Wednesday, 10 April 2013

SOME VIRTUES AND BENEFITS OF GIVING CHARITY (SADAQA)


THE VIRTUE OF SPENDING IN CHARITY (Voluntary SADAQAH) IN BRIEF

This document will enlist some of the virtues of spending Allah's given bounty (wealth, etc) in voluntary sadaqah and is quite a big topic, if we discuss its types, varied rulings and conditions, so on and so forth. So we will in sha allah cover this topic only in brief so as to motivate and encourage us and others to partake in this great reward that Allah has bestowed upon us. Indeed he is ar-Rahmaan, and without his mercy none can avail refuge, and none can avail success.

Narrated from 'Aishah(RadiAllah Anha) that they had slaughtered a sheep (and distributed major portions of its meat to the poor and others), so the Prophet(Sallallahu Alyhi Wasalam) said:

What remains of it?" 

She said: "Nothing remains of it except its shoulder." 

He said: " All of it remains except its shoulder."

[Ref: Tirmidhi,Chapters on the description of the Day of Judgement, Ar-Riqaq, and Al-Wara'»Hadith#2470,Hasan., via rehan agwan] 

This hadith is in accord with the words of Allaah in the Qur'an(which means):

“Whatever is with you is perishable, and whatever is with Allaah is permanent.” 

[Ref: Surah Nahl,Ayat no: 96, via rehan agwan]

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “He who relieves the hardship of a believer in this world, Allah will relieve his hardship on the Day of Judgment; he who makes easy what is difficult, Allah will make it easy for him in the world and the Hereafter; he who conceals the faults of a Muslim, Allah will conceal his faults in the world and the Hereafter; Allah helps the servant so long as he helps his brother; ........[Sahih Muslim, Book 35, Number 6518]

Ibn Umar reported: Two men came to the Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, and they said, “O Messenger of Allah, which of the people are most beloved to Allah? And which deeds are most beloved to Allah?” The Messenger of Allah said, “The people most beloved to Allah are those who are most beneficial to the people; and the most beloved deed to Allah is to make a Muslim happy, or remove one of his troubles, or to forgive his debt, or to satiate his hunger, or to walk with his brother regarding a need;...............; and whoever walks with his brother regarding a need until he secures it for him, then Allah the Exalted will make his footing firm across the bridge on the day when the footings are shaken.”

[Source: Mu’jam Al-Awsat At-Tabarani 6192]




WHAT DOES ALLAH HAVE TO SAY ON CHARITY ? 


Spend (in charity) out of We have bestowed for their sustenance secretly and openly ; and turn off evil with good: for such there is the final attainment of the (Eternal) Home
. [ Chapter 13 Surah Raad verse 22]

 And be steadfast in prayer; practice regular charity; and bow down your heads with those who bow down (in worship). [Qur'an 2:43]


Righteousness is not that you turn your faces toward the east or the west, but [true] righteousness is [in] one who believes in Allah , the Last Day, the angels, the Book, and the prophets and gives wealth, in spite of love for it, to relatives, orphans, the needy, the traveler, those who ask [for help], and for freeing slaves; [and who] establishes prayer and gives zakah; [those who] fulfill their promise when they promise; and [those who] are patient in poverty and hardship and during battle. Those are the ones who have been true, and it is those who are the righteous. [Qur'an 2:177] 

O you who believe! Spend of that with which We have provided for you, before a Day comes when there will be no bargaining, nor friendship, nor intercession. And it is the disbelievers who are the Zaalimoon (wrongdoers)” [al-Baqarah 2:254]

“The likeness of those who spend their wealth in the way of Allaah, is as the likeness of a grain (of corn); it grows seven ears, and each ear has a hundred grains. Allaah gives manifold increase to whom He wills. And Allaah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knower.

