKIR UL-HADEETH (Those who reject the prophetic ahadeeth completely)? 


WHAT HAPPENED TO THE RAWAFIDH (Shi`as) ? 


WHAT HAPPENED TO THE KHAWARIJ? 


WHAT HAPPENED TO THE SUFIS? 



Ans : they all fell prey to their own whim of self interpretation, understanding, in a way that opposes Qur`an, the hadeeth and the righteouss salaf (predecessors) . Here is an example of the kharjee sect and how they misinterpreted the Qur`anic verse 



In the early period of Islam, the Khwaarij declared Ali ibn Abi Talib to be an unbeliever when he intended to reconcile with Mu’awiyah.


Ubaidullah ibn Abu Rafi reported: The Kharijites came out with Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, and they said:


لَا حُكْمَ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ


There is no rule but for Allah. (12:40)


Ali said:


كَلِمَةُ حَقٍّ أُرِيدَ بِهَا بَاطِلٌ


The statement is true but it is intentionally applied (or falsely interpreted to support) a wrong (cause). [1] 


[Sahih Muslim 1066;]

[1] The refutation of `Ali radhiallahu `anhu against false ta`weelat has been prophecised by the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam)


سَمِعْتُ أَبَا سَعِيدٍ الْخُدْرِيَّ يَقُولُ: كُنَّا جُلُوسًا نَنْتَظِرُ رَسُولَ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، فَخَرَجَ عَلَيْنَا مِنْ بَعْضِ بُيُوتِ نِسَائِهِ، قَالَ: فَقُمْنَا مَعَهُ، فَانْقَطَعَتْ نَعْلُهُ، فَتَخَلَّفَ عَلَيْهَا عَلِيٌّ يَخْصِفُهَا، فَمَضَى رَسُولُ اللهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَمَضَيْنَا مَعَهُ، ثُمَّ قَامَ يَنْتَظِرُهُ وَقُمْنَا مَعَهُ، فَقَالَ: " إِنَّ مِنْكُمْ مَنْ يُقَاتِلُ عَلَى تَأْوِيلِ هَذَا الْقُرْآنِ، كَمَا قَاتَلْتُ عَلَى تَنْزِيلِهِ "، فَاسْتَشْرَفْنَا وَفِينَا أَبُو بَكْرٍ وَعُمَرُ فَقَالَ: " لَا، وَلَكِنَّهُ خَاصِفُ النَّعْلِ ". قَالَ: فَجِئْنَا نُبَشِّرُهُ، قَالَ: وَكَأَنَّهُ (1) قَدْ سَمِعَهُ (2)



Abu Sa’eed Al-Khudri (radhiallahu `anhu) narrated: Once we were sitting waiting for the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam), when he came from the house of some wife of his. So we set along with him. On the way his shoe broke and Ali stopped and began to mend it while the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) continued walking, and we followed him. Then at one place he stopped to wait for Ali and we stopped with him. He said: “There is amongst you he who will fight on the interpretation of this Qur’an just as I fought on its revelation.” So we began to peer around, and Abu Bakr and Umar were also amongst us at that time. But the Prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam)) said: “No, he is the one who is mending the shoe.” So we conveyed this good news to Ali and it seemed as if he had also heard what the Prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) had said. 

[Ref: Musnad Ahmad (11790); Saheeh by Shaykh Shu`ayb al-Arnaout; This report is also found in Sharh Mushkilul Athaar. Vol. 10, H. # # 4058. Pg. # 237; Tareekh ul-Islaam wa Wafiyat al-Mashaahir wal-A`lam. Vol. 2, Pg. # 366.; Sharh as-Sunnah. Vol. 10, H. # 2557. Pg. # 232-233; Musnad Abu Ya`la. Vol 2, H. # 1086 Pg. # 341 - 342 with the wording wherein Abu Bakr and `Umar ask the prophet "is it me ya rasool allah..?" 

The original Kharijites misused the verse “there is no rule but for Allah,” (12:40) by not properly distinguishing between matters upon which Allah has definitively ruled and matters left open to interpretation, consultation, and human decision-making. Ali effectively refuted them with the Quran.

Ibn Hajar reported: The Kharijites indicted Ali and they said:

انْسَلَخْتَ مِنْ قَمِيصٍ أَلْبَسَكَهُ اللَّهُ وَمِنِ اسْمٍ سَمَّاكَ اللَّهُ بِهِ ثُمَّ حَكَّمْتَ الرِّجَالَ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ وَلَا حُكْمَ إِلَّا لِلَّهِ

You have replaced the authority Allah has given you and the name with which He named you. Then, you judged with the judgment of men in the religion of Allah while ‘there is no rule but for Allah.’ (12:40)

When Ali heard this, he gathered the people and he called for the greatest scripture (mushaf) and he started striking it with his hand and saying:

أَيُّهَا الْمُصْحَفُ حَدِّثِ النَّاسَ

O you scripture, speak to the people!

They said, “It is not a person. It is but ink and paper. We are speaking about what is narrated from it.” Ali then refuted them giving an analogy, explaining to them saying :


كِتَابُ اللَّهِ بَيْنِي وَبَيْنَ هَؤُلَاءِ يَقُولُ اللَّهُ فِي امْرَأَةِ رَجُلٍ وَإِنْ خِفْتُمْ شِقَاقَ بَيْنِهِمَا فَابْعَثُوا الْآيَةَ وَأُمَّةُ مُحَمَّدٍ أَعْظَمُ مِنِ امْرَأَةِ رَجُلٍ وَنَقَمُوا عَلَيَّ أَنْ كَاتَبْتُ مُعَاوِيَةَ وَقَدْ كَاتَبَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ سُهَيْلَ بْنَ عَمْرٍو وَلَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ

The Book of Allah is between me and these people. Allah said regarding the woman and man: If you fear dissension between the two, send an arbitrator from his people… (4:35), and the nation of Muhammad is greater than the affair of a woman and a man. They have taken vengeance upon me because I have written to Mu’awiyah and yet the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, had written to Suhail ibn Amr and: You certainly have in the Messenger of Allah an excellent example. (33:21)


[Ref: Fath ul-Bari from Sunan Al-Bayhaqi 16230, ] 



This is further proven with the hadeeth wherein the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) himself commanded his commanders to rule in their name instead of allah and the messenger's , but he meant it this way : 


Buraida reported: When the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, would appoint a commander over the army, he would personally enjoin him to fear Allah and to be good with the Muslims who were with him. The Prophet would say:


وَإِذَا حَاصَرْتَ أَهْلَ حِصْنٍ فَأَرَادُوكَ أَنْ تَجْعَلَ لَهُمْ ذِمَّةَ اللَّهِ وَذِمَّةَ نَبِيِّهِ فَلَا تَجْعَلْ لَهُمْ ذِمَّةَ اللَّهِ وَلَا ذِمَّةَ نَبِيِّهِ وَلَكِنْ اجْعَلْ لَهُمْ ذِمَّتَكَ وَذِمَّةَ أَصْحَابِكَ فَإِنَّكُمْ أَنْ تُخْفِرُوا ذِمَمَكُمْ وَذِمَمَ أَصْحَابِكُمْ أَهْوَنُ مِنْ أَنْ تُخْفِرُوا ذِمَّةَ اللَّهِ وَذِمَّةَ رَسُولِهِ وَإِذَا حَاصَرْتَ أَهْلَ حِصْنٍ فَأَرَادُوكَ أَنْ تُنْزِلَهُمْ عَلَى حُكْمِ اللَّهِ فَلَا تُنْزِلْهُمْ عَلَى حُكْمِ اللَّهِ وَلَكِنْ أَنْزِلْهُمْ عَلَى حُكْمِكَ فَإِنَّكَ لَا تَدْرِي أَتُصِيبُ حُكْمَ اللَّهِ فِيهِمْ أَمْ لَا


When you besiege the people of a fortress and they appeal to you for protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet, do not give them protection in the name of Allah and His Prophet but rather give them protection in the name of you and your companions. Verily, for you to violate the protection of yourself and your companions is a lesser sin than to violate the protection of Allah and His Messenger. When you besiege the people of a fortress and they appeal for you to bring them out according to the rule of Allah, do not bring them out according to the rule of Allah but rather bring them out according to your ruling. Verily, you do not know if you will judge with the ruling of Allah concerning them or not.


[Sahih Muslim 1731]



8374 - أخبرنا محمد بن المؤمل بن الحسن ، ثنا الفضل بن محمد بن المسيب ، ثنا نعيم بن حماد ، ثنا عيسى بن يونس ، عن حريز بن عثمان ، عن عبد الرحمن بن جبير بن نفير ، عن أبيه ، عن عوف بن مالك - رضي الله عنه - ، قال : قال رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم - : [ ص: 615 ] 



سَتَفْتَرِقُ أُمَّتِي عَلَى بِضْعٍ وَسَبْعِينَ فِرْقَةً أَعْظَمُهَا فِتْنَةً عَلَى أُمَّتِي قَوْمٌ يَقِيسُونَ الْأُمُورَ بِرَأْيهِمْ يُحَرِّمُونَ  الْحَلَالَ، وَيُحِلُّونَ الْحَرَامَ»


 هذا حديث صحيح على شرط الشيخين ، ولم يخرجاه .

Rough Translation : 


`Awf bin Malik radhiallahu anhu narrates that the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said  “ my ummah would separate into seventy and some more (than it) . The most severe among them who would split (divide) are those who would insert their opinion in (and upon the) matters of deen such that they would forbid that which is permissible and permit that which is forbidden. 


[Ref: Mustadrak Hakim, (8325)]


THOSE WHO FALSELY INTERPRET THIS DEEN AS PER THEIR OWN WHIMS AND DESIRES ARE LIKE HIM : Nelson Mandela 'fake' interpreter admitted to psychiatric hospital : http://www.theguardian.com/world/2013/dec/20/nelson-mandela-memorial-interpreter-psychiatric-hospital



So beware of thinking that you have the brains to interpret the speech of Allah, Qur`an al-Kareem ! beware of assuming that you "got it all" [See: http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2013/09/some-arguments-by-self-proclaimed-self.html]  .

Beware of assuming "A.N.Y"  meaning of an hadeeth which opposes the salaf, even if you think it is as clear as the sky

To begin with, the following is a short treatise, a very brief compilation rather so as to warn my dear Muslim brothers and sisters of the dangers of self interpreting the Qur`an, hadeeth or any other principle or law of Islam which was not preceded by the salafus saaliheen (righteous predeccessors) .  Here is an example of what happens if you give precedence to your INTELLECT AND UNDERSTANDING over the SHAR`IAH 



Ubaidullaah b. Mu’aadh narrated that his father heard ‘Amr b. ‘Ubaid (the sheer innovator back then) say – after mentioning the hadeeth of “As-Saadiq wal-Masdooq”, wherein the Messenger of Allaah (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) mentioned the stage of the foetus and the soul being blown into it and the four matters of decree being written – that:


“If I had heard al-A’mash state this hadeeth, I would have declared him a liar! If I heard it from Zaid b. Wahb, I would not have believed him. If I had heard Ibn Mas’ood (radiyallaahu ‘anhu) say it, I would not have accepted it! If I had heard Allaah’s Messenger (salallaahu ‘alaihi wassallam) say it, I would have rebutted it. And if I had heard Allaah say it, I would have said: It was not upon this basis that you took the covenant from us!” (Mizaan al-I’tidaal 3/278)




Always remember the golden Rule : 



Imam Mujaahid rahimahullah said : It is not permissible for anyone having Imaan in Allah and the last day to make a statement about the Book of Allah (i.e self interpretations), when he is not well versed in the (various) expressions of the Arabs.” And it is not sufficient him to know some of it only, as a word may have dual meanings, while he knows one only and the other is meant.

[Ref: Al-Itqan of Suyuti 4/185]

Imaam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal (d.241H) - rahimahullaah, said :



إِيَّاكَ أَنْ تَتَكلّمَ فِي مَسْأَلَةٍ لَيْسَ لَكَ فِيْهَا إِمَامٌ


"You should beware of speaking (on the matters of this deen) about an issue in which you are not preceded by a scholar." [1] 


[Ref: Ibnul-Qayyim in I'laamul-Muwwaqi'een (4/266); and Majmoo` al-Fatawa ibn Taymiyyah.]


[1] : This does not mean that if a muhaddith or an `Aalim comes over a forgotten sunnah or a particular Hukm that can be derived using a hadeeth with regards to the present scenario considering the maslaha (public benefit) which other scholars maybe forgot or missed prior to him (and this is rarely the case) then this fatwa of Imam Ahmad does not mean he cannot use it. What this most appropriately means is to not oppose the scholars in something they have agreed upon or related to. i.e do not oppose them by innovating new practices in Islam by deducing a ruling or understanding from a hadeeth contrary to what the salaf deduced from it .


Example : Celebrating Milaad un-Nabi - a ritual taken from the shi`ee rulers of fatimad dynasty 500 + years after the passing away of the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) and now we have people trying day and night to interpret any and every verse or hadeeth so as to legislate or validate this innovated custom which NO SALAF EVER PRACTICED



IS MERELY READING OR NARRATING SUFFICIENT TO UNDERSTAND THE ACTUAL MEANING EXHIBITED BY THAT HADEETH OR VERSE?

1) Refer to this treatise for an in-dept explanation with examples and references : http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2013/06/the-obligation-and-importance-of.html

2)
Abu Darda (r.a) reported, Allah's Messenger (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) spoke of something and said:

"It will happen when knowledge will be no more [1]".


So Ziyad (r.a) said: How will knowledge vanish despite the fact that we will be reciting the Qur'an and teaching its recitation to our children and our children will teach its recitation to their children up to the Day of Resurrection?


Thereupon He (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam)
 said:

"Ziyad, may your mother weep over you. I was of the opinion that you were one of those who have greatest understanding of religion in Medina. Do these Jews and Christians not recite the Torah and the Bible but not act according to what is contained in them [2] ?"


[Ref: Tirmidhi 2662, Saheeh by Shaykh Albaanee]


[1] This particular statement is also found in many other ahadeeth, the summary of which is that knowledge will be taken away by the death of scholars who knew the right from wrong, who enjoined good and forbid evil, who implement what they preach to the best of their abilities , so on and so forth.


[2] E.g Bible prohibits alcohol and adultery but do they understand? Also the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) explained how despite reciting the Bible the christians fell prey to their whims and desires . In today's time especially, if you are up-to-date with the Muslim-Christian debates you will see Muslims who despite bringing forward proofs from their own books , showing how Jesus aka `Isa (`alayhis salaam) never proclaimed divinity - yet they (Christians) do not accept it and to back this negation of theirs they give a weird false interpretation of those statements expecting the sane minded individual to believe that the saying of Jesus (equivalent to the expression) " I am not god" actually meant " I am God"  ?!! [see Allaamah Ibn Abi al-Izz al-Hanafi's fatwa below for a similar statement]



THE PROPHET'S WARNING AGAINST FALSE INTERPRETATION


Abu Huraira (r.a) reported that The Prophet sallallaahu 'alayhi wa sallam said:



يَحْمِلُ هَذَا الْعِلْمَ مِنْ كُلِّ خَلَفٍ عُدُولُهُ يَنْفُونَ عَنْهُ تَحِريفَ الْغَالِينَ وَانْتِحَالَ الْمُبْطِلِينَ وَتَأْوِيلَ الْجَاهِلِينَ


"This knowledge will be carried by the trustworthy ones [1] of every generation. They will expel from it the alteration/changes made by those going beyond bounds [2]; the false claims of the liars [3] and the false interpretations of the ignorant ones [4] .

[Ref: Saheeh; Related by al-Bayhaqee in Sunanul-Kubraa (10/209), Ibn Abee Haatim in al-Jarh wat-Ta'deel (2/17) and Ibn 'Abdil-Barr in at-Tamheed (1/57-58), from the Hadeeth of Ibraaheem ibn 'Abdir-Rahmaan al-'Udharee radiallaahu 'anhu. It was authenticated by Imaam Ahmad  (see Tareekh Dimishq 7/39) - as occurs in Sharafu Ashaabul-Hadeeth (p.29) of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee. Authenticated in Silsilah al-Saheeha 227. This is also related from 4 other sahaabas, See Majmoo al-Fataawaa of Ibn Taymiyyah (15/298), ]


[1] Scholars and their students also known as people of knowledge or remembrance


[2] The shi`as are a good example of this. They have used certain verses of the Qur`an and some of OUR ahadeeth itself to prove how corrupted/incomplete the Qur`an is (yes you may laugh and pity them) . See : http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2013/09/shias-believe-in-corruption-of-quran.html

[3] Tahir ul-Qaadri the liar ( do me a quick favor ikhwaan, just google this " the lies of tahir ul qadri". I cannot even imagine typing or collecting all of his lies at one place )

[4] Munkirul hadeeth, barelvis who want to celebrate Happy birthday of the prophet (sallalah `alayhi wa sallam) which by the way no sahaaba loved him enough to do so (according to their implications) , so on and so forth. Give them a verse and you won't even have to wait before they interpret it in a way to justify their beliefs. don't believe me? see their scholars do this here : www.systemoflife.com


In another narration, the Messenger of Allaah (صلى الله عليه وسلم) was asked, "Oh Messenger of Allaah, who are the strangers?" He (صلى الله عليه وسلم) replied: Those who are steadfast in righteousness at a time when the people become corrupt. [At-Tahaawee in al-Mushkil (298/1)]


In another version, he (صلى الله عليه وسلم) said:


فطوبَي للغرباءِ الذين يُصلحونَ ما أفسد الناسُ مِن بعدِي من سنتِي


 Those who correct what the people have corrupted of my Sunnah.

