Sunday, 9 September 2012

THE STATUS OF THE SAHABAS (COMPANIONS) OF THE PROPHET BY MUHADDITHEEN




 
This is a small treatise to explain the `Adaalah (Justice/fairness/uprightness) of the Companions of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم:


Definition of “the Companion”:

Al-Haafidh Ibn al-Hajar رحمه الله said: “The most correct opinion which I have accepted is that a Companion is: the one who met the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم while being a believer, and had died upon Islaam. Included in this (definition) is: the one who had spent a long period of time in the company of the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and also the one who had spent only a short instance; and the one who narrated from him صلى الله عليه وسلم and the one who did not; and the one who participated with him صلى الله عليه وسلم in military expeditions and the who did not; and the one who had seen him صلى الله عليه وسلم only once, even if he did not attend his gathering; and the one who was not able to see him because of an excuse, like a blind person.”[al-Isaabah Fee Tamyyiz al-Sahaabah (1/4)]


Definition of al-`Adal (being just):

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar رحمه الله said: “By `Adal it means: The one who possesses power, and he uses it uponal-Taqwaa. And by al-Taqwaa it means: to refrain from evil acts such as Shirk, immorality or Bid`ah.”


The consensus of the scholars about the justice of the companions:

The Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah have unanimously agreed to the fact that all the Companions رضي الله عنهمwere just. Imaam al-Nawawee, Ibn Hajar, al-Khateeb (al-Baghdadee), Ibn al-Mulqin, Ibn al-Salaah, al-Qurtobee and other than them رحمهم الله have cited a consensus for this.

Imaam Ibn al-Salaah رحمه الله said: “The Ummah has agreed that all of the Companions were just.” [Ma`rifah al-Anwa’ al-`ilm al-Hadeeth (398)]

Al-Haafidh Ibn Hajar رحمه الله said: “Apart from some of the innovators, the Ahl al-Sunnah agrees that all Companions are just.” [al-Isaabah Fee Tamyyiz al-Sahaabah (1/6)]

Imaam al-Qurtobee رحمه الله said: “The Companions, all of them are just, the Awliyaa’ of Allaah تعالى and His elite, His best creation after the Prophets and Messengers. And upon this is the agreement of the Imaamsof this Ummah. Except for a group, which is of the (false) opinion that the status of the Companions is similar to that of those other than them and it is necessary to look at their character (if they were just or not).” [Tafseer al-Qurtobee]

I say: “Do not turn to the saying of these slanderers, those who want to defame the Companions رضي الله عنهم اجمعين and throw doubts on their characters; because their justice, all thanks to Allaah alone, is proven in the Qur’aan and the Sunnah and by the Consensus.”

Imaam Abu Bakr al-Khateeb al-Baghdaadee رحمه الله said: “And it is necessary to see the character (of every narrator) who attributes a narration to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم except the Companion; because the justice of the Companions is proven and known because Allaah تعالى has praised them, and informed us about their purity and has mentioned about them in the Qur’aan.” He then brought the evidences from the Qur’aan and the Sunnah for this and then said: “This is the Madhhab of all the scholars and of all the credible jurists.” [al-Maati` al-Kifaayah Fee `ilm al-Riwaayah]

Imaam Ibn `Abd al-Barr رحمه الله said: “It makes no difference (to the authenticity of the Hadeeth) whether the Taabi` mentions the name of the Companion or not, while reporting a narration from him. Because all the Companions are just, pleased (by Allaah and His Messenger), reliable and trustworthy. And upon this is the consensus of the Scholars of the Hadeeth (the Muhaddithoon).”*

And Imaam Ibn `Abd al-Barr رحمه الله also said: “As for us, if he (the narrator of the Hadeeth whose name is not mentioned) is from a Companion رضي الله عنهم, then it suffices us from searching further about them; this is because of the consensus of the Ahl al-Haqq from the Muslims – and they are the Ahl al-Sunnah wal-Jamaa`ah – that all of them (the Companions) are just.” [al-Isti`aab Fee Ma`rifatul As-haab (23)]

Imaam al-Haafidh al-Suyootee رحمه الله said: “All the Companions are just, those who were involved in the civil war and other than them as per the consensus.” [Tadreeb al-Raawee]

Imaam al-Nawawee رحمه الله said: “And that is why, the Ahl al-Haqq, who can be relied upon, have unanimously agreed upon accepting their (the Companions) testimonies and their narrations, and their complete justice رضي الله عنهم اجمعين.”