262. Those who spend their wealth in the Cause of Allaah, and do not follow up their gifts with reminders of their generosity or with injury*, their reward is with their Lord. On them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve”

[al-Baqarah 2:261-262]


Narrated Abu Dharr رضي الله عنه: The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Three are the (persons) with whom Allaah would neither speak on the Day of Resurrection, nor would look at them nor would absolve them, and there is a painful chastisement for them.” The Messenger of Allaah صلى الله عليه وسلم repeated it three times. Abu Dharr remarked: They failed and they lost; who are these persons, O Messenger of Allaah? Upon this he صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “They are: the Musbil (dragger of lower garment below the ankle out of arrogance), al-Mannaan (the one who does good deeds or favors and reminds the people of it), the seller of goods by false oath.” [Saheeh Muslim (158)]

O you who believe! Spend of the good things which you have (legally) earned, and of that which We have produced from the earth for you, and do not aim at that which is bad to spend from it, (though) you would not accept it except if you close your eyes and tolerate therein. And know that Allaah is Rich (Free of all needs), and Worthy of all praise” [al-Baqarah 2:267]

“Believe in Allaah and His Messenger (Muhammad), and spend of that whereof He has made you trustees. And such of you as believe and spend (in Allaah’s way), theirs will be a great reward” [al-Hadeed 57:7]


Some more verses which speak of giving charity (Zakah/Sadqah) are : 2:83, 2:110 , etc. etc, etc.


"Allaah said: 'O son of Aadam! Spend, I will spend on you." [Al-Bukhaari]

Abu Huraira reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Allah the Exalted will say on the Day of Resurrection: O son of Adam, I was sick but you did not visit Me. He will say: O my Lord, how can I visit You when You are the Lord of the worlds? Allah will say: Did you not know that such-and-such servant of Mine was sick and you did not visit him, and had you visited him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for food but you did not feed me. He will say: My Lord, how can I feed You when You are the Lord of the worlds? Allah will say: Did you not know that such-and-such servant of Mine asked you for food but you did not feed him, and had you fed him you would have found Me with him? O son of Adam, I asked you for drink but you did not provide for Me. He will say: My Lord, how can I give You when You are the Lord of the worlds? Allah will say: Such-and-such servant of Mine asked you for a drink but you did not provide for him, and had you given it to him you would have found Me with him.”

[Sahih Muslim, Book 32, Number 6232]

WHAT DOES PROPHET (S.A.W) SAY ON THIS?


22 - أَخْبَرَنَا أَبُو الْقَاسِمِ عَبْدُ اللَّهِ بْنِ مُحَمَّدِ بْنِ عَبْدِ الْعَزِيزِ الْبَغَوِيُّ، حَدَّثَنَا خَلَفُ بْنُ هِشَامٍ، وَأَبُو كَامِلٍ الْجَحْدَرِيُّ قَالَا: حَدَّثَنَا أَبُوعَوَانَةَ، عَنْ سِمَاكِ بْنِ حَرْبٍ، عَنْ مُصْعَبِ بْنِ سَعْدٍ، عَنِ ابْنِ عُمَرَ، قَالَ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلَّى اللهُ عَلَيْهِ وَسَلَّمَ: «لَا يَقْبَلُ اللَّهُ صَلَاةً بِغَيْرِ طُهُورٍ، وَلَا صَدَّقَةً مِنْ غُلُولٍ»

`Abdullah ibn `Umar radhiallahu `anhu narrated that the Messenger of Allah (sallalahu `alayhi wa sallam) said " Allah does not accept prayer without purification and does not accept charity from ghulool (i.e an amount acquired illegally i.e by violating one of the shar`i laws such as stealing from the war booty or acquiring money in a treacherous or haraam way) 

[Ref: Saheeh. Narrated by Imam Abu Ahmad Yahya al-Hakimul kabeer an-Naysapuri (d. 378 A.H) in his book shi`ar Ashaabil Hadeeth (no. 22) and in Saheeh Muslim from another narrator] 


The Prophet [Peace and Blessings of Allaah be upon him] said, “Giving in charity doesn’t decrease you wealth in the slightest, and the person who pardons is not increase except in honour and there is no person who is humble for the sake of Allaah, except that Allaah will raise his rank.” [Narrated by Muslim 2588]

Blessed is the wealth of a Muslim from which he gives to the poor, the orphans and to needy travelers. (Or the Prophet said something similar to it) No doubt, whoever takes it illegally will be like the one who eats but is never satisfied, and his wealth will be a witness against him on the Day of Resurrection."