[Ref: At-Tirmidhee (2765), at-Tabaranee in al-Kabeer (16/17), al-Bazzaar (3287) and others. Ibn Hajar said Hassan in Takhreej al-Mishkat 1/133 and Ibn Baaz said saheeh in Majmoo` 158/3,Also see Ibn Baaz's Words of Advice Regarding Da'wah, by Shaikh Ibn Baaz, under the chapter: "If One Becomes Alienated and is Shunned, then he should work harder in his Da'wah.]



THE FATAWA OF OUR ASLAAF (Sahaba, Taba`een and others) AGAINST INTERPRETING RELIGION OR RELIGIOUS RULINGS AND TEXTS AS PER ONE'S OWN PERSPECTIVE or OPINION


There are many Marfoo` and Mawqoof narrations which warn us from self interpretation. I have enlisted some of the debates that took place between Sahaabas and those who either rejected the hadeeth or mis interpreted the Qur`an. I have even given examples of the same from our salaf. You can read them in this book : http://fahmalhadeeth.com/refuting-munkirul-hadeeth-by-proving-the-authority-of-sunnah-from-islamic-texts/

From page no. 43 onwards In sha allah. or you can have a look at the index and chose your area of interest to read.

Also see 40+ quotes against taqleed by our salaf here: 
www.the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2012/08/4-imams-forbidding-taqleed.html




1) Allaamah Ibn Abi al-Izz al-Hanafi (D. 792) writes in the explanation of Aqeedah Tahaawiyyah:

 ولا يشاء مبطل أن يتأول النصوص ويحرفها عن مواضعها الا وجد الي ذالك من السبيل.

“No deviant person wishes to make a Ta’weel (wrong interpreation or mis understanding )of texts and alter them from various sides except that he would find a way to do it”
[Ref: Sharh al-Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah (189 or 89)] 


“Did the Khawarij revolt, or the Mu’tazilah depart or the Rawafid reject and the Ummah split into 73 sects due to anything except corrupt and false interpretations? 

[Ref: Sharh Aqeedah Tahawiyyah pg. 89]


Moreover, he writes under the harms of corrupt Ta’weel

: وهذا الذي أفسد الدنيا والدين وهكذا فعلت اليهود
 والنصاري في نصوص التوراة والإنجيل وحذرنا الله أن نفعل مثلهم وأبي المبطلون الا سلوك سبيلهم، وكم جني التأويل الفاسد علي الدين وأهله من جناية؟ فهل قتل عثمان رضي الله عنه الا بالتأويل الفاسد! وكذا ما جري في يوم الجمل، وصفين، ومقتل الحسين رضي الله عنه، والحرة! وهل خرجت الخوارج، واعتزلت المعتزلة، ورفضت الروافض، وافترقت الأمة علي ثلاث وسبعين فرقة، الا باتأويل الفاسد.

“And this approach has played havoc with religion and life. This is what the Jews and Christians did with the texts of the Torah and Gospel. Allaah has warned us against doing the same. But vicious people have not heeded the warning and have in fact followed in their footsteps. What harm the Ta’weel has done to Islaam and Muslims! Was not Uthmaan (radiallah anhu) killed because of a Ta’weel of the texts? Did not the battles of the Camel and Siffeen, the killing of Al-Husayn (radiallah anhu), and the incidents of Al-Harrah take place on account of it? Did not the khawarij, Mu’tazilis, and Rawafidh (modern day shi`as) commit their heresies because of it? And did not the Muslim nation become divided into seventy three sects because of it?” [Sharh al-Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah (189)]

He further writes:

 وأما اذا تأول الكلام بما لا يدل عليه ولا اقترن به ما يدل عليه، فباخباره بأن هذا مراده كذب عليه، وهو تأويل بالراى وتوهم بالهوى.

 “And if someone interprets a speech to mean what it does not imply and what is not indicated by other evidence, then his claim that what he is saying is what the speaker means, is a lie upon him; and it is nothing but a subjective interpretation and wishful imagining.” [Ref: Sharh al-Aqeedah at-Tahaawiyyah (198)]

Allaamah Ibn Abi al-Izz al-Hanafi, the commentator of Aqeedah Tahaawiyah, rahimahullah said:

فطائفة قد غلبت فِي تَقْلِيده فَلم تتْرك لَهُ قولا وأنزلوه منزلَة الرَّسُول صلى الله عَلَيْهِ وَسلم وَإِن أورد عَلَيْهِم نَص مُخَالف قَوْله تأولوه على غير تَأْوِيله ليدفعوه عَنْهُم

"A Group of People exaggerate in his Taqleed (i.e. Abu Haneefah): they do not leave any of his sayings, and they have placed him at the level of the Prophet (sallallaahu alayhi wasallam); and if a text is presented to them which is against his saying, they try to Misinterpret it to something else, in order to defend him"

[Ref: Al-Ittibaa by Ibn Abi al-Izz (P. 30)]



2) Imam Abu Haneefa (r.h) said:   Adhere to the Athaar (narration) and way (Tareeqa) of the salaf and beware of newly invented matters for all of it is innovation [Reported by as-Suyooti in Sawn al-Mantaq wal-Kalaam p.32]

3) Imam al Barbaharee (d. 329 H) said : the foundations upon which the Jamaa’ah is made clear is the companions of Muhammad sallalaahu ‘alaihi wa salaam . They are the Ahlus Sunnah wal-Jamaa’ah, so whoever does not take (Islamic principles or matters) from them has gone astray and innovated, and every innovation is misguidance, and misguidance and its people are in the fire [Kitaab Sharh us-Sunnah (2) of Imam al-Barbahaaree]

4) Imam al-shatbi (d.790 h) said : Everyone who follows the mutashaabihat (ambiguous) , or twists the underlying reasons, or gives a meaning to the ayat not given to it by the Salafus Saalih or clings on to the very weak and unauthentic ahadith, or takes that which is apparent as a proof for every action , saying or belief (which is) in agreement with his objectives and intentions, not finding a fundamental proof for understanding it in a manner- then this is the method of deduction and derivation which gives rise to innovations and those who innovate


 [Ref: al-I’tisaam (1/231) of as-Shatbi]


Imam ash-Shaabiti in his al-'Itisaam said in regards to the people who follow their desires:

اتخذوا الرجال ذريعة لأهوائهم

"They take men as an excuse for following their desires."

He goes on to say: بحثوا عن أقوال العلماء في المسألة المسؤول عنها حتى يجدوا القول الموافق للسائل فأفتوا به ، زاعمين أن الحجة في ذلك لهم قول من قال : اختلاف العلماء رحمة

"They look for statements of scholars on a particular issue they asked about until they find the answer that pleases the questioner. So they take that fatwa contending that is the evidence for that (i.e. their act of seeking that opinion they like) is the statement: 'The difference of opinion amongst scholars is a mercy'." [ see Ibn Hazam's similar statement below as well] 



Imam as-shatibi said about interpreting Qur`anic verses to suit scientific facts ,such as certain modern day and relatively older tafaseer which were written so as to explain how the verses were “scientifically compatible” [1] 


" ... إن السَلَف الصالح - من الصحابة والتابعين ومن يليهم - كانوا أعرف بالقرآن وبعلومه وما أُودع فيه، ولم تبلغنا أنه تكلم أحد منهم فى شىء من هذا المدَّعى سوى ما تقدم، وما ثبت فيه من أحكام التكاليف، وأحكام الآخرة، وما يلى ذلك، ولو كان لهم فى ذلك خوض ونظر لبلغنا منه ما يدلنا على أصل المسألة، إلا أن ذلك لم يكن فدل على أنه غير موجود عندهم، وذلك دليل على أن القرآن لم يُقصد فيه تقرير لشىء مما زعموا. نعم تضمن علوماً من جنس علوم العرب أو ما ينبنى على معهودها مما يتعجب منه أُولوا الألباب، ولا تبلغه إدراكات العقول الراجحة، دون الاهتداء بأعلامه، والاستنارة بنوره، وأما أن فيه ما ليس من ذلك فلا".


...the salaf us-saaleh, from the Companions and the Successors and those that came after them, were more knowledgeable ol the Qur`an and its sciences and what was hidden in it; yet none of them spoke of these things that are claimed to exist except for what we discussed (i.e.. some basic sciences)... and if (at all) they had become engrossed in such subjects, and examined (the Qur`an in such a light), it would have reached us, and at least the basic principle of this issue (i.e.. scientific interpretation) would have been proven to us. But we do not find any mention of this, which shows that they did not have this concern with them. And this is clear proof that the Qur`an was not sent to affirm what these people are presuming (that such and such scientific theories exists in the Qur`an). Yes, we are not denying that the Qur`an mentions some science that the Arabs had, and other (sciences) that are well-known; material that astonishes people of intellect... but to presume that it contains matters that it does not, then no (we do not say or accept this)!

[Ref: At-Tafseer wal-Muffasiroon by Dr. Muhammad Sayyid ad-Dhahabi (d. 1398 A.H) 2/358 - Also see http://sh.rewayat2.com/olomquran/Web/32729/001.htm (1/46)]


[1] Such as the two most famous tafseers in this category are Mafaatihal-Ghayb, by Fakhr ad-Deen ar-Raazee (d. 606 A.H.), and, al Jawaahir fet-Tafseer al Qur`an il-Kareem, by the famous Egyptian scholar.Shaykh Tantaawi Jawharee (d. 1359 A.H.). There are other tafseers that have been influenced to various degrees by this type of interpretation, perhaps one of the most extreme being Tafseer al-Maraaghee, by Ahmad ibn Mustafa al-Maraaghee (d. 1952 CE). In this work, the author denies or distorts almost all the supernatural miracles of the prophets, and denies the existence of angels and jinns, on the presumption that these facts are not explainable by science. He even goes to the extreme of claiming that Adam is not the father of all of creation, since 'modern historical and scientific research does not support this theory


Imam Shatbi rahimahullah also criticized those who innovated new opinions or bid`at opposing the fahm of the salaf . 

قال الإمام الشاطبي في [الموافقات] رداً على من يستدل بالأدلة العامة على خلاف فهم السلف؛

Imam ash-shatbi said refuting those who deduce proof from unrestricted (general) texts (to issue a verdict that ) opposes the fahm of the salaf : 

لو كان دليلاً عليه؛ لم يعزب عن فهم الصحابة والتابعين ثم يفهمه هؤلاء، .
فعمل الأولين كيف كان مصادم لمقتضى هذا المفهوم ومعارض له، ولو كان ترك العمل... فما عمل به المتأخرون من هذا القسم مخالف لإجماع الأولين، وكل من خالف الإجماع فهو مخطىء، وأمة محمد صلى الله عليه وآله وسلم لا تجتمع على ضلالة.
فما كانوا عليه من فعل أو ترك فهو السنة والأمر المعتبر وهو الهدى، وليس ثم إلا صواب أو خطأ فكل من خالف السلف الأولين فهو على خطأ وهذا كاف"..

Had there been a proof for this (innovated /odd new opinion) it would not have been hidden from the understanding of the (most knowledgeable people like the) Sahaaba and Taba`een so that people would have understood it later on.  (If this innovated fatwa was right ) How is then the action of the salaf in stark opposition and contradiction to it?. ….so the `amal of these latecomers in this topic is in opposition to the consensus of the salaf and everyone who opposes the consensus of the salaf then he is upon (grave) error for the Ummah of Muhammad sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam will not gather upon misguidance. So whatever the salaf (in unanimity) do or abandon doing becomes the sunnah (for the people thereafter) and becomes a trusted affair  and guidance to follow . Every affair has only two sides – either it is right or wrong and whatever opposes the salaf then he is upon grave error and this (trait of his i.e. leaving the fahm of the salaf) is sufficient (to show his misguidance) 

[Ref: al-Muwafaqat 3/72]

He also said continuing : 

فلھذا کلّہ یجب علی کلّ ناظر فی الدلیل الشرعیّ مراعاۃ ما فھم الأولون، وما کانوا علیہ فی العمل بہ، فھو أحری بالصواب، وأقوم فی والعمل۔۔۔۔۔
Thus it is obligatory upon everyone who investigates into the evidences of shar`iah to study the fahm of the salaf and their actions for their way is the most righteous of ways and they are more established (strong) in knowledge and action


[Ref: Ibid page 77]

For more quotes of Imam shatbi criticising those who do not follow the salaf with examples and 50+ other Imams quote see : http://fahmalhadeeth.com/the-obligation-of-seeking-knowledge-via-the-understanding-of-the-salafus-saliheen/


5) Imaam Ibn ‘Abdul Haadi (d 745 H) : 


ولا یجوز إحداث تأویل فی آیۃ أو سنّۃ لم یکن علی عھد السلف، ولا عرفوہ و لا بیّنوہ للأمّۃ، فإنّ ھذا یتصمّن أنھم جھلوا الحقّ فی ھذا، وضلّوا عنہ، واھتدی إلیہ ھذا المعترض المتأخّر۔


It is not permissible to invent an interpretation about an ayah or a sunnah which was not there in the time of Salaf, nor did they have any knowledge of it, nor explain it to the Ummah. Since this would mean that the salaf were ignorant of the truth in this matter and failed to reach it, whereas the late-coming opponent is somehow guided to the truth?! “ 

 [Ref: As-Saarimul Munki fi radd `ala subki (p.427 or318) of Ibn `Abdul Haadi]


6) Imam Ibn al-Qayyum (d. 756) said :


Inventing an explanation with regards to the book of Allah to which the salaf and the scholars are in opposition – necessitates one of the two things : 

(i) Either the explanation is in itself a mistake or 

(ii) that the sayings of the salaf which run contrary to it are in error ! And no one with an ounce of intellect would doubt that the one whose saying is in opposition to that of the 
salaf is (actually) the one who is mistaken and in error 

[Ref: Mukhtasar as-Sawaa`iqul –Mursalah (Z/128) of Ibn al-Qayyum]


Allaah تعالى said:

{O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم), nor speak aloud to him in talk as you speak aloud to one another, lest your deeds may be rendered fruitless while you perceive not.} [Surah al-Hujuraat (49):2]

Imaam Ibn al-Qayyim رحمه الله commented on the above:

“If just raising their voices above the voice of the Prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) was a reason to make their deeds fruitless (and futile), then what about those who give precedence to their own opinions, intellects, preferences, politics, and understanding over and above that which the Prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) came with? Is it not that these are more liable to have their deeds rendered futile?”

[I`laam al-Mooqi`een (1/41)] 



Ibn ul-Qayyim (rahimahullāh) states: “To sum up: The splitting of the People of the Book and of this Ummah into 73 sects is only understood (to come) via their interpretations.” (Ilaamul Muwaqi’een 4/317)


Imaam Ibn Qayyim also said : "The pious predecessors would have great difficulty in handling and were not able to take someone contradicting the texts of the Book and Sunnah with someone's opinion." [Ref: Mukhtasar as-Sawaa'iq al-Mursalah pg.139]


Ibn Qayyim al-Jawzeeyah 751 AH (may Allah have mercy on him) also said:

أصل كل فتنة انما هو من تقديم الرأي على الشرع و الهوى على العقل

“A root for every fitna (trial/tribulation/etc) only (comes from one) who prefers his opinion over legislation and his desires over intellect.”


[Ref: Taken from: Ighaatha al-Lahfaan 2/165]



Ibn al-Qayyim (r.h) has summarized a few examples in a short yet perfect paragraph explaining how various Qur`anic verses may have a different understanding and context contrary to their literal translation or meaning which was explained by the Prophet  sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam:

Note: Qur`anic verses or implications are quoted and bold

“…. The dhulm , oppression that is mentioned in His Allah's) saying,  “…and who do not mix confuse their Emaan with dhulm…” (6:82) that Dhulm here in this verse is actually Shirk (and not mere injustice as it appears from the literal meaning of the word). 