Benefit:

Al-Ibyaaree رحمه الله said: “By establishing justice for the Companions, it doesn’t mean that they were infallible or free from sin. Rather, establishing justice for the Companions means: to accept their narrations without searching further about their background or looking for the Tazkiyah**(recommendation for them); except for the one who was proved to be otherwise; and alHamdulillaah, there is none (from the Companions who was doubted for his justice).” [al-Bahr al-Muheet (4/300)]

*The example for this is: Imaam Ahmad reported in his Musnad that Bahz (bin Asad) and `Affaan informed him saying: Hammaam informed them on the authority of Katheer, on the authority of Abu `Iyaadh that a person from the companions said“The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم prohibited from sitting in between the sun and the shade and he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “(this is how) Shaitaan sits.” [Musnad Ahmad (14995) and graded as “Saheeh” by Shaikh al-Albaanee in al-Saheehah (838, 3110)]

**The example for this is: Narrated `Abdullaah bin `Umar رضي الله عنهما: Sa`d bin Abi Waqqaas رضي الله عنهsaid: “The Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم passed wet hands over his Khuffs.” `Abdullaah bin `Umar asked (his father) `Umar (ibn al-Khattaab) رضي الله عنه about it. `Umar replied in the affirmative and added:“Whenever Sa`d narrates a Hadeeth from the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم, there is no need to ask anyone else about it.” [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (202)]

Shaykh of Islam Ibn Taymiyah says in (Minhaj Al Sunnah) (1/306 - 307): "The Companions may do slight mistakes, sometimes they commit sins and they are not infallible but they do not lie deliberately against the Prophet (peace be upon him) and if anyone does, Allah reveals their plot."


The proof on that is: what has been reported in Sahih Al Bukhari (6780) in story of the man who was brought several times while he is drunk to be whipped. When one of the Companions cursed him, the Prophet (peace be upon him) forbade him and said: "Do not curse him, by Allah, I know that he loves Allah and His Messenger."


The story of Hatib ibn Abu Balta`ah which has been related in “Sahih Al Bukhari” (4890) and Muslim (2494)] is well-known. He was accused of spying on Muslims (out of coercion) but the Prophet (peace be upon him) said: he is not a disbeliever. He said: "perhaps Allah looked upon the Badr warriors and said: "Do whatever you like, for I have ordained that you will be in Paradise

Al Alusy (may Allah be merciful with him) says in (Al Ajwibah Al-`Iraqiyyah) (p. 23 - 24) "The trustworthiness of all the Companions (may Allah be pleased with them) does not mean that they did not commit sins but they committed minor sins.." until he said: "it is important to denote that those who committed sins and were punished for that are few. They should not be mixed with the thousands of Companions who did not commit any major sins and Allah has protected them against sins whether minor or major and history is a witness to that."


Al Ghazaly says in (Al Mustasfa) (p. 189 - 190): "The opinion of the Predecessors and those who followed them is: Their trustworthiness is well-known because Allah (may He be Glorified and Exalted) has praised them in His Book. So, it is our belief except there is hard evidence that one of them has committed a major sin deliberately. It is the matter which can not be proven.

The above is taken from foodiefahoodie blog or Ilm4ALL blog. 

THE FATAAWA OF SOME SCHOLARS REGARDING THE STATUS OF THE SAHAABAS AND UPON THOSE WHO REVILE THEM

The below has been taken from the Link : Some Virtues of the sahabas from Qur'an and Ahadeeth

12) Imam Al-Shaf'ee (may Allah be merciful to him) wrote in his book Al-Risalah:

"The sahabah are superior to us in all knowledge, intelligence, faith, virtue, and every means through which knowledge or guidance is attained. Indeed, their opinion is more beneficial to us than our own is to us." 

(Al-Fatawa; vol. 4, pp. 157-158)

13) Haafidh `Abul Qaasim ibn `Asaakir has documented in Tareekh Dimashq that Imaam al-Nasaa’i was asked about Mu`aawiyah Ibn Abi Sufyaan رضي الله عنه. His reply was:

 “Islaam is like a house with a door. The door of Islaam is the Sahaabah. Whoever speaks ill of the Sahaabah seeks but to harm Islaam, just like one who knocks on a door to enter a house. As for Mu`aawiyah, whoever speaks ill of him seeks to find a way to speak ill of the Sahaabah.”

 [Tahdheeb al-Kamaal, vol. 1 p. 338-339]

14) إذا رأيت الرجل ينتقص أحدا من أصحاب رسول الله - صلى الله عليه وسلم- فاعلم أنه زنديق

 Abu Zur`ah al-Razee said: “If you see a man seeking to belittle anyone amongst the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم, then know that he is a Zindeeq (heretic). This is because according to us the Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم is true and the Qur’aan is true. And the only ones who brought this Qur’aan and the Sunan to us are the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger. They only wish to disparage and demolish our witnesses so that they can nullify the Book and the Sunnah, whereas they are more deserving of being disparaged for they are the Zanaadiqah (heretics).” 