[Sahih Bukhaaree, Vol. 2, Book 24, Hadith 544]

Zayd ibn Aslam reported: The Messenger of Allah, peace be upon him, said, “Give to a beggar even if he comes on a horse.”

[Muwatta, Number 58.1.3, Hasan]

Narrated Asmaa’ bint Abu Bakr رضي الله عنهما: Allaah’s Messenger صلى الله عليه وسلم said: “Give (in charity) and do not give reluctantly lest Allaah should give you in a limited amount; and do not withhold your money lest Allaah should withhold it from you.”

[Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (2590, 2591) and Saheeh Muslim (2244).]

In another narration it is reported from Asmaa’ bint Abu Bakr رضي الله عنهما that she had gone to the Prophet صلى الله عليه وسلم and he said: “Do not shut your money bag; otherwise Allaah too will withhold His blessings from you. Spend (in Allaah's Cause) as much as you can afford.” [Saheeh Muslim (1434, 2246)]

Prophet (s.a.w) said ......charity extinguishes (removes) sins just as water extinguishes fire;....cont  [Sunan At-Tirmidhi, Book of Faith, Number 2616, Classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 5136]

Prophet (s.a.w) said "Charity given in secret extinguishes the wrath of the Lord,” [ classed as saheeh by al-Albaani in Saheeh al-Jaami’, 3759.]

سَبَقَ دِرْهَمٌ دِرْهَمَيْنِ "، قَالُوا: وَكَيْفَ ذَاكَ؟ يَا رَسُولَ اللهِ، قَالَ: " كَانَ لِرَجُلٍ دِرْهَمَانِ، فَتَصَدَّقَ أَجوَدَهُمَا، فَانْطَلَقَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى عُرْضِ مَالِهِ، فَأَخَذَ مِنْهُ مِائَةَ أَلْفِ دِرْهَمٍ، فَتَصَدَّقَ بِهَا

It was narrated from Abu Hurairah that the Messenger of Allah said: "A Dirham surpassed a hundred thousand Dirhams." They said: "How?" He said: "A man had two Dirhams and gave one in charity, and another man went part of his wealth and took out a hundred thousand Dirhams and gave them in charity."

[Sunan an-Nasa`ee (5/59); Musnad Ahmad (8929); وابن خزيمة (2443) ، وابن حبان (3347) ، والحاكم 1/416، والبيهقي 4/181-182;  
وأخرجه ابن المبارك في "الزهد- زوائد نعم" (95); Hasan]


WHAT DO THE ANGELS SAY ON THIS?


Prophet (s.a.w) informed us "There is not a day in which the obedient slaves rise in the morning except that two angels descend, and one of them says: 'O Allaah! Compensate the one who spends.' The other angel says: 'O Allaah! Destroy the wealth of the one who is niggardly." [Saheeh al-Bukhaaree (1442) and Saheeh Muslim (2205)]




ITS REWARD ON THE DAY OF JUDGEMENT AND AFTER OUR DEATH


From Abu Umamah from the Messenger of Allaah -sallAllaahu alayhi wa sallam-:

‘A person entered Paradise and he saw written on the door of Paradise: ‘Sadaqa (charity) is ten times its equivalent, and giving a loan is eighteen times its equivalent.’

[Ref: Silsilah as-Saheeha 3407]

Prophet (s.a.w) said "Every man will be in the shade of his charity on the Day of Resurrection.” [ Narrated by Ahmad, 16882  and classed as Saheeh in Saheeh al-Jaami’ (4510).]

And he listed among those whom Allaah will shade with His shade on the Day when there will be no shade but His: “… a man who gives charity and conceals it so much that his left hand does not know what his right hand is doing.” [Saheeh Bukhaari and Muslim]

Abu Mas`ud Al Ansary narrated: "A man brought a muzzled she-camel and said: It is (offered) in the way of Allah. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah said: For this you will have seven hundred she-camels on the Day of Judgment all of which will be muzzled." [Reported by Muslim in the book of emirate, chapter on the virtue of giving charity and doubling it for Allah's Sake 6/41].