Also that “al-Hisaab al Yaseer (the Easy reckoning)“ (84:8) that this actually refers to being examined and questioned (on the Day of Judgement in comparison to punishment and not what the literal meaning says i.e an easy analysis or exam) ,

and that the “white and black thread” is actually in reference to the whiteness of the day and the darkness of the night (revealed for ramadan fasts) and that the one whom he saw for the second time at Sidrat ul-Muntahaa, was actually Jibraeel (a.s).

Also he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam also)  explained the saying of Allah “….or (the day) when some of the signs of Allah come…” that it (this sign) is the rising of the sun from the west (i.e a time when the tawbah will not be accepted anymore).

And he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam also) explained the saying of Allah …”And the example of a good tree…” to be the date-palm tree (in comparison to a Muslim and not what the literal arabic meant).

And he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam also)  explained the saying of Allah “…Allah will make firm those who believe with an established and firm saying in the life of this world and the hereafter…” that this is in reference to when a person is asked who is his Lord and what is his religion whilst in the grave.

 Also he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam also) explained ar-Ra`d, as occurs in Surah Ra`d, to be in reference to the Angel who is entrusted with the clouds,

and he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam also) explained the taking of the People of the Book, their priests and rabbis as Lords besides Allah to be their treating as halaal whatever they made halaal for them (from those things that were Haraam by Allah) and their treating as Haraam whatever they (their priests/scholars) made Haraam for them (from those things that Allah made halaal and not what the literal arabic meant).

And he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam also) also explained the saying of Allah “…Whoever does an evil (act) will be recompensed for it..” that it is what befalls the servant (of Allah) in the life of this world of worry, anxiety, fear, distress and hardship.

And he (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam also) explained “ziyaadah” in the saying of Allah that “… Those who have done good is the best (reward, i.e paradise) and even more…” that it refers to looking at the Noble face of Allah.




Ibn Wahb said: ‘I heard Imam Malik ibn Anas say: ‘The Messenger of Allah was the leader of the Muslims and the best person in creation, he would be asked about something and not respond until revelation came to him from the heavens.’

[Ref: Ibn Hazm mentioned it in ‘Ihkaam’ 8/35 from the narra<on of Ibn Wahb and Ibn Abdul Barr in Jami`Bayaanil Ilm wa fadhlihi’ pg. 839]

Ibnul Qayyim mentioned this statement then commented saying: 

‘So if the Lord of Creation’s Messenger didn’t used to respond or answer questions except with revelation, so what great amount of audacity, courage, and bravery of the one who answers or gives verdicts from his personal opinions, ‘qiyas’, or makes ‘taqleed’ of someone who he thinks good about. What audacity of the one who responds with a custom, tradition, politics, taste or inner-feeling, or a claimed unveiling of the unseen, dream or even a conjecture or deeming of something to be good or appropriate, and Allah is the Aider and upon Him do we put our trust

[Ref: `Ilam al-Muwwaqieen 2/470] 

Imaam Ibnul Qayyim (rahimahullaah) also said:

When it is the case that Allaah forbade (them) from giving precedence to (themselves) over the Messenger, then which type of giving precedence to oneself over the Messenger (sallal-laahu-alayhi-wasallam) can be more severe than giving precedence to one’s intellect over the revelation he was sent with? Many of the Salaf have stated (that this ayah means):  "Do not say anything (about the religion) until the messenger speaks and do not act until he commands you."

The most disobedient person amongst the people and the most severe with regards to giving precedence to him (or herself) over the Messenger is that one who gives precedence to his (or her) intellect or the intellect of another person over the revelation the Messenger was sent with. And when it is the case that Allaah has indeed forbidden them from raising their voices above the voice of the Messenger, then how about raising their intellects above the statements of the Messenger and the revelation he came with? 


[Ref:  Al-Waabil as-Sayyib’ page: 21. Abridged and slightly paraphrased]


 
7) Al-Hafidh Ibn `Abdul-Barr 



  Imam Ibn `Abdul Barr rahimahullah said In a chapter titled : 

بَابٌ فِيمَنْ تَأَوَّلَ الْقُرْآنَ وَتَدَبَّرَهُ وَهُوَ جَاهِلٌ بِالسُّنَّةِ

Chapter about whoever interprets and contemplates on the qur’an and he is ignorant of the sunnah 

«أَهْلُ الْبِدَعِ أَجْمَعُ أَضْرَبُوا عَنِ السُّنَّةِ وَتَأَوَّلُوا الْكِتَابَ عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا بَيَّنَتِ السُّنَّةُ، فَضَلُّوا وَأَضَلُّوا، وَنَعُوذُ بِاللَّهِ مِنَ الْخُذْلَانِ وَنَسْأَلُهُ التَّوْفِيقَ وَالْعِصْمَةَ بِْرَحْمَتِهِ، وَقَدْ رُوِيَ عَنِ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ التَّحْذِيرُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فِي غَيْرِ مَا أَثَرٍ مِنْهَا مَا»

The people of Innovation – all of them – turned away from the sunnah and indulged in interpreting the qur’an based on that which is not in accordance to the sunnah so they were misguided and misguided others and we seek refuge in Allah from (such) humiliation and ask Allah for tawfeeq and that he protects us from shortfalls by his mercy.  And these (warning about this self-interpretation disease) were transmitted from the Messenger of Allah sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam and among them are… 

2359 - أَخْبَرَنَا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْمُؤْمِنِ بْنِ يَحْيَى، ثنا الْحُسَيْنُ بْنُ عُثْمَانَ الْآدَمِيُّ، ثنا عَبَّاسٌ الدُّورِيُّ، ثنا عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنُ يَزِيدَ الْمُقْرِئُ، ثنا ابْنُ لَهِيعَةَ، عَنْ أَبِي قَبِيلٍ، قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ عُقْبَةَ بْنَ عَامِرٍ الْجُهَنِيَّ، يَقُولُ: سَمِعْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَقُولُ: «هَلَاكُ أُمَّتِي فِي الْكِتَابِ وَاللَّبَنِ» فَقِيلَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ، مَا الْكِتَابُ وَاللَّبَنُ؟ قَالَ: «يَتَعَلَّمُونَ الْقُرْآنَ وَيَتَأَوَّلُونَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِ مَا أَنْزَلَهُ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، وَيُحِبُّونَ اللَّبَنَ فَيَدْعُونَ الْجَمَاعَاتِ وَالْجُمَعَ وَيُبْدُونَ»

`Uqbah ibn `Amir radhiallahu `anhu narrated that he heard the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu `alayhi  wa sallam) say “  My Ummah will be destroyed due to the Book (Qur’an) and Laban (aka milk)”.  So it was said ‘ Oh Messenger of Allah , what is the Book and Laban?” He (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said: “ They learn the qur’an (i.e. recite it, etc.) and then they interpret it in a way (yatawwaloonahu) in a way that is other than what Allah `azza wa jall has revealed (i.e. they explain with a wrong interpretation)

[Ref: Jaami` Bayan al-`Ilm 2/1198-1199 shamela. Sanad is Hasan, Ahmad, abu Ya`la and Tabrani narrated this too]


He also states in Jaami` al-Bayan Vol. 2 p 36, 37, 

“The definition of knowledge according to the scholars is whatever a person is clear and sure about. Anyone who is certain and clear about something knows it. Therefore, whoever is not certain about something but says it blindly following someone else, does not know it. Blind following is – according to the scholars – different from following (al-ittibâ’). Because following is to follow a person based on what has become clear to you of the correctness of his position, whereas blind-following is to say what he says while not understanding it or its reasoning.”



8)  ‘Umar b. Al-Khattab – Allah be pleased with him – said:



`Umar said:

قَالَ عُمَرُ : أَخْوَفُ مَا أَتَخَوَّفُ عَلَى هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ قَوْمٌ يَتَأَوَّلُونَ الْقُرْآنَ عَلَى غَيْرِ تَأْوِيلِهِ


 From what I fear for you is that this nation self-interprets the Qur’an against it proper understanding. 

[Source: Translated by Adeel ibn tariq,  Musannaf Ibn Abi Shayba 36868]


Verily, the followers of opinion (such as self interpretations based on their own reasoning) are the enemies of the Sunan (the teachings of Allâh’s Messenger as passed down in hadith): they were unable to preserve them (the sunnah by memorizing or acting upon it) and their meanings escaped them, and when asked [questions] they were too embarrassed to say ‘We don’t know,’ so they opposed the Sunan with their opinions. As a result they went astray and misguided

[Narrated from `Amr ibn Hurayth by al-Daraqutni in his Sunan (4:146), al-Bayhaqi in al-Madkhal (p. 190), Ibn Hazm in al-Ihkam (6:213), and al-Lalika'i in Sharh Usul I`tiqad Ahl al-Sunna (1:123 or article 200). See the definition of permissible ra'i by Ibn Hajar in Fath al-Bari (1959 ed. 13:189) and Ibn al-Qayyim in I`lam al-Muwaqqi`in (1:83) as well as al-Kawthari's Fiqh Ahl al-`Iraq and the introduction to al-Tahanawi's I`la' al-Sunan.  Ibn Abî Zamanîn, Usûl Al-Sunnah article 8]



Ali(ra) refers the believers to Aisha (ra)

حَدَّثَنَا عَبْدُ الْأَعْلَى بْنُ عَبْدِ الْأَعْلَى ، عَنْ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ إِسْحَاقَ ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ أَبِي حَبِيبٍ ، عَنْ مَعْمَرِ بْنِ أَبِي حَبِيبَةَ مَوْلَى ابْنَةِ صَفْوَانَ ، عَنْ عُبَيْدِ بْنِ رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ رَافِعٍ ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ رَافِعٍ ، قَالَ : بَيْنَا أَنَا عِنْدَ عُمَرَ بْنِ الْخَطَّابِ إِذْ دَخَلَ عَلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ : يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ، هَذَا زَيْدُ بْنُ ثَابِتٍ يُفْتِي النَّاسَ فِي الْمَسْجِدِ بِرَأْيِهِ فِي الْغُسْلِ مِنَ الْجَنَابَةِ . فَقَالَ عُمَرُ : عَلَيَّ بِهِ . فَجَاءَ زَيْدٌ فَلَمَّا رَآهُ عُمَرُ قَالَ : أَيْ عَدُوَّ نَفْسِهِ ، قَدْ بَلَغْتَ أَنْ تُفْتِيَ النَّاسَ بِرَأْيِكَ ؟ فَقَالَ : يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ ، بِاللَّهِ مَا فَعَلْتُ لَكِنِّي سَمِعْتُ مِنْ أَعْمَامِي حَدِيثًا فَحَدَّثْتُ بِهِ مِنْ أَبِي أَيُّوبَ وَمِنْ أُبَيِّ بْنِ كَعْبٍ وَمِنْ رِفَاعَةَ ، فَأَقْبَلَ عُمَرُ عَلَى رِفَاعَةَ بْنِ رَافِعٍ فَقَالَ : وَقَدْ كُنْتُمْ تَفْعَلُونَ ذَلِكَ إِذَا أَصَابَ أَحَدُكُمْ مِنَ الْمَرْأَةِ ” فَأَكْسَلَ لَمْ يَغْتَسِلْ ” ؟ فَقَالَ : قَدْ كُنَّا نَفْعَلُ ذَلِكَ عَلَى عَهْدِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَلَمْ يَأْتِنَا مِنَ اللَّهِ فِيهِ تَحْرِيمٌ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فِيهِ نَهْيٌ , قَالَ : وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ يَعْلَمُ ذَاكَ ؟ قَالَ : لَا أَدْرِي . فَأَمَرَ عُمَرُ بِجَمْعِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ وَالْأَنْصَارِ فَجُمِعُوا لَهُ فَشَاوَرَهُمْ فَأَشَارَ النَّاسُ ” أَنْ لَا غُسْلَ فِي ذَلِكَ إِلَّا مَا كَانَ مِنْ مُعَاذٍ وَعَلِيٍّ فَإِنَّهُمَا قَالَا : إِذَا جَاوَزَ الْخِتَانُ الْخِتَانَ فَقَدْ وَجَبَ الْغُسْلُ ” , فَقَالَ عُمَرُ : هَذَا وَأَنْتُمْ أَصْحَابُ بَدْرٍ قَدِ اخْتَلَفْتُمْ فَمَنْ بَعْدَكُمْ أَشَدُّ اخْتِلَافًا , قَالَ : فَقَالَ عَلِيٌّ : يَا أَمِيرَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِنَّهُ لَيْسَ أَحَدٌ أَعْلَمَ بِهَذَا مِنْ شَأْنِ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِهِ , فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى حَفْصَةَ فَقَالَتْ : لَا عِلْمَ لِي بِهَذَا فَأَرْسَلَ إِلَى عَائِشَةَ فَقَالَتْ : ” إِذَا جَاوَزَ الْخِتَانُ الْخِتَانَ فَقَدْ وَجَبَ الْغُسْلُ ” , فَقَالَ عُمَرُ : ” لَا أَسْمَعُ بِرَجُلٍ فَعَلَ ذَلِكَ إِلَّا أَوْجَعْتُهُ ضَرْبًا ” .

[`Ubayd bin Rifa`ah ibn Rafi`, from his father Rifa`ah bin Rafi`, that he said: While I was with `Umar bin al-Khattab, a man entered on him and said: “O Ameer al-Mu’mineen! Zayd bin Thabit is in the mosque giving the people religious Fatwas from his own opinion regarding Ghusl from Janabah.” `Umar said:”Bring him to me.” When Zayd came `Umar saw him and said: “You are an enemy of your own self! Now you’re giving people Fatwas based on your own opinions!?” Zayd replied: “O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, by Allah I did not, I only heard a Hadith from my uncles and I repeated it. From Abu Ayyub and Ubay ibn Ka`b and Rifa`ah.” So `Umar went to Rifa`ah ibn Rafi` and said: “You used to do this with your women?” He replied: “We did it in the time of the messenger (Sallalahu alayhi wa sallam) and it did not reach us that Allah or his Prophet (SAWS) forbade it.” `Umar said: “Did the Prophet (SAWS) know about this?” He said: “I don’t know.”`Umar ordered al-Muhajirun and al-Ansar to gather and he consulted them, so they agreed that Ghusl was not obligatory except for Mu`adh and `Ali who both said: “When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part Ghusl is obligatory.” so `Umar said: “If you O righteous people of Badr have differed, then who shall I ask?” `Ali said: “O Ameer al-Mu’mineen, there is no one more knowledgeable about these matters regarding the Prophet (SAWS) than his wives.” `Umar then sent after (his daughter) Hafsa and asked, she said: “I have no knowledge of this.” then he sent after `Aisha and she said: “When the circumcised part passes the circumcised part Ghusl is obligatory.” after this `Umar would say: “If I ever hear of a man doing it, I shall make his punishment severe.”]

[Ref: Musannaf ibn abi Shaybah, Sharh Ma`ani al-Athar lil-Tahawi, al-Mu`jam al-Kabeer lil-Tabarani. Grading: Hasan bi Majmu` Turuqih. via you punctured the ark) ]




Umar ibn `Abdulaah al-Ashaj said: `Umar Ibn al-Khattaab (radhiallahu `anhu) said:

“(Soon) there will come (a group of) people, arguing with you regarding the Mutashaabih (unclear verses) of the Qur’aan. So debate with them using the Sunnah (of the Prophet
صلى الله عليه وسلم). For verily the As-haab al-Sunan (those who know the Sunnah of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم) are the most knowledgeable people about the Book of Allaah تعالى.”

[Ref: Narrated by al-Darimi in his Sunan, al-Khatib in Tarikh Baghdad (14:286), and al-Lalika'i in Sharh Usul I`tiqad Ahl al-Sunna (1:123 and al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee (1/559-560)]
 


 (حديث مرفوع) عَنِ ابْنِ جُرَيْجٍ ، قَالَ : أَخْبَرَنِي سُلَيْمَانُ بْنُ عَتِيقٍ ، عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ بَابَيْهِ ، عَنْ بَعْضِ بَنِي يَعْلَى ، عَنْ يَعْلَى بْنِ أُمَيَّةَ ، قَالَ : " طُفْتُ مَعَ عُمَرَ ، فَاسْتَلَمَ الرُّكْنَ ، فَكُنْتَ مِمَّا يَلِي الْبَيْتَ ، فَلَمَّا بَلَغْنَا الرُّكْنَ الْغَرْبِيَّ الَّذِي يَلِي الأَسْوَدَ جَرَرْتُ يَدَهُ لأَنْ يَسْتَلِمَ ، قَالَ : مَا شَأْنُكَ ؟ فَقُلْتُ : أَلا تَسْتَلِمَ ؟ فَقَالَ : أَلَمْ تَطُفْ مَعَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ ؟ قُلْتُ : بَلَى ، قَالَ : فَرَأَيْتُهُ يَسْتَلِمُ هَذَيْنِ الرُّكْنَيْنِ الْغَرْبِيَّيْنِ ؟ ، قَالَ : فَقُلْتُ : لا ، قَالَ : لَيْسَ لَكَ فِي رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ ؟ قُلْتُ : بَلَى ، قَالَ : فَابْعِدْ عَنْكَ " .