[Taareekh Baghdaad (38/132), Al-Kifayah by Al-Khatib p. 49 and Al-Kifaya fil- 'Ilm Ar-Rivaaya", p: 97]

15) Al-Humaidi said : 

“… praying for Mercy (Tarahum) for all the companions of [Prophet] Muhammad (Peace be Upon him), since Allah the Exalted said: (And those who came after them say: “Our Lord! Forgive us and our brethren who have preceded us in Faith) (Al-Hashr 59:10), so we were ordered to Pray for their forgiveness, so whoever insults them or degrades all of them or one of them, then he is not upon the Sunnah, and has no right in the fay’. That was narrated to us through more than one route to Malik ibn Anas” 

[Usul Al-Sunnah p. 43].

16) Al-Tahaawi said: 

“We love the Companions of the Prophet (Peace be upon him). Nonetheless we do not go to extremes in the love of anyone of them, nor do we forsake anyone of them. But we hate him who hates them, and talks of them in an unseemly manner. As for us, we do not mention them but in good terms. Their love is religion, faith, and excellence. And their hatred is disbelief, hypocrisy and rebellion” 

[Al-Tahawiyah p. 689].

17) Imam Ahmad Ibn Hanbal said: 

“It is not permissible for anyone to mention any of their(companions) bad qualities or to criticize any of them for a fault or shortcoming. Whoever does that should be disciplined by the ruler, who does not have the option of pardoning him; rather he should discipline him and ask him to repent. If he repents it would be accepted from him. However, if he remains persistent, the punishment should be repeated, and he should remain in prison until he dies or recants” [Majmou' Al-Fatawa 3/1057].

Imam Ahmad is also reported to have said "If you see someone mentioning the sahaabas with foul language, then you should reconsider your opinion about him being a Muslim 
[Saarim al-Maslool]

18) Imam Al Nawaawi says : 

Slandering the Sahaabah is Haraam and amongst major sins, regardless of whether they were entangled by disputes or were safe from them, because their participation in the battles was due to their Ijtihaad [Sharh an-Nawawi]

19) Shaikhul-Islam Ibn Taymiyyah (rahimahullah) mentions after citing a few Ahadeeth that : 

“He, who slanders the Sahabah , has committed a greater crime than harboring hatred for them. Such a person would surely be a hypocrite, who does not believe in Allah and the Day of Judgment.” [Saarim al-Maslool] 

20) عن أبي بكر المروذي قال: سألت أبا عبد الله عمن يشتم أبا بكر وعمر وعائشة؟ قال: ما أراه على الإسلام

"From Abu Bakr al Marwazee: "I asked Abu Abdullah (Imam Ahmad) about (someone who) abused Abu Bakr, Umar, 'Aaisha?. He replied: "I don't see him upon islam".

Source: Abu Bakr Al-Khallal "Sunnan" 2/557, with an authentic chain.

21) عن محمد بن يوسف الفريابي قال: سمعت سفيان ورجل يسأله عن من يشتم أبا بكر وعمر؟ فقال: كافر بالله العظيم

"From Muhammad ibn Yusuf al Firyabee: "I heard a man asked Sufyan (al- Thawree) about (a person who ) abused Abu Bakr and Umar. He replied: "(He is a ) Disbeliever in the Great/Majestic Allah".[ Zahabi "Siyar alamoon nubala" 7/253

22) عن موسى بن هارون قال: سمعت الفريابي ورجل يسأله عمن شتم أبا بكر وعمر؟ قال: كافر...، قال: فيصلى عليه؟ قال: لا، وسألته كيف يصنع به وهو يقول: لا إله إلا الله؟ قال: لا تمسوه بأيديكم ارفعوه بالخشب حتى تواروه في حفرته

"From Moosa ibn Kharoon: "I heard a person asking Firyabee (Muhammad ibn Yusoof) about (a person) who insulted Abu Bakr and Umar. (Firyabee) replied: (he is a ) "Kaafir". Then the person asked: "Should we pray over him (his body)?". (Firyabee) replied: "No". (then the) Man asked: "What should we do (then)? He use to say "la ilaha ila llah". Firyabee replied: "Don't touch him with hands, take two sticks and push him into the grave"["Sunan" Khallal 1/499; "Ibanatul Suğra" s 160]

23) كل من شتم عثمان أو طلحة أو واحدا من أصحاب رسول الله صلى الله عليه وسلم دجال لا يكتب عنه وعليه لعنة الله والملائكة والناس أجمعين

(Yahya ibn Ma'een said): "Whoever will abuse Usman (r.a) or Talha (r.a) or any other companion of prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa salam) is (a) dajjal, and he is not (to) be recorded (narrated) from. Upon him is the curse of Allah, angles and every human". Tahtheeb at tahtheeb" by Ibn Hajar vol1, #948.]