It was narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “Whoever gives charity equal to a date from good (halal) earnings – for Allaah does not accept anything but that which is good – Allaah will take it in His right hand and tend it for the one who gave it as any one of you tends his foal, until it becomes like a mountain.” [Narrated by al-Bukhaari, 1344; Muslim, 1014]

It is narrated that Abu Hurayrah (may Allaah be pleased with him) said: The Messenger of Allaah (peace and blessings of Allaah be upon him) said: “The good deeds that will reach a believer after his death are: knowledge which he learned and then spread; a righteous son whom he leaves behind; a copy of the Qur’aan that he leaves as a legacy; a mosque that he built; a house that he built for wayfarers; a canal that he dug; or charity that he gave during his lifetime when he was in good health. These deeds will reach him after his death.” [Reported by 
Ibn Maajah (224) and classed as Hasan by al-Albaani in Saheeh Ibn Maajah]

WHAT IF YOU DON'T HAVE MONEY TO GIVE CHARITY (VOLUNTARY/NAFIL/EXTRA SADAQAH)?

Atleast say Assalamu 'Alaikum and give a smile because The Prophet also said: "Every act of goodness is charity [Sahih Muslim, Hadith 496/2197]


And in another report the prophet (s.a.w) said " “Do not consider any act of goodness as being insignificant even if it is meeting your brother with a cheerful face " [Saheeh Muslim 2626]

On the authority of Abu Dharr in a narration ascribed to the Prophet: ‘Smiling in your brother’s face is charity (Sadaqah) for you, when you enjoin the good and prohibit evil it is charity, when you show directions to a man who has lost his way it is Sadaqah for you. Helping a weak-sighted (or blind) person by using your sight is charity for you. When you remove a rock, thorn and bones from the pathway it is charity for you. When you pour from your bucket into your brother’s bucket it is charity for you.’

[Silsilah As-saheeha No. 572 , Sunan al-Tirmidhi (Vol. 4, Book 1, Hadith 1956)]

Abu Dharr reported: I said, “O Messenger of Allah, which deed is best?” The Messenger of Allah, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “Faith in Allah and striving in His way.” I said, “Which slave is the best to free?” He said, “One who is valuable to his master and whose price is high.” I said, “What if I cannot afford to do that?” He said, “Help a craftsman or make something for those without skills.” I said, “O Messenger of Allah, you see I am helpless to do these deeds.” He said, “Do not spread evil among people, for verily, it will be charity on your behalf.”

[Sahih Muslim 84]



WARNING TO MISERLY PEOPLE


Abu Huraira reported: The Prophet, peace and blessings be upon him, said, “The example of the miser and the generous is that of two men wearing iron armor from their chests to their necks. As for the generous, he does not spend but that the armor enlarges and spreads over his body until it covers even his fingertips and wipes out his tracks. As for the miser, he does not want to spend anything but that every ring of the armor sticks in its place and he tries to enlarge it but it will not expand.”

Source: Sahih Bukhari 1375, Sahih Muslim 1021


Narrated: Al-Ahnaf bin Qais


While I was sitting with some people from Quraish, a man with very rough hair, clothes, and appearance came and stood in front of us, greeted us and said, "Inform those who hoard wealth, that a stone will be heated in the Hell-fire and will be put on the nipples of their breasts till it comes out from the bones of their shoulders and then put on the bones of their shoulders till it comes through the nipples of their breasts the stone will be moving and hitting." After saying that, the person retreated and sat by the side of the pillar, I followed him and sat beside him, and I did not know who he was. I said to him, "I think the people disliked what you had said." He said, "These people do not understand anything, although my friend told me." I asked, "Who is your friend?" He said, "The Prophet said (to me), 'O Abu Dhar! Do you see the mountain of Uhud?' And on that I (Abu Dhar) started looking towards the sun to judge how much remained of the day as I thought that Allah's Apostle wanted to send me to do something for him and I said, 'Yes!' He said, 'I do not love to have gold equal to the mountain of Uhud unless I spend it all (in Allah's cause) except three Dinars (pounds). These people do not understand and collect worldly wealth. No, by Allah, Neither I ask them for worldly benefits nor am I in need of their religious advice till I meet Allah, The Honorable, The Majestic." 