It is reported from Ya'la ibn Umayyah who said: “I made tawaaf with `Umar ibn al-Khattab (and in one narration with ‘Uthuzza) - may Allah be pleased with him - so when I came to the corner of the Door (of the Ka`ba) I started to touch it so he said ‘Have you not made tawaaf with The prophet of Allah?' I said: Yes. He said: ‘Then did you see him touch it?' I said: No. He said: ‘Then do likewise for there is for you in The prophet of Allah a good example'”.


[Ref: `Abdur Razzaq in his Musannaf 5/45 or Hadeeth 8946;  Graded Saheeh by Ahmad Shaakir in one route and Arnaout in Musnad Ahmad 1/403 or Hadeeth 313, and al-Bayhaqi (5/77) ;  also reported  by Ibn Katheer and others. has supporting shawaahid; http://library.islamweb.net/hadith/display_hbook.php?bk_no=60&pid=28413&hid=8720 ]



'Umar ibn Al-Khattab (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said later in his life: [in relation to the treaty made in the past with the quraysh at al hudaibiyyah which Umar Ibn Al Khattab thought where humiliating conditions upon the muslims untill later to find out that by this treaty is led to victory of the muslims]

"O people, accuse your personal opinions when they are not in harmony with the religion [1]  . I remember having rejected the command of the Messenger of Allah (The Exalted in Might) based on my opinion and my personal effort to think out the situation to arrive at the right conclusion (when i should have submitted to the command of the Messenger of Allah peace and blessings be upon him)"

[Ref: Al Hakamee in Ghazwah al hudaibiyyah page (313), Ibn Kathir in Bidayah Wan Nihaayah, Imam Tabarani in Al Mu`jam al Kabir, Al Haithamee in Majma` Az Zawaaid]

[1]
Who are the inheritors of the understanding for the religion? the scholars, see here


وَقَالَ ابْنُ وَهْبٍ: أَخْبَرَنِي ابْنُ لَهِيعَةَ عَنْ عَبْدِ اللَّهِ بْنِ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ قَالَ: قَالَ عُمَرُ بْنُ الْخَطَّابِ - رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ -: السُّنَّةُ مَا سَنَّهُ اللَّهُ وَرَسُولُهُ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ -، لَا تَجْعَلُوا خَطَأَ الرَّأْيِ سُنَّةً لِلْأُمَّةِ.


‘Umar ibn Khattab (r.a) said: “Sunnah is what is ordained by Allah (s.w.t) and His Messenger 
(sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam), don’t make someone’s incorrect opinion (or mistake in someone’s opinion) a Sunnah for the Ummah (to follow)

[`Ilaam al-Muwaq`een `an Rabbil `Alameen and Sharh Aqeedah at-Tahaawi - علي بن علي بن  -  - محمد بن أبي العز الدمشقيhttp://library.islamweb.net/NewLibrary/display_book.php?idfrom=23&idto=23&bk_no=34&ID=25 ]


وَحَدَّثَنِي سَعِيدُ بْنُ نَصْرٍ، نا قَاسِمُ بْنُ أَصْبَغَ، نا ابْنُ وَضَّاحٍ، نا مُوسَى بْنُ مُعَاوِيَةَ، ثنا ابْنُ مَهْدِيٍّ، عَنْ حَمَّادِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، عَنْ عَمْرِو بْنِ دِينَارٍ، قَالَ: قَالَ عُمَرُ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنْهُ: " إِنَّمَا أَخَافُ عَلَيْكُمْ رَجُلَيْنِ: رَجُلٌ تَأَوَّلَ الْقُرْآنَ عَلَى غَيْرِ تَأْوِيلِهِ وَرَجُلٌ يُنَافِسُ الْمُلْكَ عَلَى أَخِيهِ "

- `Umar - Allah be well-pleased with him - said: "I only fear for you two matters: A man that interprets the Qur'an in a way other than the interpretation in which it is meant (i.e. self-interpreting in a wrong way), and a man who vies with his brother in assimilating power (leadership)."

[Ref: Narrated with a missing Tabi`ee link from `Amr ibn Dinar by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2/1202  no. 2364 shamela). ]


وَذَكَرَ ابْنُ الْأَعْرَابِيِّ أَيْضًا ثنا مُوسَى بْنُ هَارُونَ الْحَمَّالُ، ثنا سُوَيْدُ بْنُ سَعِيدٍ، ثنا عَبْدُ الْعَزِيزِ بْنُ أَبِي حَازِمٍ، عَنْ أَبِيهِ، أَنَّ عُمَرَ بْنَ الْخَطَّابِ، قَالَ: «مَا أَخَافُ عَلَى هَذِهِ الْأُمَّةِ مِنْ مُؤْمِنٍ يَنْهَاهُ إِيمَانُهُ وَلَا مِنْ فَاسِقٍ بَيِّنٍ فِسْقُهُ، وَلَكِنِّي أَخَافُ عَلَيْهَا رَجُلًا قَدْ قَرَأَ الْقُرْآنَ حَتَّى أَزْلَفَهُ بِلِسَانِهِ ثُمَّ تَأَوَّلَهُ عَلَى غَيْرِ تَأْوِيلِهِ»


He also said: "I do not fear for this Community a believer whose faith holds him in check nor a dissolute man whose corruption is evident. However, I fear for it a man who read the Qur'an until he slickened his tongue with it, then he misconstrues (wrongly portrays or interprets) it."

[Ref: Narrated from `Abd al-`Aziz ibn Abi Hazim by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in Jami` Bayan al-`Ilm (2:1204 #2368) with a weak chain as stated by al-Zuhayri. ]


‘Imam al Barbahaaree in his Sharh as-Sunnah said “ And ‘Umar Ibn khattab (r.a) said and al-Awza`ee attributed this to `Umar ibn `Abdil `Azeez (rahimahullah),


“there is no excuse for anyone going astray, thinking that he is upon Guidance, nor for abandoning Guidance thinking it is to be misguidance, since the affairs have been made clear, the proofs have been established and the excuse has been cut off


[Quoted in the explanation of sharh al sunnah by shaikh saleh al fawzaan hafidhahullah . Reported by Abu Yusuf in the book al-Kharaaj, and Ibn Shabbah in the Tareekh of al-Madeenah and Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanah and Ibn Hazam in al-Ahkaam and others through different chains of narration from ‘Umar (r.a) with it. And it is also reported by Abu Nu’aym in al-Hilayaatul Awliyah from ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul Azeez (r.h). However in the checking of Shaikh khaalid al-Radaadee he mentions with regard to this report that it is reported by Ibn Battah in al-Ibaanatul Kubra by the way of al-Awza’ee (r.h) who said that it reached him that ‘Umar (r.a) said this statement. Therefore it is munqati (disconnected). It is also reported by al Marwazee in his book as Sunnah as a statement of Umar ibn abdul-Azeez. The muhaqiq of this book Al Sunnah Shaikh Salim al Hilaalee said “: It is authentically reported from Umar ibn Abdul azeez” ]





395- الْحَكَمُ بْنُ كَيْسَانَ
مَوْلَى لبني مخزوم. وكان الحكم فِي عير قريش الّتي أصابها عَبْد الله بْن جحش بنخلة فأسر.
قَالَ: أَخْبَرَنَا مُحَمَّدُ بْنُ عُمَرَ قَالَ: حَدَّثَنِي عَلِيُّ بْنُ يَزِيدَ عَنْ أَبِيهِ عَنْ عَمَّتِهِ عَنْ أُمِّهَا كَرِيمَةَ بِنْتِ الْمِقْدَادِ عَنْ أَبِيهَا الْمِقْدَادِ بْنِ عَمْرٍو قَالَ: أَنَا أَسَرْتُ الْحَكَمَ بْنَ كَيْسَانَ فَأَرَادَ أَمِيرُنَا ضَرْبَ عُنُقِهِ فَقُلْتُ: دَعْهُ! نَقْدُمُ بِهِ عَلَى رَسُولِ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - فَقَدِمْنَا فَجَعَلَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - يَدْعُوهُ إِلَى الإِسْلامِ فأطال. فقال عمر: علا م تُكَلِّمُ هَذَا يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ؟ وَاللَّهِ لا يُسْلِمُ هَذَا آخِرَ الأَبَدِ. دَعْنِي أَضْرِبْ عُنُقَهُ وَيُقْدِمُ إِلَى أُمِّهِ الْهَاوِيَةِ. فَجَعَلَ النَّبِيُّ لا يُقْبِلُ عَلَى عُمَرَ حَتَّى أَسْلَمَ الْحَكَمُ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: فَمَا هُوَ إِلا أَنْ رَأَيْتُهُ قَدْ أَسْلَمَ حَتَّى أَخَذَنِي مَا تَقَدَّمَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَقُلْتُ: كَيْفَ أَرُدُّ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - أَمْرًا هُوَ أَعْلَمُ بِهِ مِنِّي ثُمَّ أَقُولُ إِنَّمَا أَرَدْتُ بِذَلِكَ النَّصِيحَةَ لِلَّهِ وَلِرَسُولِهِ؟ فَقَالَ عُمَرُ: فَأَسْلَمَ وَاللَّهِ فَحَسُنَ إِسْلامُهُ وَجَاهَدَ فِي اللَّهِ حَتَّى قُتِلَ شَهِيدًا بِبِئْرِ مَعُونَةَ. وَرَسُولُ اللَّهِ - صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ - رَاضٍ عَنْهُ وَدَخَلَ الْجِنَّانَ

Miqdad bin 'Amr narrated that when he took Hakam bin Kaysaan as a prisoner (during one of the battles), his commander wanted Hakam executed. However, he (Miqdad) managed to persuade his commander not to execute Hakam but to rather take him to Prophet (peace be upon him). When they brought him to Prophet (peace be upon him), the noble Prophet (peace be upon him) started inviting him to accept Islam and spent a long time speaking to him.

After some time, Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "O Prophet (peace be upon him) For what reason are you talking to him so much? By Allah! He shall never accept Islam! Allow me to execute him so that he may reach his destination in Hell!"

However, Prophet (peace be upon him) paid no attention to Umar's (may Allah be pleased with him) and continued speaking until Hakam accepted Islam.

Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) said, "When I saw Hakam accepting Islam, I was surrounded by thoughts of the past and future. I chided myself for addressing Prophet (peace be upon him) concerning a matter about which he had more knowledge than me. I then told myself that I had done so only for the welfare of Allah and His Prophet (peace be upon him)." Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) also said, "Hakam became a Muslim and by Allah, he was an excellent Muslim who fought for the pleasure of Allah until he was martyred at Bir Ma'oona. Prophet (peace be upon him) was pleased with him and he has entered the gardens of Jannah."


[Ref: Quoted by Ibn Sa'd in his Al Tabaqat Al Kubra, no. 395, 4866, 4/102; via faizan shaikh]



9)
Ibn Hazm said
: "What indicates a person’s weak religion and fear of God, is that he seeks for an opinion that suits his desire." [al-Ihkam 5/64]


10) Imaam Abu ’Amr ’Abdur-Rahmaan Ibn ’Amr al-Awzaa’ee (d.179H) said:

“Stick to the aathaar of those who have preceded (man salaf), even if the people reject you. And beware of the opinions of men, even if they beautify it for you with speech. So the affair is young and you are upon a Straight Path with regards to it.”

[Ref:  Saheeh; Related by al-Bayhaqee in al-Madkhal (no. 233), al-Khateeb in Sharaf Ashaabul-Hadeeth (no. 6), Ibn ’Abdul-Barr in al-Jaami’]

Al-Awzaa`ee رحمه الله said: One of the people of desires was arguing with `Alee Ibn Abee Taalib رضي الله عنه. So Ibn `Abbaas رضي الله عنهما said to him (`Alee):

“O Abu al-Husain! (They) interpret the Qur’aan as per there wishful thinking, so you’ll say (something) and they’ll say (something back). Rather, fight them back with the Sunnah (of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم), for verily they cannot lie about the Sunnah.”

[Ref: al-Faqeeh wal-Mutafaqqih of al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee (1/560)]


Al Awza`ee also said :  "Knowledge is what comes from the Companions of Muhammad -- peace be upon him -- and whatever does not come from one of them is not knowledge.

[Ref: Narrated by Ibn `Abd al-Barr in his Jami` bayan al-`ilm (2:36) See why bid`ah is the most dangerous thing of all : http://the-finalrevelation.blogspot.com/2012/07/what-is-bidah-and-why-is-it-most.html]



11)  Ali ibn Abi Talib (r.a) said: If the religion were based on opinion, it would be more important to wipe the under part of the shoe than the upper but I have seen the Messenger of Allah (peace_be_upon_him) wiping over the upper part of his shoes. [Sunan Abu Dawood, Book of purification, Hadith no. 162, 164 and also see hadith no. 163 last part. Some graded it weak but Albani graded it as saheeh, However the matan is saheeh ]

`Ali (radhiallahu anhu) also is reported to have said : “I would not forsake the Sunnah of the Prophet (ﷺ) for the opinion of anyone.”
[Ref: Fath Al-Baari, 2/421]



12) Imam Al-Dhahabee (r.h) said : in the introduction to his book al-’Uluww li’l-’Aliyy al-Ghaffār’: “O ’Abdullāh, If you love justice then stop at the texts of the Qur’ān and Sunan and then look at what the Companions and the Tābi’ūn stated along with the commentaries of the Imāms of tafsīr with regards to the verses and with whatever has been related from the madhab of the Salaf. So either you speak with knowledge or you remain silent with gentleness.” (Refer to Wasitiyyyah Ahlus Sunnah Baynal Firaq pgs. 102-103


13)
Ibn Rushd(520 A.h to 595 A.h
) said in his book “Manahijul Adillah Fee ‘AqaadilMillah" page 150:

This was the status of innovated sects with respect to Shari'ah. Each of these sects misunderstood Shari’ah in a way different than the other sects, claiming their understanding to be the objective of the Legislator. This tore the Shari’ah to several pieces, and distancedit from its original position.

The Legislator knew that this was likely to occur so He (Allah) said (via the prophet that) : My nation will devide into 73 sects, all will be in the hell fire, except for one”. He meant by this "one" the sect which goes by the apparent verses of Shari'ah and does not misunderstand them.

When you look at the amount of deviation that has occurredin the Ummah during this time, you will find that most of it was due to misunderstanding.

And the first to modify this great cure were: al-Khawarij, then Mu’tazilites, then Ash’aris, then  the Sufis. Then came Abu Hamed who caused the valley to landslide over the villages


14) Abu `Uthman Sa`eed b. Isma`eel Al-Naysaburi (d290H) said:

Whoever governs himself by the Sunnah – in word and deed – will speak with wisdom. But whoever governs himself according to his own desires will speak heresies (bid’ah); because Allah tabâraka wa ta’âlâ said:

And if you obey him (the Messenger) you will be guided. [Sûrah Al-Nûr: 54]

[Ref: Abû Nu’aym in Al-Hilyah Vol.10 p244, and others.]


15) After mentioning the above quote of Abu Uthman and other similar narrations Shaykh Al-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah said in Minhaj Al-Sunnah Vol.5 p117 :

It is as they said, for if a person does not follow what the Messenger came with he will act according to his own wishes. Thus he will be one who follows his desires without guidance from Allah.



Imam Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah in his MuqaddImah usool at-tafseer (1/139) - the sharh version discussing the reasons for different interpretation of Qur`an says :

إحداهما: قوم اعتقدوا معاني، ثم أرادوا حمل ألفاظ القرآن عليها.
والثانية: قوم فسروا القرآن بمجرد ما يسوغ أن يريده بكلامه من كان من الناطقين بلغة العرب، من غير نظر إلى المتكلم بالقرآن، والمنزَل عليه والمخاطب به.

The first problem arouse when people believing in certain idealogies tried to interpret the Qur`an in accordance to their belief (i.e to match with what they and their akabireen believed)  [1] 

the second problem arouse when people started interpreting Qur`an just as an Average `Arabic speaker would without considering FROM whom these words came, to WHOM it was revealed and WHO where they (the speech of allah) addressing 

Translator's Note : [1] Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen cites an example by saying the grave worshippers use verses such as " Oh you who believe, fear Allah and seek the means of intercession...[Surah al-Maidah] " to justify their `aqeedah of invoking the dead 

Then Ibn Taymiyyah explains 

(87) ثم هؤلاء كثيرًا ما يغلطون في احتمال اللفظ لذلك المعنى في اللغة (1)، كما يغلط في ذلك الذين قبلهم (2)، كما أن الأولين كثيرًا ما يغلطون في صحة المعنى الذي فسروا به القرآن (3)، كما يغلط في ذلك الآخرون (4)، وإن كان نظر الأولين إلى المعنى أسبق، ونظر الآخرين إلى اللفظ أسبق.