24) "من شتم أبا بكرالصديق رضي الله عنه فقد ارتدَّ عن دينه وأباح دمه".

Imam Al Awza'ee said : Whoever will abuse Abu Bakr, apostated from his religion, and his blood is permitted". ["Sharh al Ibanatool Sugra" by ibn Batta]

25) واجتمعت الأمة على تكفير الإمامية لأنهم يعتقدون تضليل الصحابة وينكرون إجماعهم، وينسبونهم إلى ما لا يليق بهم

Abu Sayeed Abdal Kareem ibn Mohammad ibn Mansoor At-Tameeme As-Samanee (d 562 h) said: "And nation is agreed upon takfeer of imamiya. Because they believe that companions been deluded, and they use to reject agreed opinion (of companions) and they attribute to (companions) things which doesn't suit to them". [ Samanee "Ansaab" 6/341.]

26) وأما أهل الأهواء الجارودية الهاشمية والجهمية، والإمامية الذين أكفروا خيار الصحابة.. فإنا نكفرهم، ولا تجوز الصلاة عليهم عندنا ولا الصلاة خلفهم

Abu Mansoor Abdal Kaheer ibn Tahhar ibn Muhammad Bagdadee, At-Tamemee Al-Isfarayenee (d 429 h) said: "Regarding people of desire like Jaroodiya, Khashamiya, Jahmeya, and Imamiya, which use to make takfeer upon the best from companions, (we can say) that they are disbelievers in our view. It's not permitted to pray upon them in our view, and neither permitted to pray behind them". [ Bagdadee "Al Fark beyna firak" p 357. (Quoted from book by Naseer al Qifaree)]

27) "وأما من سب أحدا من الصحابة فهو فاسق ومبتدع بالإجماع إلا إذا اعتقد أنه مباح كما عليه بعض الشيعة وأصحابهم، أو يترتب عليه ثواب كما هو دأب كلامهم أو اعتقد كفر الصحابة وأهل السنة فإنه كافر بالإجماع"

Sheikh Ali ibn Sultan ibn Muhammad, better known like Al-Karee Hanafe (d 1014 h)said: "Whoever will abuse a single person from companions is a Faasiq and an innovator, in accordance to an agreed upon opinion. But if he were to understand/think like the shia'as and their companions that such an act (of reviling, abusing, etc the companions) is permissible or if he were to expect a reward for this act, like they always use to talk about. Or (if) he would think that companions and Ahlus Sunnah (the sunnis or people of the sunnah) are kuffaar, then such person is disbeliever in accordance to an agreed upon opinion" ["Shammool awraad fi zamm al rafd" pages 252,254.]

28) من شتم أصحاب رسول الله -صلى الله عليه وسلم-: فهو كافر وإن صام وصلى وزعم أنه من المسلمين

Bishr ibn Hareeth ibn AbduRahman ibn Ata said: "The one who curse companions of prophet (sallalahu alayhi wa ala alaihi wa salam) is kaafir, even if he pray, fast and say that he's Muslim".[Sharh ibn Batta.]

29) Saad bin Abi Waqas (may Allah be pleased with him) one day heard a man grumpling; when he listened closely to what he was saying he realized he was abusing Ali, Talhah and Zubair (may Allah be pleased with them). He told him to stop, but he would not listen and continued. Finally, Saad bin Abi Waqas (may Allah be pleased with him) lost his temper, and said if he did not control his tongue he would put a curse on him. Arrogantly the man told him that he was arrogating powers to himself and he asked him if he thought he was a Prophet..

Listening to the man's bitter words, he merely turned away. He went, made his ablutions for prayer and offered two supererogatory units of prayer. Then he entreated Allah Almighty: 

"Oh Allah you know that this man is abusing men of purity, with whom You Yourself are Pleased because of their goodness. Surely You will not approve of theses abuses. May this man be a lesson for such other men." 

He had barely done with his supplications when people saw that a raging she-camel had broken away from the rope which tethered her, and leaving her home had entered in the midst of a crowd of people. It seemed as if she was looking for a particular person. In seconds she had the head of a person in her bloodthirsty jaws and was shaking it violently from side to side. Finally his neck broke and in no time he had become the prey of death. People were stunned in silence. The dead man was non other than the one who had been abusing the noble companion a few minutes earlier, and against whom Saad bin Abi Waqas (may Allah be pleased with him) appeared. He had indeed become a lesson for people. 

[From Commanders of The Muslim Army By Mahmood Ahmad and from the biography of 'Alee ibn Abi Taalib by Shaikh 'Ali Muhammad as-Sallabi]

No comments:

Blogger Tricks And TipsComment here

To contact us, Please do so from the "Contact us" tab on the top of this page