[Ref: Saheeh al-Bukhaari, Chapter 24, Hadeeth 489]


5+ BENEFITS OF GIVING CHARITY (normal charity or like Zakaat al Fitr) WITH OUR OWN HANDS OR PARTICIPATING IN IT PERSONALLY  - VIA MUSA RICHARDSON



The following points are originally taken from an article of Brother Moosa Richardson (May allah preserve him)

Note: Zakaat al-Fitr is the charity given before the Eid prayers during Ramadan. For details you may see : http://islamqa.info/en/1396


1 - We will build bridges with poor people and get to know them personally.

Poor people are virtuous.  The Messenger (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said, what means, “I saw Paradise and most of its people were the poor (of this life).” [2]


And another authentic hadeeth means, “The impoverished shall enter Paradise before the rich by 500 years.” [3]


So by seeking them out and giving them your Zakaat al-Fitr, you may gain the companionship of the righteous, even for a short time.  This benefit is lost when giving through a third party.


Instead of saying, “But I don’t know any poor families, so how could I give out my zakaat al-Fitr personally…?”


Say: “Shame on me for not knowing any poor families!  Let me rectify this negligence right now by giving my zakaat al-Fitr personally and getting to know some poor people.”
We may be justifying our reliance on third parties by the very weakness that zakaat al-Fitr has been legislated to cure!

2 – We will thus appreciate our own blessings a lot more.

The Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said, what means, “Look to those who have less than you, and do not look to those who have more.  This is more appropriate so that you do not overlook (or undervalue) the blessings of Allaah that you have.” [4]


When you seek out poor people to give them your zakaat al-Fitr, you get a chance to see their real situation and the difficulties they face.  This reminds you about the blessings of Allaah you have and makes you more grateful for them.  This is lost when giving through a third party.

3 – It makes the theoritical sympathy built for them from a month of fasting something tangible, and brings it to a real, personal peak.

The scholars mention that from the many benefits of fasting is that we will feel sympathetic towards the poor, by realizing that the hunger we feel is experienced by them all year round.  An entire month of daily hunger pains opens our hearts to them more than ever and pushes us to do something about it. This culminates with the charitable act of giving zakaat al-Fitr and putting food directly in their hands.  Therefore, it is one way that the goals of fasting are actualized in the most complete and beneficial way.

4 – It breaks down social and economic barriars between Muslims.

The legislation of zakaat al-Fitr is one of the many ways that Islaam breaks down the social and economic barriers that divide the people.  By distributing your food with others through community services, you as a person do not actually see the poor person, meet him, build a relationship, or do much about the existing barriers between the people.  In fact, you may be further fostering the existence of social and economic classes that keep Muslims apart, by losing this great opportunity to make a needed change.

5 – It distances the Muslims from arrogance.

Since arrogance is so dangerous and counter-productive to the Muslims, our prefect Religion when practiced properly helps a Muslim overcome and/or remain distant from all manifestations of arrogance.


An arrogant man looks down on others, often those with less money.  He does not want to see them, talk to them, or mix with them.  Let us ask ourselves: Our constant reliance on third parties to deliver our zakaat al-FitrCould this be rooted in our own personal arrogance?


The heart is a delicate thing, and its defects and flaws are never easy to detect!  How do you know for sure that your use of the third party is not related to a level of arrogance rooted in your heart, that you do not want to meet them yourself and spend some time talking with them and visiting them?


Humble and sincere Muslims will always reflect about points like this and inspect their hearts, while the truly arrogant are the ones who dismiss it as preposterous!


The Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said, what means, “Whoever has the smallest amount of arrogance in his heart shall not enter Paradise.” He further explained the meaning of arrogance as“Rejecting the truth and looking down on people.” [5]

6 – You will learn about their problems and be able to help them with things that are easy for you.