Roughly which means that both the groups fell into error with the first one emphasizing more on the meanings of the Qur`an and misusing the words of the Qur`an to suit their interp, while the latter focused more on the `Arabic terms of it and how they can use it to their advantage. .....

TN: In both these methods the common error made by them is that they did not follow the understanding of the Salaf. This is why Ibn Taymiyyah enlists many names of our sullaf whose tafseer was free from these mishaps 


(85) وأما النوع الثاني من مستندي الاختلاف وهو ما يعلم بالاستدلال لا بالنقل، فهذا أكثر ما فيه الخطأ من جهتين ـ حدثتا بعد تفسير الصحابة والتابعين وتابعيهم بإحسان؛ فإن التفاسير التي يذكر فيها كلام هؤلاء صرفًا لا يكاد يوجد فيها شيء من هاتين الجهتين مثل تفسير عبد الرزاق، ووكيع، وعبد بن حميد، وعبد الرحمن بن إبراهيم دُحيم، ومثل تفسير الإمام أحمد، وإسحاق بن راهويه، وبقي بن مخلد، وأبي بكر بن المنذر، وسفيان بن عيينة، وسنيد، وابن جرير، وابن أبي حاتم، وأبي سعيد الأشج، وأبي عبد الله بن ماجه، وابن مردويه ـ:


قال شيخ الإسلام ابن تيمية رحمه اللّٰه

﴿ ﻗَﺎﻝَ ﺳَﺂﻭِﻱ ﺇِﻟَﻰٰ ﺟَﺒَﻞٍ ﻳَﻌْﺼِﻤُﻨِﻲ ﻣِﻦَ ﺍﻟْﻤَﺎﺀِ ﴾
[ ‏ﻫــﺬﺍ ﻋﻘــﻞ ]
﴿ ﻗَﺎﻝَ ﻟَﺎﻋَﺎﺻِﻢَ ﺍﻟْﻴَﻮْﻡَ ﻣِﻦْ ﺃَﻣْﺮِ ﺍﻟﻠَّﻪِ ﺇِﻟَّﺎ ﻣَﻦ ﺭَّﺣِﻢَ ﴾
[ ﻫـــﺬﺍ وحي ‏]
﴿ ﻭَﺣَﺎﻝَ ﺑَﻴْﻨَﻬُﻤَﺎ ﺍﻟْﻤَﻮْﺝُ ﻓَﻜَﺎﻥَ ﻣِﻦَ ﺍﻟْﻤُﻐْﺮَﻗِﻴﻦَ ﴾
[ ﻫـــﺬﻩ ﺍلنتيجـة ]

فكل ﻣـﻦ ﻗـﺪّﻡ ﻋﻘﻠـﻪ ﻋﻠﻰ ﻧﺼـﻮﺹ ﺍﻟﻜﺘـﺎﺏ ﻭﺍﻟﺴﻨـﺔ الصحيحة ﻏـﺮِﻕ ﻓﻲ ﻇﻠﻤـﺎﺕ ﺑﺤﺎﺭ ﺍﻷﻫـﻮﺍﺀ ﻭﺍﻟﺒﺪﻉ
ﻣـﻦ ﺗﻌــﻮﺩ ﻣﻌﺎﺭﺿـﺔ ﺍﻟﺸـﺮﻉ ﺑﺎﻟﻌﻘـﻞ ﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻘـﺮ ﻓـﻲ ﻗﻠـﺒــﻪ ﺇﻳـﻤـﺎﻥ

📓【ﺩﺭﺀ تعاﺭﺽ العقل والنقل【1/187】


Shaykhul Islaam Ibn Taymiyyah said;

[But] he (the rebellious son of noah a.s) said, "I will take refuge on a mountain to protect me from the water. This is aql (using intellect)

[Noah] said, "There is no protector today from the decree of Allah, except for whom He gives mercy. This is Wahy (A  message/command from Allah)

And the waves came between them, and he was among the drowned. This is the Natijah (end result)

So everyone who places his aql (intellect) over the texts of qur'an and authentic sunnah will be drowned in the darkness sea of desires and innovations

Whosoever opposes the decree (shariah legislation) with intellect then eemaan is not settled in his heart.

[Ref: dar at-ta`rrud al-Aqal 1/187; translated  by Muhannad shaikh]


Ibn Taymiyyah rahimahullah also said in Muqaddimah usool at-tafseer 1/145 

وفي الجملة؛ من عدل عن مذاهب الصحابة والتابعين وتفسيرهم إلى ما يخالف ذلك كان مخطئًا في ذلك، بل مبتدعًا، وإن كان مجتهدًا مغفورًا له خطؤه، فالمقصود بيان طرق العلم وأدلته،

In short whoever diverts away from the Manhaj of the companions, their students and their commentaries and leans towards what opposes them is wrong in this. Rather he is an innovator in this respect, even though he may be striving to attain the truth so (perhaps) be forgiven for his sins

وطرق الصواب، ونحن نعلم أن القرآن قرأه الصحابة والتابعون وتابعوهم، وأنهم كانوا أعلم بتفسيره ومعانيه، كما أنهم أعلم بالحق الذي بعث الله به رسوله صلّى الله عليه وسلّم، فمن خالف قولهم وفسَّر القرآن بخلاف تفسيرهم، فقد أخطأ في الدليل والمدلول جميعًا، ومعلوم أن كل من خالف قولهم له شبهة يذكرها إما عقلية وإما سمعية، كما هو مبسوط في موضعه.

The point here is to highlight and clarify the methods of verifying knowledge and the methods of identifying the truth. We know that the Qur`an was recited by the companions, their students and their subsequent successors, and we know that they were more knowledgeable of the meanings and tafseer as well as more aware of the truth brought by the Prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) [than us]. Therefore, whoever contradicts their statements and uses different explanations is mistaken in both his deductions and his method.  (So) Everyone who opposes their statements possesses certain doubts , either intellectual or textual, as has been expounded upon elsewhere. 

[Ref: MuqaddImah usool at-tafseer (1/139)]

the below  3-4 paragraphs are taken from: https://tulayhah.wordpress.com/2017/01/16/turning-away-from-the-sources-of-tafsir-ibn-taymiyah/



    وقد دلت النصوص على أنه يخرج من النار من في قلبه مثقال ذرة من الإيمان . وقد عدلت ” المرجئة ” في هذا الأصل عن بيان الكتاب والسنة وأقوال الصحابة والتابعين لهم بإحسان واعتمدوا على رأيهم وعلى ما تأولوه بفهمهم اللغة ، وهذه طريقة أهل البدع ; ولهذا كان الإمام أحمد يقول : أكثر ما يخطئ الناس من جهة التأويل والقياس . [ ص: 119 ]  ـ

The textual sources definitively prove that whoever has a mustard seed’s weight of eemaan in his heart will eventually be taken out of the Hell-fire. However, when it comes to this fundamental principle, the Murji’ah have turned away from the Qur’an, the Sunnah, and the statements of the sahabah and those who followed them in goodness and instead they relied on their own opinions and their own interpretations and their own understandings of linguistic matters. This is the way of the people of religious innovation (ahl al-bid’ah), and it was in their vein that Imam Ahmad said, “The most common areas in which people err are interpreting words outside of their predominant meanings and analogical reasoning.”

     ولهذا تجد المعتزلة والمرجئة والرافضة وغيرهم من أهل البدع يفسرون القرآن برأيهم ومعقولهم وما تأولوه من اللغة ; ولهذا تجدهم لا يعتمدون على أحاديث النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم والصحابة والتابعين وأئمة المسلمين ; فلا يعتمدون لا على السنة ولا على إجماع السلف وآثارهم ; وإنما يعتمدون على العقل واللغة . ـ

And so you find the Mu’tazilah, the Murji’ah, the Raafidah, and other groups of the ahl al-bid’ah making tafsir of the Qur’an according to their own views, reasonings, and linguistic interpretations, and you find that they do not rely on the statements of the Prophet (ﷺ) or the sahabah or the tabi’oon or the scholars. So they do not rely on the Sunnah or on the consensus of the early generations or on the statements and positions relayed from them; they only rely on intellect and linguistics.

وتجدهم لا يعتمدون على كتب التفسير المأثورة والحديث ; وآثار السلف وإنما يعتمدون على كتب الأدب وكتب الكلام التي وضعتها رءوسهم وهذه طريقة الملاحدة أيضا ; إنما يأخذون ما في كتب الفلسفة وكتب الأدب واللغة وأما كتب القرآن والحديث والآثار ; فلا يلتفتون إليها . ـ

You find that they do not rely on the books of narration-based tafsir or the books of hadeeth, or the statements and positions relayed from the salaf; they only rely on the books of literature and the books of language which their figureheads have authored. This is also the methodology of the heretics; they only take from the books of philosophy and the books of literature and language, but as for the books of tafsir, prophetic hadeeth or statements of the early generations, they do not give these sources any consideration.

هؤلاء يعرضون عن نصوص الأنبياء إذ هي عندهم لا تفيد العلم وأولئك يتأولون القرآن برأيهم وفهمهم بلا آثار عن النبي صلى الله عليه وسلم وأصحابه وقد ذكرنا كلام أحمد وغيره في إنكار هذا وجعله طريقة أهل البدع . وإذا تدبرت حججهم وجدت دعاوى لا يقوم عليها دليل . ـ

These people turn away from the sources of the religion conveyed by the Prophets – as in their minds these do not contain knowledge – and so they interpret the Qur’an according to their own opinions and understandings without any reference to the legacy left by the Prophet (ﷺ) or his companions. And we have already mentioned the statements of Imam Ahmad and others censuring this approach and considering this to be the way of ahl al-bid’ah. And if you consider their arguments, you will find that the calls of these groups do not have any foundation to stand on.


[Majmoo’a al-Fataawaa 7/119-120]


16) Abu Bakr – radiyallahu ‘anhu – said:


Which sky would shade me and which earth would carry me (i.e. let me live upon it) if I were to say about the Book of Allah that which I do not know (about)?!

[Ref: Narrated by Ibn Majah in his Sunan in the book of Zakat #1791; also mentioned by Ibn Qayyim – rahimahullah – in ‘I’laam al-Muwaqqi’een. The narration is Maqtoo’ but strengthened by all its ways as mentioned here and the scholars throughout years are known to quote this in their books, duroos and articles.]


17) Bilaal bin Sa`d رحمه الله said:

"Righteous deeds are not accepted along with (these) three things:

1. Shirk (major and minor).
2. Kufr,
3. Opinion."

He was asked: "what is 'opinion'"?

He said: "Ignoring the Book of Allaah and the Sunnah of His Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم and acting upon ones own opinion."

[al-Hilyah (5/229), benifited from Ilm4al]

18) Ibn `Abbas (radhiallahu anhu) correcting Mu`awiyah (radhiallahu anhu) on logic


It is narrated that Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, performed Tawaaf with Mu‘aawiyah, may Allaah be pleased with him, one day and saw him touching all the corners of the Ka‘bah. Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him,disapproved of that and said to him, "Why do you touch these two corners (i.e. the Iraqi and the Syrian corners), and the Prophet, sallallaahu ‘alayhi wa sallam, did not touch them?" Mu‘aawiyah, may Allaah be pleased with him, replied, "Nothing from the House should be abandoned." Ibn ‘Abbaas, may Allaah be pleased with him, recited (what means): {There has certainly been for you in the Messenger of Allaah an excellent pattern (to follow)} [Qur'aan 33:21] Thereupon Mu‘aawiyah, may Allaah be pleased with him, said, "You are absolutely right

[Ref: Al-Awsat by At-Tabaraani (3/17) And also in Musnad Ahmad as quoted by Shaykh Uthaymeen (r.h) in his fatawa on the topic titled :Errors during tawaaf]


Ibn Hajar (Rahimahullah) cites Imam ash-Shaf`aee further refuting this concept of logic USING LOGIC in Fath ul-Bari (3/473-474) :

وأجاب الشافعي عن قول من قال ليس شيء من البيت مهجورا بأنا لم ندع استلامهما هجرا للبيت ، وكيف يهجره وهو يطوف به ، ولكنا نتبع السنة فعلا أو تركا ، ولو كان ترك استلامهما هجرا لهما لكان ترك استلام ما بين الأركان هجرا لها ، ولا قائل به


 And ash-Shafa`ee responded to the saying of the one who said, "There is nothing from the house (ka`bah) that is abandoned" with (the response) that: We have not left touching the (two corners) out of abandoning the house, and how can a person be abandoning it when he is making tawaf around it. Rather, we follow the Sunnah both in performance (fi`l) and abandonment (tark), and if not touching them both constitutes abandoning them, then not touching what is between the corners would also be abandonment of it, yet there is no one expressing this [view].



(135) وقال أبو عبيد: حدثنا إسماعيل بن إبراهيم، عن أيوب، عن ابن أبي مليكة، قال: سأل رجل ابن عباس عن: يوم كان مقداره ألف سنة؟.
فقال له ابن عباس: فما يوم كان مقداره خمسين ألف سنة؟.
فقال الرجل: إنما سألتك لتحدثني!.
فقال ابن عباس: هما يومان ذكرهما الله في كتابه، الله أعلم بهما.
فكَرِهَ أن يقول في كتاب الله ما لا يعلم.

Abu Ubayd narrated from Isma`eel ibn Ibraahim who related from Ayyoub from Ibn Abi Mulayka who said “A man asked Ibn `Abbas about the verse

.. “…a day, the extent of which is a thousand years [32:5]” 

Ibn `Abbas replied : then what about the verse which states “…a day the extent of which is fifty thousand years…” [70:4] 

The man replied :” I asked you so that you could inform me.”. 

Ibn `Abbas replied : “They are two days which Allah has mentioned in his book and Allah knows best what they are [referring to]. “ 

Meaning he disliked talking about the Book of Allah without affirmed knowledge.

19) Suhail Ibn Haneef (may Allah be pleased with him) is reported to have said:

"Accuse your personal opinions. For I remember the Day of Abu Jandal and how i would have rejected the command of the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings be upon him) had i been able to do so (i.e., i would have tried to save Abdul Jandal instead of accepting the Treaty, which would have been a serious mistake on my part.")

[Ref: Al Hakamee (d.1377 AH) in Ghazwah Al Hudaibiyyah page 313]



20) Imam Ahmad ibn Hanbal :

Imaam Ahmad said.: “And let him not be of those who invent new matters [into the Deen], for whenever such a thing emerges from such a man, he seeks to find a proof for what he is doing. So he induces himself to do the impossible, searching for a proof for what he has brought out – whether valid or baseless – in order to beautify his innovation and his invention. And worse than that, is that he fabricates it – attributing it to some written text that has been conveyed about it. So he desires to beautify that with truth and falsehood.”

[Ref: Al-Ibaanah, by Ibn Battah, 2/472]

21) Abu Hurayra (radhiallahu anhu) :


Abu Hurayra (r.a) said to Ibn `Abbas (r.a) once :....... "O son of my brother, when I narrate a Hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah to you, then do not try to make examples for it (using logic)."

[Ref: Sunan Ibn Maajah, Book of purification and it’s Sunnah, Vol. 1, Book 1, Hadith 485; Declared as Hassan by Albaanee in Saheeh at-Tirmidhi(79); Also as Hassan by Ahmad Shaakir in the Sharh of Tirmidhi (1/114) and Ibn Hajar asqalaani in : موافقة الخبر الخبر – (1/459) ]

22) `Ata ibn Abi Raibah (rahimahullah):


ﺣﺪﺛﻨﺎ ﻣﺨﻠﺪ ﺑﻦ ﻣﺎﻟﻚ ﺛﻨﺎ ﺣﻜﺎﻡ ﺑﻦ ﺳﻠﻢ ﻋﻦ ﺃﺑﻲ ﺧﻴﺜﻤﺔ ﻋﻦ ﻋﺒﺪ ﺍﻟﻌﺰﻳﺰ ﺑﻦ ﺭﻓﻴﻊ ﻗﺎﻝ : ﺳﺌﻞ ﻋﻄﺎﺀ ﻋﻦ ﺷﻲﺀ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻻ ﺃﺩﺭﻱ ﻗﺎﻝ ﻗﻴﻞ ﻟﻪ ﺍﻻ ﺗﻘﻮﻝ ﻓﻴﻬﺎ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻚ ﻗﺎﻝ ﺍﻧﻲ ﺃﺳﺘﺤﻴﻲ ﻣﻦ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ ﺍﻥ
ﻳﺪﺍﻥ ﻓﻲ ﺍﻷﺭﺽ ﺑﺮﺃﻳﻲ


Imam `Abdul `Azeez ibn  Rafi` narrated : Imaam `Ata ibn Abi Raibah (one of the teachers of Imam Abu Haneefah) was asked about a matter so he replied “ I don’t know” . `Abdullah ibn Raafy said it was asked from `Ata ibn Abi Raibah to answer using his opinion to which he (`Ata) replied : “ I fear/shy from Allah that my opinion be taken as (an aspect of) Deen on this earth”

[Ref: Sunan ad-Darimi (108); Tareekh ad-Dimishq (43), Saheeh by Shaykh Zubayr `Ali Zaee in  Taheeqi Maqalaat Vol. 2, Page 562]

23) Imaam Ahlus Sunnah Sufyan at-thawree (rahimahullah):

Imam Sufyan Thawri (may Allah have mercy on him) said:

إِنَّمَا الدِّينُ بِالْآثَارِ لَيْسَ بِالرَّأْيِ، إِنَّمَا الدِّينُ بِالْآثَارِ لَيْسَ بِالرَّأْيِ، إِنَّمَا الدِّينُ بِالْآثَارِ لَيْسَ بِالرَّأْيِ

The Religion is only based upon narrations, not upon opinion. The Religion is only based upon narrations, not upon opinion. The Religion is only based upon narrations, not upon opinion.

[Ref: Sharaf Ashaabul Hadeeth 1/6]


ﺍﻟﺜﻮﺭﻱ ﺭﺣﻤﻪ ﺍﻟﻠﻪ : ﻻ ﻳُﻘﺒﻞ ﻗﻮﻝ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻌﻤﻞ، ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻨﻴﺔ، ﻭﻻ ﻳﺴﺘﻘﻴﻢ ﻗﻮﻝ ﻭﻋﻤﻞ ﻭﻧﻴﺔ ﺇﻻ ﺑﻤﺘﺎﺑﻌﺔ ﺍﻟﺴﻨﺔ


Imaam Sufyan at-Thawri rahimahullah also said : No statement is accepted/complete/truthful without enacting upon it, and no speech or action is accepted without (it’s proper) intention and no statement, action or intention is accepted until it is in accordance to the sunnah. 



[Ref: Hilyatul Awliyah (8/32), Hasan by Shaykh Ghulaam Mustafa zaheer Ameenpuri hafidhahullah] 



Imam Sufyan Thawri (rahimahullah) said:

نسلم ما سمعنا، ونكل ما لا نعلم إلى عالمه، ونتهم رأينا لرأيهم

“We follow what we know, and hand over what we do not know to those who do know (i.e scholars). We will even question our understanding in comparison to theirs”


[Ref: Al-Intiqa, pg.265, 266]


25)
Ashraf `Ali thanvi Deobandhi said : 


Most Muqalideen in general and even the Notables (Scholars)are so firm in Taqleed that when they hear about an Ayat or Hadees which contradicts the saying of their Mujtahid, then there is an unrest in their hearts. The idea of Refusing to acknowledge the Ayat and Hadith (which goes against their fiqh) first starts in their hearts, then they think of doing Ta’weel (interpretation). And no matter how impossible is it, and no matter how strong is the Daleel (evidence) of other party, and even if the Daleel of their Mujtahid is nothing but just a Qiyas, and even if they do not have energy or time for doing Ta’weel . Yet despite of all this they will do Ta’weel just for the sole purpose to prove their Madhab victorius. They (Muqalideen) are not ready to leave the Qawl (Fatwa) of their Mujtahid (scholar) and to act upon a evident saheeh hadith.


[ Tazkirat-U-Rasheed: 1/131]


Taken from the Book: Difa'e Saheeh Bukhari
Orignally Written By Maulana Abul Qasin Saif Banarsi.
Taqdeem (Foreword) is written By Maulana Irshadul Haq Asari.

In his Taqdeem Maulana Irshadul Haq Asari quotes this.


26) Imam as-Sha`fee rahimahullah 



عن ابن القيم َقَالَ الشَّافِعِيُّ أَجْمَعَ النَّاسُ عَلَى أَنَّ مَنْ اسْتَبَانَتْ لَهُ سُنَّةٌ عَنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ لَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُ أَنْ يَدَعَهَا لِقَوْلِ أَحَدٍ مِنْ النَّاسِ

2/201 إعلام الموقعين عن رب العالمين


Ibn Al-Qayyim reported: Ash-Shafi’ee said, “The people are in consensus that if the tradition (sunnah) of the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, is made clear to anyone, then he may not abandon it for the saying of any other person.”

[Ref: I’lam Al-Muwaqi’een 2/201]


27) The famous Notable Tabi’ee, Imaam Sha`bi (rahimahullah)  said: 



“Whatever hadeeth of the Messenger of Allah (peace be upon him) the people give to you, hold firm to it; and the thing which they say from their opinion, throw it in the dustbin”


[Ref: Musnad ad-Daarimi: Vol 1 Pg 67 H. 206, Chain Saheeh]



102- أَخْبَرَنَا إِسْمَاعِيلُ بْنُ أَبَانَ، حَدَّثَنَا حَاتِمٌ هُوَ ابْنُ إِسْمَاعِيلَ، عَنْ عِيسَى، عَنِ الشَّعْبِيِّ، قَالَ: «إِيَّاكُمْ وَالْمُقَايَسَةَ، وَالَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَئِنْ أَخَذْتُمْ بِالْمُقَايَسَةِ لَتُحِلُّنَّ الْحَرَامَ وَلَتُحَرِّمُنَّ الْحَلَالَ، وَلَكِنْ مَا بَلَغَكُمْ عَمَّنْ حَفِظَ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ مُحَمَّدٍ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ فَاعْمَلُوا بِهِ»

Isma`eel ibn Abaan informed us, Haatim Ibn Isma`eel narrated to us, from Eesaa from Ash-Sha`bee (rahimahullah) that he said: 

“Beware of making Qiyas (analogies, opinions, assumptions) for by the One in Whose Hands my soul is, if you would take hold of Muqayasah (opinions), you would end up permitting what’s prohibited and prohibiting what’s permitted. Instead, act upon that (ahadeeth) which has reached you from the one (i.e. scholars) who preserved the teachings of Muhammad’s companions (sallallaahu `alayhi wasallam)


[Ref: Muqaddamah of Darimi (110)] 


28) Imaam Ibn Shihaab az-Zuhri (rahimahullah) said:


على الله البيان وعلى الرسول البلاغ وعلينا التسليم


"Upon Allaah is to explain, Upon the Messenger is to convey, and upon us is to accept" (without questioning)


[Ref: Aqeedah as-Salaf by As-Saabooni with it Sharh (5/11, 7/9), Sharh us-Sunan lil Baghawi (1/171), Al-Hujjah fi Bayaan al-Mahajja by Abu al-Qaasim al-Asbahaani (2/512), & Mu'jam al-Lateef by Dhahabi (1/61)]


Another proof that the people mis-interpreted the qur`an to achieve desires. 



(2465) - (قال الزهرى: " هاجت الفتنة وأصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم متوافرون , وفيهم البدريون فأجمعوا أنه لا يقاد أحد , ولا يؤخذ مال على تأويل القرآن إلا ما وجد بعنيه " ذكره أحمد فى رواية الأثرم.


Al-Zuhree said: “The affliction rose yet there were many Companions of Allah's
Messenger . Some of them were those who had participated in battle of Badr. They all
agreed that none should be retaliated against (who were involved in battle of Siffeen) and nor should property be taken by misinterpreting the Qur'an but who found his exact commodity (he was allowed to take it back).” 


[Ref: Al-Bayhaqee (8/174-175)]

29) Abdullaah ibn Mas`ood radhiallahu `anhu said

And from Allaah is the Message, upon the Messenger is to convey, and upon us is to affirm.


[Reported by al-Bayhaqee in Al-Asmaa was-Sifaat, no. 516 and al- Laalikaa’ee in Usoolul-I’tiqaad, no. 665. Ibn Taymiyyah said in Majmoo’ul-Fataawaa, 5/365, “It is established from Rabee’ah,” he also said in Al-Hamawiyyah, p. 80, “Al-Khallaal narrated it with an isnaad, all of whom are thiqaat (precise and reliable).”]



30) ʿUmar ibn `Abdul Aziz said :



Al Awza'i narrated:

كَتَبَ عُمَرُ بْنُ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ رَحِمَهُ اللَّهُ تَعَالَى أَنَّهُ لَا رَأْيَ لِأَحَدٍ فِي كِتَابِ اللَّهِ، وَإِنَّمَا رَأْيُ الْأَئِمَّةِ فِيمَا لَمْ يَنْزِلْ فِيهِ كِتَابٌ، وَلَمْ تَمْضِ بِهِ سُنَّةٌ مِنْ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَلَا رَأْيَ لِأَحَدٍ فِي سُنَّةٍ سَنَّهَا رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ

‘Umar ibn Abd al Aziz gave an order that no one could give personal opinions about what was in the Qur'an and the Imams could only give opinions concerning things which the Qur’an had not revealed, nor had a Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him) been transmitted about them, nor could anyone hold their own personal opinion about a matter for which there existed a Sunnah of the Prophet (peace be upon him).

- Sunan Darimi, no. 446; Isnaad classed as Saheeh by Shaykh Husayn Saleem Asad and Hadeeth classed as Saheeh by Shaykh Abdul Mannan Raasikh. benefited by Faizan Shaikh



 "In the presence of a Sunnah that the Messenger of Allāh (ṣallallāhu ʿalayhi wasallam) laid down, there is no (room) for the opinion of anyone 

 [Ref: Ibn ʿAbd al-Barr in Jāmiʿ Bayān al-ʿIlm wa Faḍlihī (1/781) and al-Marwazī

in al-Sunnah, p. 31.]


Ibn Shihâb reports that Umar b. ‘Abd Al-’Azîz – Allah have mercy on him, said, “The Messenger of Allâh – Allâh’s peace and blessings be upon him – and the authorities (leaders of the Muslims, the Caliphs ) after him set certain ways and practices. To follow those ways is to believe in Allâh’s Book and to complete [ones] obedience of Him, and to be strong upon the religion of Allâh. It is not for anyone to alter those ways or change them for something else, and it is not for anyone to consider the views and opinions of those who contradict them. Whoever follows what [the Prophet and his Caliphs] laid down will be guided, whoever seeks enlightenment through it will be enlightened. But whoever contradicts those ways and follows a way other than the way of the Believers, Allâh the Mighty and Majestic will leave him in the path he has chosen and land him in Jahannam (Hell); and what an evil destination that is.’”

[Al-Lâlakâ`î, Sharh Usûl I’tiqâd Ahl Al-Sunnah 1:94.]



This narration is recorded with variant wordings in numerous other sources. In a version recorded on the authority of Muttarrif b. ‘Abdillâh by Al-Qâdî Abû Ya’lâ (d458H) in Ibtâl Al-Ta’wîl 1:52, it is stated that when those who ‘deflected the narrations speaking of the Sifât’ (divine attributes of Allâh) were mentioned in the presence of Imâm Mâlik, he would quote this saying of Caliph ‘Umar b. ‘Abd Al-’Azîz. In yet another report of this statement, the heretics being referred to are described as ‘the deviants in the religion.’

Source: http://www.sayingsofthesalaf.net/umar-b-abd-al-aziz-on-the-way-of-the-believers/#ixzz31IqpKc00




Umar Ibn ‘Abdil ‘Azeez also said:

Stop where the (righteous) people have stopped! For indeed, they stopped upon receiving knowledge. The clear evidences would suffice them, and they were the strongest at manifesting them. If there were any merit in something, then they would be the most deserving of it. So if you say: ‘It was introduced after them’ , then no one introduces something into it except that he has opposed their guidance, and desired other than their example. They have described it from what was sufficient, and they have spoken concerning it - what sufficed. What is above them is excessiveness, and what is below them is inadequacy. Some people have fallen short of them, and so they have drawn away. And others have transgressed them, so they have become extreme. But indeed they were between these two (extremes), upon a straight path.”

[Reported by Ibn Qudaamah in Al Burhaan li Bayaanil Qur’aan (p. 88-89). Also reported by al Haafidh Ibnul Jawzee in Manaqib Umar Ibn Abdil Azeez (p. 83-84), and by al Haafidh Ibn Rajab in Fadl Ilm as-Salaf (p. 36)]



31) Imam al-Wakee`



سَمِعْتُ يُوسُفَ بْنَ عِيسَى يَقُولُ: سَمِعْتُ وَكِيعًا يَقُولُ حِينَ رَوَى هَذَا الحَدِيثَ، فَقَالَ: «لَا تَنْظُرُوا إِلَى قَوْلِ أَهْلِ الرَّأْيِ فِي هَذَا، فَإِنَّ الإِشْعَارَ سُنَّةٌ، وَقَوْلُهُمْ بِدْعَةٌ». وَسَمِعْتُ أَبَا السَّائِبِ يَقُولُ: " كُنَّا عِنْدَ وَكِيعٍ، فَقَالَ لِرَجُلٍ عِنْدَهُ مِمَّنْ يَنْظُرُ فِي الرَّأْيِ: أَشْعَرَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ، وَيَقُولُ أَبُو حَنِيفَةَ هُوَ مُثْلَةٌ؟ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ: فَإِنَّهُ قَدْ رُوِيَ عَنْ إِبْرَاهِيمَ النَّخَعِيِّ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: الإِشْعَارُ مُثْلَةٌ، قَالَ: فَرَأَيْتُ وَكِيعًا غَضِبَ غَضَبًا شَدِيدًا، وَقَالَ: أَقُولُ لَكَ قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ وَتَقُولُ قَالَ إِبْرَاهِيمُ، مَا أَحَقَّكَ بِأَنْ تُحْبَسَ، ثُمَّ لَا تَخْرُجَ حَتَّى تَنْزِعَ عَنْ قَوْلِكَ هَذَا "


 I heard Yoosuf bin Eesa saying: “When he narrated this hadeeth, I heard Wakee’ saying: ‘Do not consider the saying of Ahl ur-Raayi (i.e. the people of opinion) about this issue, for marking (the animal) is a Sunnah, and their (i.e. Ahl ur-Raayi) saying is a Bid’ah’” (Tirmidhi further said) I heard Abu as-Saa’ib saying: “We were with Wakee’ when he said to a man with him who considered the opinions: ‘The Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) marked, while Abu Haneefah said that doing so is mutilation.’ The man said: ‘It has been reported from Ibraaheem an-Nakha’ee that he said marking is mutilation.’ I saw Wakee’ becoming severely angry and he said: ‘I tell you that the Messenger of Allaah (peace be upon him) said, and you say Ibraaheem said?’ You deserve to be imprisoned and not let out until you leave this saying of yours.” )]

[Ref: Sunan at-Tirmidhi (906)]


32) Some other narrations attributed to Ibn `Umar and `Ali 


أَخْبَرَنَا عِصْمَةُ بْنُ الْفَضْلِ، حَدَّثَنَا زَيْدُ بْنُ الْحُبَابِ، عَنْ يَزِيدَ بْنِ عُقْبَةَ، حَدَّثَنَا الضَّحَّاكُ، عَنْ جَابِرِ بْنِ زَيْدٍ، أَنَّ ابْنَ عُمَرَ لَقِيَهُ فِي الطَّوَافِ فَقَالَ لَهُ: «يَا أَبَا الشَّعْثَاءِ إِنَّكَ مِنْ فُقَهَاءِ الْبَصْرَةِ فَلَا تُفْتِ إِلَّا بِقُرْآنٍ نَاطِقٍ، أَوْ سُنَّةٍ مَاضِيَةٍ، فَإِنَّكَ إِنْ فَعَلْتَ غَيْرَ ذَلِكَ، هَلَكْتَ وَأَهْلَكْتَ»



 `Abd Allah ibn `Umar met Jabir ibn Zayd during tawaf and told him: "O Abu al-Sha`tha', you are one of the fuqaha of Basra: therefore do not give any response except with the speaking of Qur`an (biqur'anin naatiqin) or a Sunnah that has precedent (sunnatin madiya). If you do otherwise, you have perished and caused others to perish."

[Ref: Narrated from Jaabir ibn Zayd by al-Darimi in his Sunan. 1/264; Dha`eef]




قَالَ الرَّجُلُ أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ غُلِبْتُ عَلَيْهِ أَرَأَيْتَ إِنْ زُوحِمْتُ فَقَالَ ابْنُ عُمَرَ اجْعَلْ أَرَأَيْتَ بِالْيَمَنِ رَأَيْتُ النَّبِيَّ صلى الله عليه وسلم يَسْتَلِمُهُ وَيُقَبِّلُهُ ‏.