Delivering your own zakaat al-Fitr to a poor family and taking a moment to learn about their lives may give you some insight into certain problems they are facing that might be very easy for you to solve!


They may be having difficulty registering their children in school, and you could solve that easily through your connections.  Five minutes of your time could solve a problem a family has been struggling with for years!


You may discover that their electricity is scheduled to be shut off soon and you could easily pay the $25 bill for them.  Real needs of real people can be met through establishing real relationships.


The Prophet (may Allaah raise his rank and grant him peace) said, what means, “Whoever helps his brother, Allaah will help him.  Whoever alleviates the burden of a Muslim, Allaah will alleviate a burden of his on the Day of Judgment.” [6]


How could this great benefit be attained by giving your zakaat al-Fitr through a third party?


7 -  We could give priority to those whom Allaah has given priority to.

Allaah has mentioned two types of poor people in His Book, miskeen and faqeer. [7]

The scholars have different opinions about the difference between them, and the best two definitions are summarized below:


Miskeen: a poor person who barely meets his basic needs, or a poor person who asks others to help fulfill his financial needs.


Faqeer: an impoverished person who can not meet his basic needs, or a poor person who does not ask for financial help.

So based on both distinctions, the faqeer has more right to be assisted than a miskeen, and thus, Allaah mentions the faqeer first in the Verse about Zakaat, giving him priority over the miskeen. [7]


The reality of most third party services - When social services are used, a community organization commonly amasses many people’s zakaat al-Fitr and distributes it to poor people.  The reality is often a truck pulling up to the main road of a poor neighborhood.  A crowd of people gather, while a man standing in the bed of the truck will often hand down (or even throw) bags of rice into a crowd of people fighting over each bag.


The point is -  The faqeer whom Allaah has honored with patience is more deserving of that food, yet he will not disgrace himself by running after the truck and fighting with his neighbors to grab something for his family.  By giving out the zakaat al-Fitr personally, we could target those who would not normally ask, and ensure that the faqeer is given priority over the miskeen, as Allaah legislated.


8 – We could avoid giving charity in a way that disgraces poor people.
If you have understood the reality of the manner in which many social services actually distribute the zakaat al-Fitr on your behalf (as mentioned in Point #7), then you might feel more comfortable giving your zakaat al-Fitr personally, in a way that allows the recipient to retain his honor and dignity.


FOOTNOTES:


[1] Collected by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim, for information about the size of the saa’, review this article.

[2] Collected by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim

[3] Collected by at-Tirmithee who called it saheeh (authentic)

[4] Collected by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim

[5] Collected by Muslim in his Saheeh

[6] Collected by al-Bukhaaree and Muslim

[7] See: Soorah at-Towbah (9:60)






2 comments:

  1. I live in the United Kingdom. There are obviously poor people here to but their poverty is not so obvious. They do not tend to be frequently seen on the streets begging for food etc like in some other countries. Rather than telling people that they should be ashamed of themselves for going through 3rd parties to donate charity and not knowing any poor people personally, how about you provide contact details of people that are suffering in poverty that we can directly help. It's all very well telling us that we should be "ashamed" for not knowing any poor people but how many poor people has this website introduced us to. Not everybody who is suffering in some way has it written on their foreheads. This article was helpful to some degree but I found a few of the comments ridiculous.

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  2. {{how about you provide contact details of people that are suffering in poverty that we can directly help}}

    this is a very easy task for those who actually intend to find so. going to charity org's and asking them to introduce or give the details of someone who would like to be helped is one way to go about it. As for not knowing poor people in the UK, then this is indeed very shameful as a society because it only shows how separated and isolated people are. in muslim nations and elsewhere in the east the Muslims are inter connected via societies and thus know about other families and who is suffering to quite some extent. If this is not possible in the west then the least that can be done is to donate it outside the UK. many charities are available which deal with such cases and are more than willing to give you the details so you can personally confirm. I personally have done it many times. if you still don't find any in the UK, then you probably are looking in the wrong places for many of our british friends know a lot of cases where charity is required. I can introduce you to Indian charity org's if you will.

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