That a man asked Ibn Umar about touching the (Black) Stone, so he said: "I saw the Prophet touching it and kissing it." So the man said: "What is your view if there is a throng (around the Ka'bah) and what is your view if the people overpowered me?" Ibn Umar said: "Leave (back) 'What is your view' in Yemen (and follow the sunnah for) I saw the Prophet touching it and kissing it."

[Ref: Jaami` tirmidhi]



أخرج ابْن سعد عَن عِكْرِمَة قَالَ: سَمِعت ابْن عَبَّاس يحدث عَن الْخَوَارِج الَّذين أَنْكَرُوا الْحُكُومَة فاعتزلوا عَليّ بن أبي طَالب قَالَ: فاعتزل مِنْهُم اثْنَا عشر ألفا فدعاني عَليّ فَقَالَ: اذْهَبْ إِلَيْهِم فخاصهم وادعهم إِلَى الْكتاب وَالسّنة وَلَا تحاجهم بِالْقُرْآنِ فَإِنَّهُ ذَوُو وُجُوه وَلَكِن خاصهم بِالسنةِ


Ali - Radhiallahu `anhu- said the same thing to Ibn `Abbas - Radhiallahu `anhu- when he sent him to debate the Khawarij: "Do not argue with them by means of the Qur'an for it bears many interpretations (innahu dhu wujuh), but argue with them by means of the Sunnah.(for it is specific/precise and explains the Qur`an)"



أخرج ابْن سعد عَن عمرَان بن مناح قَالَ: فَقَالَ ابْن عَبَّاس: يَا أَمِير الْمُؤمنِينَ فَأَنا أعلم بِكِتَاب الله مِنْهُم فِي بُيُوتنَا نزل فَقَالَ: صدقت وَلَكِن الْقُرْآن جمال ذُو وُجُوه يَقُول وَيَقُولُونَ وَلَكِن حاججهم بالسنن فَإِنَّهُم لن يَجدوا عَنْهَا محيصاً


Another version states that Ibn `Abbas said: "O Commander of the believers, I know the Qur'an better than them for it is in our homes that it was revealed," whereupon `Ali replied: "You said the truth, but the Qur'an is comprehensive in its phrasing (jammal) and bears many interpretations. You will say [it means one thing] and they will say [it means another]. Rather, argue with them by means of the Sunan, for they will not be able to find an escape from them." 



[Ref: Narrated from `Ikrima by Ibn Sa`d according to al-Suyuti in al-Durr al-Manthur 1/40 in his commentary on the verse (show us the straight path( (1:6). ]


33) Shaykh Ibn Uthaymeen beautifully puts it : 



It is obligatory that the person understands the text (Qur`an and hadeeth) upon that which it is (Actually) upon (and) then his understanding is to follow that. It is not to be that he causes the text to submit to his understanding or to submit to that which he believes. Based upon this they (scholars) say : " First get the proofs and then deduce/believe". That is because if you were to believe (in something first) and then seek the proof of it , it's possible your belief will lead you to distort the (actual meanings and implications of the) text to confirm to that which you believe, just as it is apparent amongst all the of the groups and idealogies that are in opposition to that which the messenger came with. You will find them distorting these texts in order that they agree to that which they are upon. 


[Ref: Majmoo` al-Fataawa 10/819] 



34) Sufyan Ibn Uyaynah 


التسليم للفقهاء سلامة في الدين

“In accepting or agreeing with the  Fuqaha (Jurists) is the security for our deen”

[Ref: Tareekh Baghdad] 


35)  Imam Malik ibn Anas said 



وذكر الامام عبد الوهاب الشعراني رحمه الله تعالى في الميزان الكبرى ان الامام مالك قال سلّموا للائمة ولا تجادلوهم فلو كنا كلما جاء رجل اجدل من رجل اتبعناه لخفنا ان نقع في رد ما جاء به جبريل عليه السلام ) انتهى 

“Submit to the Imams and don’t argue with them, for if we were to follow every convincing debater, I fear we may end up refuting what Angel Jibreel brought from the skies”


لَا أُوتى بِرَجُل يفسركتاب اللَّهِ غَيْرُ عَالِمٍ بِلُغَاتِ الْعَرَبِ إِلَّا جَعَلْتُهُ نِكَالًا


Maalik said: "If I come across a man who interprets the Book of Allaah while he is not a scholar in the Arabic tongue, then I will make an example of him for others (i.e., rebuke him harshly)." 

[Ref: Abu Isma`eel al-Harawi  his book ذم الكلام وأهله - Shamela 5/92 or 882. Translation by Shaykh Muhammad Munnajid]





36) Imam Abu Yusuf (d. 186 AH) said :



لأن على العامي الاقتداء بالفقهاء لعدم الاهتداء في حقه إلى معرفة الأحاديث

explained by Hafidh Badr ad-deen al-`Ayni rahimahullah in البناية شرح الهداية in Volume 4 page 110 states 

يعني العامي إذا سمع حديثاً ليس له أن يأخذ بظاهره، لأنه لا يهتدي إلى معرفة أحواله، لأنه قد يكون منسوخاً أو متروكاً أو مصروفاً عن ظاهره.

which roughly summarizes to that a lay man in hadeeth should follow the fuqaha as he is incapable of finding the actual meanings from it due to his lack of hold on the sciences of hadeeth 

Badrud deen `ayni elaborated slightly saying that when a common Muslim hears a hadeeth then it is not for him to take/deduce/derive meanings based on it's apparent meaning (in our time english translation) for he doesn't know the ahwaal or conditions. For it may be that the hadeeth is abrogated or rejected ...etc 


37) Imam Uthman ibn Sa`eed ad-Darami as-sijastani rahimahullah (d. 280 Ah) said 


summarizing the below that a man may exhaust himself striving to find the right evidences and what have you and eventually come to a wrong conclusion if he relies soley on himself . Thus the opinion of the salaf (early predecessors) is far better than our own personal opinion 

حَتَّى يَعْقِلَهَا بِجَهْدِهِ7 مَا أَطَاقَ، فَإِذَا أَعْيَاهُ أَنْ يَعْقِلَهَا مِنَ الْكِتَابِ وَالسُّنَّةِ فَرَأْيُ مَنْ قَبْلَهَ مِنْ عُلَمَاءِ السَّلَفِ خَيْرٌ لَهُ مِنْ رَأْيِ نَفْسِهِ

[See full quote in  نقض الإمام أبي سعيد عثمان بن سعيد على المريسي الجهمي العنيد فيما افترى على الله عز وجل من التوحيد - (2/665) ]

Note : not `Abd Allah ibn `Abd al-Rahman al-Darimi, author of the Sunan, who died in 255



38) Imaam Ibn Jareer al-Tabaree رحمه الله explains this with an example:


"And among the interpreters there was one who was not acquainted with the statements of the Salaf – who would interpret the Qur’aan according to his opinion based on (his understanding of) the Arabic language; directing the meaning of:
﴿وَفِيهِ يَعْصِرُونَ﴾
{and in which they will press (olives and grapes)} [Surah Yusuf (12): 49]
to mean: “and in which they will be saved from famine and drought by (abundant) rain”. He mistakenly thought that the word يعصرون is derived from the word العَصَر or العُصرة which does mean “protection”.
And this interpretation is sufficient as a proof that it is an error on his part because of it contradicting the statements of all the people of knowledge from the Sahaabah and the Taabi`een."
[Tafseer al-Tabaree (16/130)]


39 ) Jundub ibn `Abdullah al-Bajali (d. 70 AH) Radhiallahu `Anhu :

(136) وقال ابن جرير: حدثني يعقوب ـ يعني: ابن إبراهيم ـ، حدثنا ابن عُلَيَّة، عن مهدي بن ميمون، عن الوليد بن مسلم، قال: جاء طلق بن حبيب إلى جندب بن عبد الله فسأله عن آية من القرآن، فقال: أُحرِّج عليك إن كنت مسلمًا لما قُمْتَ عنِّي، أو قال: أن تجالسني.

Waleed ibn Muslim rahimahullah said that Talq ibn Habeeb came to Jundub ibn `Abdullah al-Bajali and asked about a verse from the Qur`an (either asking about a mutashaabih verse or about one which Jundub didn't know). So Jundub (r.a) replied : “ Go away from me or Never come to me, if you are a Muslim “ and in another narration “ Never sit with me”


40) Sa`eed ibn Mussayib (rahimahullah) 


(137) وقال مالك: عن يحيى بن سعيد، عن سعيد بن المسيب أنه كان إذا سئل عن تفسير آية من القرآن قال: إنا لا نقول في القرآن شيئًا.

Malik narrated from Yahya ibn Sa`eed from Sa`eed ibn Mussayib that if Sa`eed ibn Mussayib was asked concerning a verse of the Qur`an (about which affirmed information wasn't there), he would reply : "We do not say anything (concerning the tafseer of the) Qur`an (without knowledge)

وقال الليث: عن يحيى بن سعيد، عن سعيد بن المسيب أنه كان لا يتكلم إلا في المعلوم من القرآن.

Al-Layth reported from Yahya ibn Sa`eed that Sa`eed ibn Mussayib would not speak about the Qur`an except with that which he knew when it came to the Qur`an 

وقال شعبة: عن عمرو بن مرة، قال: سأل رجل سعيد بن المسيب عن آية من القرآن، فقال: لا تسألني عن القرآن، وسل من يزعم أنه لا يخفى عليه منه شيء؛ يعني: عكرمة.


`Amr ibn Murrah said " A man asked Sa`eed ibn Mussayib about a verse of the Qur`an and he replied " Do not ask me about the Qur`an, rather ask the one who claims that none of it is hidden from him. " i.e Ikrimah 

وقال ابن شوذب: حدثني زيد بن أبي يزيد قال: كنا نسأل سعيد بن المسيب عن الحلال والحرام ـ وكان أعلم الناس ـ، فإذا
سألناه عن تفسير آية من القرآن سكت كأن لم يسمع.


Yazeed ibn Abu Yazeed reported that we would ask Sa`eed ibn Mussayib about the halal and haraam and he was the most knowledgable (of people) in these issues.  But when we would ask him about the tafseer of a verse, he would remain silent as if he had not heard us 

(138) وقال ابن جرير: حدثني أحمد بن عبدة الضبي، حدثنا حماد بن زيد، حدثنا عبيد الله بن عمر، قال: لقد أدركت فقهاء المدينة وإنهم ليعظمون القول في التفسير؛ منهم: سالم بن عبد الله، والقاسم بن محمد، وسعيد بن المسيب، ونافع.


`Ubaydullah ibn `Umar said : "I have met the fuqaha (jurists) of Madeenah and they considered it a very serious matter to speak about the tafseer (of the Qur`an). From them was Saalim ibn `Abdullah (d. 106 AH), Al Qasim ibn Muhammad (grandom of Abu Bakr, d. 106 AH) , Sa`eed ibn Mussayib and Nafi (d 117 AH) 



41) Imam al-Qurtubee (d. 671 A.H) refuting ishaaree interpretations said : 


Under the verse : "Then, when Taaloot set out with his army, he said, "Verily, Allaah will test 
you with a river; whoever drinks from it. he will not be with me, except if he takes (a sip) with his hand.' Yet, they all drank of it, except a lew of them...[Qur`an 2:249]


 وقال بَعْضُ مَنْ يَتَعَاطَى غَوَامِضَ الْمَعَانِي: هَذِهِ الْآيَةُ مَثَلٌ ضَرَبَهُ اللَّهُ لِلدُّنْيَا فَشَبَّهَهَا اللَّهُ بِالنَّهَرِ وَالشَّارِبِ مِنْهُ وَالْمَائِلِ إِلَيْهَا وَالْمُسْتَكْثِرِ مِنْهَا، وَالتَّارِكِ لِشُرْبِهِ بِالْمُنْحَرِفِ عَنْهَا وَالزَّاهِدِ فِيهَا، وَالْمُغْتَرِفِ بِيَدِهِ غَرْفَةً بِالْآخِذِ مِنْهَا قَدْرَ الْحَاجَةِ، وَأَحْوَالُ الثَّلَاثَةِ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ مُخْتَلِفَةٌ. قُلْتُ: مَا أَحْسَنَ هَذَا لَوْلَا مَا فِيهِ مِنَ التَّحْرِيفِ فِي التَّأْوِيلِ وَالْخُرُوجِ عَنِ الظَّاهِرِ،


Some 'scholars' said, in the interpretation of this verse, that the river is meant to be a parable (e.g) of this world; whoever 'drinks' from it excessively will fail, and whoever abandons it totally cannot survive, but the one who takes the bare minimum of what he needs is the one who will be successful. Alter quoting this interpretation, Imaam al-Qurtubee (d. 671 A.H.) said. "And how beautiful is this, were it not for the fact that it involves excessive interpretation, and a distortion of the apparent meanings of the verse (it would have some acceptance)

[Ref: Tafseer al-Qurtubee 3/251]


42) Abu Ayyoub al-Ansaari (radhiallahu `anhu) 


حدثنا أحمد بن عمرو بن السرح حدثنا ابن وهب عن حيوة بن شريح وابن لهيعة عن يزيد بن أبي حبيب عن أسلم أبي عمران قال غزونا من المدينة نريد القسطنطينية وعلى الجماعة عبد الرحمن بن خالد بن الوليد والروم ملصقو ظهورهم بحائط المدينة فحمل رجل على العدو فقال الناس مه مه لا إله إلا الله يلقي بيديه إلى التهلكة فقال أبو أيوب إنما نزلت هذه الآية فينا معشر الأنصار لما نصر الله نبيه وأظهر الإسلام قلنا هلم نقيم في أموالنا ونصلحها فأنزل الله تعالى وأنفقوا في سبيل الله ولا تلقوا بأيديكم إلى التهلكة فالإلقاء بالأيدي إلى التهلكة أن نقيم في أموالنا ونصلحها وندع الجهاد قال أبو عمران فلم يزل أبو أيوب يجاهد في سبيل الله حتى دفن بالقسطنطينية

Aslam Abu `Imran said, “We traveled from Madinah to go to war in Constantinople, and `Uqbah bin `Amir was the leader of the Egyptian soldiers, and `Abd ar-Rahman bin Khalid bin al-Walid was the general of all the troops.  The Byzantines constantly had their backs to the walls of the city, and one of us was start fighting through the lines of the enemy, so it was said, ‘Wait, wait!La Ilaha Illa Allah! He is fighting recklessly and throwing himself into destruction!’  Abu Ayyub al-Ansari refuted them saying, ‘You recite this ayah and understand it to mean that a man selflessly fights wishing and hoping for martyrdom.  In fact, this ayah was revealed regarding us, the Ansar, when Allah gave victory to His Prophet, and we began to say, ‘Let us now focus on our wealth and make it better.’  Allah revealed,  ‘And spend in the Cause of Allah (i.e. Jihad of all kinds, etc.) and do not throw yourselves into destruction.’ [2:195] So throwing ourselves into destruction in this verse means to indulge in our wealth and fixing it up, and abandoning Jihad.’

Abu Ayyub continued, “Abu Ayyub continued to fight in Allah’s Path, until [he was martyred and] he was buried in Constantinople.”

[Ref: Silsilah as-Saheeha 1/47 - H 12; `Awn al-Ma`bood 2512]


43) Ibn Hajar asqalani (rahimahullah D. 852 A.H) said : 


After quoting the hadeeth of the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) wherein he said : "The people will remain on good (or in another narration the deen will prevail) so long as (until) they (the people) hasten to the breaking of the fast" 

"قوله : ..... ، و ” ما ” ظرفية ، أي : مدة فعلهم ذلك امتثالا للسنة واقفين عند حدها غير متنطعين بعقولهم ما يغير قواعدها ، .

And the phrase, “so long as” is conditional, meaning for as long as their actions are in compliance with the sunnah, observing its limits and not using their intellects to alter its principles.

[Ref: Fath ul-Bari ]

Subhanallah, the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) made such a profound statement by adjoining the conditions of the prevailing of this deen to the adherence of a sunnah which though appears to be very small outwardly but it isn't so, especially after the infallible one (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) specified that among the various pre-requisities for the prevailing of this deen , one such condition is that people stick to following the sunnah and not innovate. 


44) Imam Abu Bakr Muhammad ibnul-Qasim ibn Bashar – Ma`roof as Ibn Anbari (D. 327 A.H) said: 


من قال فی القرآن قولا یوافق ھواہ، لم یأخذ عن أئمّۃ السلف، فأصاب، فقد أخطأ، لحکمہ علی القرآن بما لا یعرف أصلہ، ولا یقف علی مذھب أھل الأثر والنقل فیہ۔

Whoever self-interprets a qur’anic verse (or hadeeth) which he did not take from the Imams of salaf then he is upon grave error even if he were to (coincidently) be right.  Because he has (dared to) pass a verdict on a qur’anic verse for which he did not know the (Islamic textual) evidence and nor was he aware about the understanding   of the people of narrations and transmittance (i.e. salafus saliheen) in this topic. 


[Ref: Al-Faqeeh of Khateeb Baghdadi (1/223) Sanad saheeh] 





EXAMPLES SHOWING HOW SELF INTERPRETATION BY EVEN GREAT PERSONALITIES TURNED OUT TO BE WRONG WHEN THEY INTERPRETED TEXTS WITHOUT REFERING TO SCHOLARS 




Example 1 : 


Hishām-b. ‘Urwah who narrated from his father (Urwah b zubayr the nephew of aisha), that he said:

I said to ‘Ā`ishah the wife of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, whilst I was a young boy: How do you interpret the statement of Allāh:


'Verily, Safā and Marwah (i.e. two mountains at Makkah) are among the symbols of Allāh. So whoever makes Hajj to the House or performs ‘Umrah – there is no blame upon him for walking between them.' • [al-Qur`ān 2:158]


So it is not wrong for those who perform the Hajj to the House of Allāh or perform the ‘Umrah, to make Tawāf between them. In my opinion it is not sinful for one not to make Tawāf between them.’


‘Ā`ishah رضي الله عنها replied:

'Your interpretation is wrong; if it is as you say, then the Āyah should have been: “It is not harmful of those who perform the Hajj or 'Umrah to the house, not to make Tawāf between them.”'


This verse was revealed in connection to the Ansār who (during the Pre-Islamic period) used to visit Manāt (an idol) after assuming their Ihrām, and it was situated near Qudaid (a place at Makkah), and they used to regard it sinful to make Tawāf between as-Safā and al-Marwah after embracing Islām. When Islām came, they asked the Messenger of Allāh about it, whereupon Allāh revealed:

'Verily, Safā and Marwah (i.e. two mountains at Makkah) are among the symbols of Allāh. So it is not harmful of those who perform the Hajj of the House (Allāh) or perform 'Umrah, to ambulate (Tawāf) between them.' • [al-Qur`ān 20:158]


‘Urwa b. Zubair was from the best of the Tābi’īn, and he was one of the seven jurists of Madīnah during the period of the Tābi’īn, he explained that the reason for making mistake in understanding was due to him being of  young age at the time when he asked (the question).




[Saheeh Muslim, Book 7, Hadith 2925. This is `Aisha censuring her own nephew] 


It is clear (from this) that young age is the most likely reason for misunderstanding; and returning to the people of knowledge is better and safe.



Example 2 : 



عن يزيد الفقير قال: ((كنتُ قد شَغَفَنِي رأيٌ من رأي الخوارج، فخرجنا في عِصابةٍ ذوي عدد نريد أن نحجَّ، ثمَّ نخرجَ على الناس، قال: فمررنا على المدينة فإذا جابر بن عبد الله يُحدِّث القومَ ـ جالسٌ إلى ساريةٍ ـ عن رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم، قال: فإذا هو قد ذكر الجهنَّميِّين، قال: فقلتُ له: يا صاحبَ رسول الله! ما هذا الذي تُحدِّثون؟ والله يقول: {إِنَّكَ مَن تُدْخِلِ النَّارَ فَقَدْ أَخْزَيْتَهُ}، و {كُلَّمَا أَرَادُوا أَن يَخْرُجُوا مِنْهَا أُعِيدُوا فِيهَا}، فما هذا الذي تقولون؟ قال: فقال: أتقرأُ القرآنَ؟ قلتُ: نعم! قال: فهل سمعت بمقام محمد عليه السلام، يعني الذي يبعثه فيه؟ قلتُ: نعم! قال: فإنَّه مقام محمد صلى الله عليه وسلم المحمود الذي يُخرج اللهُ به مَن يُخرج. قال: ثمَّ نعتَ وضعَ الصِّراط ومرَّ الناس عليه، قال: وأخاف أن لا أكون أحفظ ذاك. قال: غير أنَّه قد زعم أنَّ قوماً يَخرجون من النار بعد أن يكونوا فيها، قال: يعني فيخرجون كأنَّهم عيدان السماسم، قال: فيدخلون نهراً من أنهار الجنَّة فيغتسلون فيه، فيخرجون كأنَّهم القراطيس. فرجعنا، قلنا: وَيْحَكم! أَتَروْنَ الشيخَ يَكذِبُ على رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم؟! فرجعنا، فلا ـ والله! ـ ما خرج منَّا غيرُ رَجل واحد، أو كما قال أبو نعيم )). - 




Yazid al-Faqir said:
This view of the Khwarij (i. e. those who commit major sins and would be eternally doomed to Hell) had obsessed me, and we set out in a large group intending to perform the hajj and then going to the people (for the propagation of the views of the Khwarij). He (the narrator) said: We happened to past by Medina and found there Jabir b. 'Abdullah sitting near a column narrating to the people (the ahadith of) the Prophet (ﷺ). When he mentioned the inhabitants of Hell, I said: O companion of the Messenger of Allah what is this that thou narrateth, whereas Allah sayeth:" Verily whomsoever Thou shall commit to the Fire, Thou indeed humillateth him" (al-Qur'an, iii. 192) ; and All those who endeavoured to get out of that would be thrown back into it" (al-Qur'an, xxxi i. 20)? So what is it that you say? He said: Have you read the Qur'an? I said: Yes. He said: Have you heard about' the (exalted) position of Muhammad (ﷺ), i. e. to which Allah would raise, him? I said: Yes. He said: Verily the position of Muhammad (ﷺ) is that of great glory and that is by which Allah would bring out whornsoever He would wish to bring out. He then described the Path (the Bridge) and the passing of the people over it, and said: I am afraid I may not have remembered (other things) but this much is still in my memory that people would come out of the Hell after having gone into it, and he said: They would come out of it as if they were the wood of the ebony tree. He (the narrator said: They would enter a river, one or the rivers of Paradise, and would bathe in it, and then come out as if they were (white like) paper. We then turned back and said: Woe be upon you! How can this old man tell a lie against the Messenger of Allah (ﷺ)? We turned back (from the views of the Khwarij), and by God every one of us abandoned this (band of Khwarij) except one man

[Ref: Abu Nu`aym and Saheeh Muslim] 

Shaykh `Abdul Muhsin al-`Abbad h.f said /quoted after narrating this hadeeth : 


وهو يدلُّ على أنَّ هذه العصابةَ ابتُليت بالإعجاب برأي الخوارج في تكفير مرتكب الكبيرة وتخليده في النار، وأنَّهم بلقائهم جابراً رضي الله عنه وبيانه لهم صاروا إلى ما أرشدهم إليه، وتركوا الباطلَ الذي فهموه، وأنَّهم عدلوا عن الخروج الذي همُّوا به بعد الحجِّ، وهذه من أعظم الفوائد التي يستفيدها المسلم برجوعه إلى أهل العلم. -


(This Hadeeth) explains how this group of people were afflicted with the admiration of the Kharijite view in charging the doer of major sin with disbelief and that he must abide forever in Hell, By meeting Jabir (radhiallahu `anhu)and by him explaining to them, they became what he guided them to, and they left the falsehood which they had understood, and they corrected themselves away from wanting to cause a rebellion after Hajj.

This is from the greatest benefits that a Muslim can benefit from by going back to the people of knowledge

See more at: http://www.al-abbaad.com/index.php/articles/125-1435-09-28%5D#sthash.v6cAD0Yy.dpuf

Example #3 : 


The verse : "There is no sin on those who believe and do righteous deeds concerning what they eat, if they fear Allaah, and believe, and do righteous deeds»|5:93| "

The apparent meaning of this verse caused one of the Companions, Qudaamah ibn Madhoon, [1] to believe that drinking wine was allowed. He used this verse to interpret that a pious person was allowed to eat or drink anything, and would not be held accountable for his diet. However, had the sabab an-nuzool of this verse been known to him, he would not have come to this conclusion. This verse was revealed in  response to a question by some Muslims concerning those people who had fought and died before the drinking of alcohol was prohibited; would Allaah punish them for drinking alcohol, or accept their martyrdom? 

This verse was then revealed, explaining to them that Allaah would not hold them accountable for what they had eaten or drank in the past, since these actions had occurred before the prohibition of intoxicants.  

[1] Almost all authors quote the name of Qudaamah ihn Madhoon's brother, Uthmaan ihn Madhoon. when the refer to this incident. This is because az-Zarkashi, in his al-Burhaan (v. 1, p. 28), incorrectly mentions 'Ulhmaan as the Companion who held this opinion, and almost all later authors (including as- Suyuti) followed him in this error. However, a cursory look at any hook of history will show the inaccuracy of this. 'Uthmaan ibn Madhoon died after the Battle of Badr, in 2 A.H. (See al-lsaabah ft Tamyiz as- Sahaabah, # 5469), whereas his brother Qudaamah ibn Madhoon died in the year 36 AH. In fact, Ibn Hajr clearly mentions that it was Qudaamah who held this Opinion, and 'Umar ibn al-Khattaab had him flogged during his Caliphate for drinking wine, and informed him of the error of his interpretation of the verse (See al-lsaabah, # 7103, and Abu Shahbah, p. 138). 


I have quoted many more such instances and athaar wherein the sahaaba and salaf have debated such individuals who either reject the ahadeeth or give their own interpretation for it. You can see these in this book : http://fahmalhadeeth.blogspot.in/2013/09/refuting-munkarul-hadeeth-by-proving.html


Alternative link: https://docs.google.com/file/d/0B0SxxG8gwbeeelVFUDlQcXhNY2s/edit?pli=1


 
Example # 4:

Another incident showing how the greatest of lughwiyeen majorly deviated or errd when it came to understanding qur'an and sunnah as they did not use the fahm of the scholars. 

( مجاز القرآن ) للإمام اللغوي أبي عبيدة معمر بن المثنى ( ت٢١٠هـ) والذي هو أقدم تفسير لغوي يصل إلينا ، ومؤلفه أحد أساطين اللغة ، من أقران الأصمعي وأبي زيد الأنصاري .

فقد عاب اللغويون على أبي عبيدة تأليفه هذا الكتاب (مجاز القرآن) أشد العيب ؛ لأنه اعتمد في فهم القرآن على اللغة وحدها !!

حتى إن الإمام اللغوي أبا عمر الجرمي ( ت٢٢٥هـ) خرج مرة ومعه كتاب ( مجاز القرآن ) لينكر على أبي عبيدة تأليفه من غير رجوع لكلام أهل العلم من الصحابة والتابعين في تفسير القرآن ، فلما لقيه قال له : عمن أخذت هذا يا أبا عبيدة ؟!! فإن هذا يخالف تفسير الفقهاء !! فقال له أبو عبيدة : هذا تفسير الأعراب البوالين على أعقابهم ، فإن شئت فخذه ، وإن شئت فذره .
فبين أبوعبيدة للجرمي أنه اعتمد في تفسيره على لغة العرب وحدها ، دون رجوع لتفاسير أهل العلم الذين سبقوه من الصحابة والتابعين . 
ولذلك كان الأصمعي يعيبه عليه أيضا ، ويقول عن أبي عبيدة : يفسر القرآن برأيه !!
وكان الفراء يقول : لو حمل أبو عبيدة إلي كتاب ( مجاز القرآن) لضربته عليه عشرين .
وكان الإمام اللغوي أبو حاتم السجستاني (ت٢٥٥هـ) ينكر كتاب (مجاز القرآن ) أشد الإنكار ، حتى إنه ليرى حرمة روايته ، ويقول : إنه فسر القرآن على غير ما ينبغي .



The majaz al-qur’an is the earliest lexical exegesis (al-tafsir al-lughawi) available to us and its author is one of pillars of the language, a contemporary to (the likes of ) al-Asma’i (d. 215/16) and Abu Zayd al-Ansari (d. 215).

Lexicographers severely criticised this work for its exclusive reliance upon the language (lughah) in understanding the Qur’an.  One expert Imam of the language, Abu ‘Umar al-Jarmi (d. 225),* set out with the work in his hand to criticise Abu ‘Ubaydah for not referring back to the statements of the Companions and Followers.  When he met him, al-Jarmi said, “Who did you get this from, Abu ‘Ubaydah? For it contradicts the exegesis of the knowledgable/jurists (fuqaha’).”  

Abu ‘Ubaydah said  (in an unpleasant and nonacademic way ), “This is the exegesis of the bedouins who urinate upon their heels (i.e. standing up). Feel free to accept or reject it.” 

Thus Abu 'Ubaydah explained to al-Jarmi that he has relied solely upon the language of the Arabs without making recourse to the exegetical statements and commentary by those before him from the Companions and Followers.  It is for this reason (Imam) al-Asma’i also used to fault him and say, “Abu ‘Ubaydah interprets the Qur’an through his own reason!”  Imam al-Farra’ (d. 207) used to say, “If Abu ‘Ubaydah brought his book (majaz al-qur’an) to me, I would have lashed him twenty times.” Another expert lexicographer and staunch critic of the work, Imam Abu Hatim al-Sijistani (d. 255), went to the extent that he considered transmitting from it haram.. He would state, “Abu ‘Ubaydah has interpreted the Qur’an in an inappropriate manner.”



[Ref: Shaykh Hatim al-`Awni's work translated by Uwais Namazi] 





CONCLUSION AND SOLUTION:


Imam khateeb al-Baghdadee rahimahullah in his Taqayyid al-`Ilm page 61 onwards says how many among the earlier scholars such as Ameerul Mumineen fil hadeeth - shu`bah ibn Hajjaj , Abi Qilaabah, `Isaa ibn Yunus, Imaam `Aabidah as-salmani rahimahullah ajma`een burnt or washed their books at the time of their death fearing it would fall into the wrong hands of people who would be ignorant of how to derive and understand traditions and thus be misguided, deviate others or attribute falsely to the author something which the author did not mean. 

وَكَانَ غَيْرُ وَاحِدٍ مِنَ الْمُتَقَدِّمِينَ إِذَا حَضَرَتْهُ الْوَفَاةُ أَتْلَفَ كُتُبَهُ أَوْ أَوْصَى بِإِتْلَافِهَا خَوْفًا مِنْ أَنْ تَصِيرَ إِلَى مَنْ لَيْسَ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ فَلَا يَعْرِفُ أَحْكَامَهَا وَيَحْمِلُ جَمِيعَ مَا فِيهَا عَلَى ظَاهِرِهِ , وَرُبَّمَا زَادَ فِيهَا وَنَقَصَ فِيكُونُ ذَلِكَ مَنْسُوبًا إِلَى كَاتِبِهَا فِي الْأَصْلِ , وَهَذَا كُلُّهُ وَمَا أَشْبَهَهُ قَدْ نُقِلَ عَنِ الْمُتَقَدِّمِينَ الِاحْتِرَاسُ مِنْهُ

See from Page 61 onwards ! 

If this was the situation of such ulema of this ummah, such towering giants who feared people self interpreting and thereby destroying the deen and it's adherents then what about today in 2014 when we have every Bakr and Zaid passing fatawa on what is shirq, which ayah means what and how this hadeeth means that ! 


Sahl ibn Hunaif said


يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّهِمُوا رَأْيَكُمْ عَلَى دِينِكُمْ


'O people! Blame your personal opinions in your religion

[Saheeh Bukhaari 7308] 



Shaykh  al-Shinqeeti (rahimahullah) said: How many people criticize something sound,when the problem is in their own understanding?


[Ref: Adwaa' Al-Bayaan 3/389]




Question : Is there a verse that implies we are to not interpret qur'an according to our understanding?

Ans : there are many such verses and ahadeeth that warn us from self interpretations, one such verse that gives us such an idea is :

Allaah says: “And We revealed to you (O Muhammad), the Reminder (i.e. the Sunnah), in order for you to explain to mankind what was (already) revealed to them, and so that they may reflect.” [Surah An-Nahl: 44]

(In this verse)  the qur'an was revealed for what?

- For explaining

Explaining is to be done by whom?

- The prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam)

So whom should we learn the meanings and implications of the quran from?

The prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam)

Who are the heirs of the prophet (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam)?

- The scholars (starting from his direct students i.e the sahaabas radhi allahu anhum until today)

 

1 comment:

  1. Surah Al Nahl verse 44 :

    "(We sent them) with Clear Signs
    And Scriptures
    And We have sent down
    Unto thee (also) the Message;
    That thou mayest explain clearly
    To men what is sent
    For them, and that they
    May give thought.

    Is this the same Surah Al Nahl verse 44 stated above?


    ReplyDelete

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